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He did poorly in his studies, and he left school in 1905, aged 16. Three years later, his mother died. ART AND POLITICS Hitler moved to Vienna, the capital of Austria, where he struggled to make a living as an artist. He became interested in politics and mixed with people who said Jews caused problems in society. This was not true, yet anti-Jewish feelings spread, and Hitler began to develop a fierce hatred of Jewish people and culture. After Vienna, Hitler lived briefly in the German city of Munich. Though he was Austrian by birth, Germany became the country he loved, and he eventually became a German citizen. Slide 2: HITLER IN WORLD WAR I World War I, which started in 1914, was a turning point in Hitler’s life. He fought with the German army in 47 battles, was wounded twice and was awarded the Iron Cross medal for bravery. When Germany was defeated, Hitler was in an army hospital, temporarily blinded by mustard gas, a poisonous substance used in the trenches of World War I. Hitler decided that the Jews had led to Germany’s defeat and that he would enter politics to save Germany from them. THE RISE OF NAZIS In Munich, Hitler mixed with political groups. One group caught his attention German Workers’ Party. Its members hated the Jews and loved Germany. Hitler joined it as member number 55. He felt he could turn it into a major political party. Hitler was a brilliant public speaker, and people took notice of what he said. On February 24, 1920, more than 2,000 people attended a meeting of the German Workers’ Party. He gave it a new name—the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. It soon became shortened as the Nazi Party. Hitler became its leader. Slide 3: FROM PRISON TO POWER On November 8, 1923, Hitler and his supporters attempted to start a revolution to overthrow the German government. It was called the Munich Beer Hall Putsch (“putsch” is the German word for “revolt”). It failed, and Hitler was tried for his crime and sent to prison. There he started writing a book, which he called Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”). It explained his beliefs about the future of the German people. It became a bestseller, and was read by millions. The 1920s and early 1930s were difficult years for many Germans. Unemployment was high, and Germany’s political parties were too divided among themselves to provide clear and strong leadership. This helped the Nazis, who offered simple explanations and solutions for the country’s problems. Hitler used his skills as a speaker to persuade Germans to vote for him in elections. In 1930, 6 million people voted for the Nazi Party; in 1932 it was 14 million. The Nazi Party had become Germany’s largest political party and on January 30, 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor (leader of the German government). He was the most powerful man in Germany—a dictator voted into power by millions of ordinary German people. Slide 4: DESTRUCTION OF DEMOCRACY The Nazis gained increasing support. By 1932 they held 37 per cent of the seats in the Reichstag (the German parliament). Leading right-wing politicians began to look to them as allies in a coalition. In January 1933, the German president Paul von Hindenburg offered Hitler the job of chancellor (prime minister), and two other seats for the Nazi Party in the German government. Hindenburg hoped that Hitler would bring some stability to Germany’s violent and fractured politics. He was right, but the Nazis did so by taking control of the police and using them, and their own private army of thuggish supporters, to threaten and attack their opponents. Once in power Hitler immediately began to bend the rules to suit his purpose. Within a month, the Reichstag building burned down. The Nazis declared that German Communists were responsible, although the fire was perhaps started by the Nazis themselves. Hitler made full use of the uneasiness following the fire and persuaded the German parliament to pass an act called the Enabling Act in March 1933. This ended elections and gave Hitler even greater power. Opposition was banned, and political opponents were murdered or imprisoned in concentration camps. When President Hindenburg died in 1934, the offices of chancellor and president were merged. Hitler became “Der Führer”—the leader. Slide 5: RECONSTRUCTION…………. After becoming the Chancellor, Hitler reconstructed Germany through the following ways He assigned the responsibility of Economic recovery to the German Economist HJALMAR SCHACHT, who aimed at full production and full employment through a state- funded work creation programmed. This programmed produced the famous German superhighways and the people’s car Volkswagen. 2. Foreign Policy of Hitler was, he pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933, re- occupied the Rhineland in 1936, integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan “one people, one empire and one leader”, after which he captured Czechoslovakia Slide 6: 3. Invested largely in rearmament, because he choose war as the way out of the approaching economic crises, as resources can be accumulated through expansion of territory, with this view Hitler invaded Poland in Sept 1939, this started a war with France and England. 4. Again in Sept 1940, a tripartite Pact was signed between Germany, Italy and Japan and by the end of the year Hitler was at the pinnacle of his power. 5. Hitler now moved to achieve his long term aim of conquering Eastern Europe, for he wanted to ensure food supplies and living space for Germans and in June 1941 he attacked the Soviet Union but was inflicted a crushing and humiliating defeat. 6. From the beginning USA resisted involvement in the war but could not stay for long, for when Japan bombed the US naval base PEARL HARBOUR, USA entered the second world war, the war ended in May 1945, with Hitler’s defeat and USA dropping of the atom bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Slide 10: THE NAZI WORLDVIEW……….. The crimes that Nazis committed were linked to a system of belief and a set of practices….. -- according to Hitler there was no equality between people, but only a racial hierarchy in his view blond, blue-eyed, Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while Jews were located at the lowest. And they came to be regarded as an anti-race. -- all other coloured people were placed in between depending upon their external features. -- Hitler’s racism is borrowed from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer, Darwin explained the creation of plants and animals through the concept of evolution and natural selection. Herbert Spencer later added the idea of survival of the fittest. -- the Nazi argument was simple, the strongest race would survive and the weak ones would perish, the Aryan race was the fittest, it had to retain its purity, become stronger and dominate the world. -- the other aspect was related to the geo-political concept of living space, he believed that new territories had to be acquired for settlement, this he did by extending the German boundaries by moving eastwards and attacking Poland. Slide 11: As soon as the Nazis assumed power, they made racism central components of their regime. During its first months in power the Nazi Party instigated anti-Semitic riots and campaigns of terror that climaxed on April 1, 1933, in a countrywide boycott of Jewish-owned shops and Jewish professionals, such as physicians and lawyers. In addition, the new government issued regulations and ordinances to deprive Jews of their civil rights and economic means of survival. On April 7, 1933, the Reichstag enacted a law that allowed the government to dismiss Jews from the German civil service. Later, quotas were adopted to limit the numbers of Jewish students. However, Hitler and the other Nazi leaders viewed these piecemeal regulations as insufficient, and so they decided to implement a comprehensive legal framework for their anti-Semitic policies. On September 15, 1935, the Reichstag met in Nuremberg and passed two laws, known as the Nuremberg Laws. The first, the Reich Citizenship Law, declared that only individuals of “German blood” could be citizens of the German Reich (state), thus depriving German Jews of their citizenship. The second, the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, formalized barriers between Jews and Germans, forbidding marriage and relations between Jews and “Aryans”. Thus, the Nazis deprived German Jews of all civil rights and effectively excluded them from social and cultural life. Their policy was then aimed at expropriating Jewish property with a view to compelling Jews to emigrate from Germany.. Slide 13: For centuries many Christians in Europe harbored anti-Semitic feelings. In the minds of anti-Semites, Jews represent mysterious, mythical, and evil forces; are all-powerful; and play a sinister role in world history. In the Middle Ages, Christian anti-Jewish preaching sought to prevent contact with Jews, and many Christians believed that Jews were in league with the Devil. Christians blamed the Jews for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Many believed that Jews were not human and that they used magic to appear like other people. All these beliefs merged with popular superstitions about the magical power of human blood, sorcery, giving rise to the blood libel—the false accusation that Jews used the blood of Christian children in their rituals. As a result, anti-Jewish violence frequently erupted. The Christian Church and various governments enacted laws that prohibited Jews from engaging in certain occupations, forced them to live in certain areas, kept them from attending universities, or even expelled them from various countries. For many centuries the Roman Catholic Church taught anti-Jewish beliefs and attitudes. The same was true of Protestant churches. The pamphlet “On the Jews and their Lies”, written by Martin Luther in 1542, used extremely violent language. It called on Christians to set synagogues on fire, to destroy Jewish houses, and to put Jews in stables, and it advised rulers to banish Jews from their countries. Slide 14: Jews were not the only community classified as undesirable, they were others, such as the Gypsies and Blacks living in Nazi Germany were considered as racial inferiors who threatened the biological purity of the superior Aryan race. Even Russians and Poles were considered sub-humans and hence undeserving of any humanity. When Germany occupied Poland and parts of Russia, captured civilians were forced to work as slave labour, many died simply through hard work and starvation. From 1933 to 1938 the Nazi terrorized, pauperized and segregated the Jews, compelling them to leave the country. The next phase 1939-1945 aimed at concentrating them in certain areas and eventually killing them in gas chambers in Poland. Slide 18: Youth in Nazi Germany……….. Hitler felt that a strong Nazi society could be established only by teaching children Nazi Ideology, and this requires a control over the child both inside and outside school. The Following steps were taken for this……… All schools were cleansed and purified by dismissing all Jew teachers and all those who were seen as politically unreliable. German and Jew children cannot sit together or play together. Subsequently Jews, Gypsies and the physically handicapped were thrown out of schools and finally to the Gas chambers. School textbook were rewritten, racial science was introduced to justify Nazi idea of race. Children were taught to be loyal and submissive, hate Jews and worship Hitler. Even sports were nurture in the spirit of violence and aggression among children. Youth organization were made responsible for educating German youth in the Spirit of National socialism. Ten year olds had to enter Jung – volk, at 14 all boys had to join the Nazi youth organization HITLER YOUTH, where they learnt to worship war, glorify aggression and violence, condemn democracy and hate Jews, Communist, Gypsies and all those categorized as undesirable. After a period of rigorous ideological and physical training they joined the Labour service by 18, then they have to serve in the armed forces and enter one of the Nazi organization. Slide 19: NAZI CULT OF MOTHERHOOD ……….. Children in Nazi Germany were told that women were different from men, the fight for equal rights for men and women was wrong and it would destroy society. While boys were taught to be aggressive, masculine and steel hearted, girls were told that they had to become good mothers and rear pure blooded Aryan children, they have to maintain the purity of the German race, distance themselves from Jews, look after the home and teach their children Nazi values. In Nazi Germany all mothers were not treated equally, women who bore racially undesirable children were punished and those who produced racially desirable children were awarded like –better treatment in hospital, concessions in shop, theater tickets and railway pass. To encourage women to produced more children, honour Crosses were awarded, a bronze Cross for four children, silver for six and gold for eight children. Those who maintain contact with Jews, Poles and Russians were paraded through the town with shaved heads, blackened faces and play cards hanging around their neck saying “ I Have spoiled the honour of the Nation”, many received jail sentences and lost civic honour as well as their husbands and families for this offence. Slide 21: THE ART OF PROPAGANDA ……….. The Nazi regime used language and media with care and often to great effect for Propaganda, they coined different words for their official communications such as – Mass Killing were termed “Special Treatment"," Final solution” for the Jews, “euthanasis” “ selection” and “disinfection” for the disabled. “evacuation” meant deporting people to gas chambers and gas chambers were termed as “disinfection area” and looked like bathroom equipped with fake showerheads. Nazi idea were spread through visual images, films, radio, posters, catchy slogan and Leaflets, propaganda films were made to create hatred for Jews and the most famous Film was “The Eternal Jew”. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.