Medical Education

Category: Education

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Medical Education


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Teaching Learning Process Systems Approach:

Teaching Learning Process Systems Approach Prof. R. K. Dixit Pharmacology and Therapeutics K.G.M.U. Lucknow


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The mind is not a vessel to be filled, But a fire to be ignited (Plutarch) A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. ( Robindranath Tagore) I can not teach any body anything. I can only make them think (Socrates)

Changing roles…… From Teacher to Facilitator:

Changing roles…… From Teacher to Facilitator Teaching- Ideas or principles taught by an Authority, Communication of information to students, To give instructions Teacher- A person who teaches [especially in school] (Educator, instructor, Pedagogue, Schoolmaster/mistress. [Guru]

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Learning- Act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, and involves synthesizing different types of information. The acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, / understanding, wisdom, insight,

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Facilitator - Who helps a group of people understands their common objectives and assists them to plan how to achieve these objectives in doing so, Facilitator remains non- dominanant Guides in right path Someone who helps do something more easily or find the answer to a problems by discussing things and suggesting ways of doing things. [ Saralikarat kanane vala }


Learning P rocess of acquiring Knowledge and intellectual skills (Cognitive learning) Manual or physical skills (Psychomotor learning) Emotional responses, attitudes, and values (Affective learning)

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Teacher - the evolution Guru, Teacher – the Knowledge transfer agent Faciliator – Educational manager

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Areas of expertise of Facilitator Academic Aspects Instruction, Learner motivation, conducting classes, learning environment Social Aspects Understanding learners, interpersonal skills, value inculcation Management Aspects Impression management , discipline

Past – Present [Education Systems]:

Past – Present [Education Systems] Previously educationists gave importance to teaching only Presently to Teaching – Learning Attention is more focused on learning and learner


Learning A process resulting in some change or modification in the learner’s way of thinking, feeling and doing More effective the learning experience, better is the learning New experience is just a beginning step

How is learning initiated?:

How is learning initiated? New experience- Registration- Action- Analysis (Reflection) Repetition of process, till a demonstrable change occur in the learner Learning is cyclical and spiral

How to make learning more effective :

How to make learning more effective 10%- Reading 20%- Hearing 30%- Seeing 50%- See and Hear 70%- Discuss 80%- Do 90%- Teach other

Teaching Learning Success depends on:

Teaching Learning Success depends on Objectives Thinking of assessment Resources Characteristics of participants Learning environment Facilitator

Good Teacher: Born or Made?????:

Good Teacher: Born or Made????? Most of us learn and develop the skills as we progress

Purpose of teaching:

Purpose of teaching Create an interest in learning subject or topic Develop learning habit life long Acquire, retain and utilize the knowledge Achieve appropriate skills and use them with confidence


Elements Learning Objectives Learner Teacher


Objectives Clearly Specified Written in behavior terms.

Types of Objectives (Cognitive, Psychomotor, Affective):

Types of Objectives (Cognitive, Psychomotor, Affective) Cognitive- Knowledge- What information the learner must know. Giving information to the learner Psychomotor- Skill- What physical skills the learner will be able to perform, Best learned in practice sessions Affective- Feelings- Confidence, Behavior, empathy, patience, (Best in the society and actual setting)

Why and How to know that Objectives are being met:

Why and How to know that Objectives are being met Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment and Evaluation:

Assessment and Evaluation Formative assessment Summative assessment Evaluation of the program Evaluation of the system

Pros and Cons of A&E:

Pros and Cons of A&E Pros- Determines readiness for new material Estimates progress Judges effectiveness Provides motivation Provides feedback Provides records Cons- Threatens learners Classifies students May be misused


Learner Motivation- Intrinsic, Extrinsic Past learning experience- Positive or negative Needs-


Facilitator Most important element Provides guidance, support and structure to learning experience

Good Facilitator:

Good Facilitator Knowledge of the subject matter Facilitates learner participation (Maintains student contact) Ability to Serve as role model Provide feedback effectively Perform evaluation effectively Administer and manage the course

Good Facilitator (teacher/speaker):

Good Facilitator (teacher/speaker) Maintains student contact- Get the attention of class first, Look at and talk to students, Begin with the maximum enthusiasm, The first minute is deciding for the hour. Controls nervousness- Pay close attention to student response, Thorough preparation of the subject- Avoids distracting mannerisms Shows enthusiasm- Have initial remarks, Tell story or anecdotes, Review previous instructions Develop good voice quality- A conversional tone of voice Avoids excuses- Be alert and Look alert Practices before presenting

Advices for the Facilitator:

Advices for the Facilitator Do Take the job seriously Observe others Develop relationship Prepare lesson practice Don’t Bluff Ridicule students Loose patience Have too many excuses

What to Teach (MSC):

What to Teach (MSC) M ust Know- Vital S hould Know- Essential C ould Know- Desirable

Pedagogy Vs Andragogy:

Pedagogy Vs Andragogy Readiness to learn Orientation of learning Motivation to learning

Pedagogy Vs Andragogy:

Pedagogy Vs Andragogy Pedagogical Learner is dependent for all learning Teacher assumes full responsibility Teacher evaluates Learner is with little experience Students are told what they have to learn Primarily motivated by external pressure, competition for grades and consequences of failure Andragogical Learner is self directed Learner is responsible for learning Self evaluation has place Learner is with greater quality of experience Different experiences assure diversity in groups of adults Any change is likely to trigger a readiness to learn Ability to assess gaps between where one is now and needs to be Learning is m motivated if it has relevance to real life tasks Learning is organized around life/work situations rather than subject matter Internal motivators, self esteem, self recognition, better quality of life, self confidence

Characteristics of “Expert” Learners:

Characteristics of “Expert” Learners Active , in their approach to learning Motivated (e.g., enjoy learning, have short-term and long-term goals, etc) Disciplined (e.g. have learned good habits and use them consistently) Aware of themselves as learners (e.g. know their own strengths and weaknesses ) Initiate opportunities to learn Set specific learning goals for themselves

The Teaching-Learning Process:

The Teaching-Learning Process A planned interaction that promotes behavioral change that is not a result of maturation or coincidence . The purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning and encourage the learners to learn more effectively The propose is not merely dispensing information but to develop skills and attitudes also

Worst presumptions by a teacher…:

Worst presumptions by a teacher… All information transmitted to the students has been learnt. A lot more information should be given so that something will be learnt All students are same regarding the learning process Students are immature and irresponsible I am the BOSS and Authority to spread the information

The Best a teacher can do…..:

The Best a teacher can do….. Be considerate and friendly Creates an appropriate atmosphere for effective learning so the learning is an enjoyable and pleasurable process. Develop an uprising spiral of learning process by continuous Objectives Appropriate use of information Appropriate use of material and methods Assessment and Feedback Rethinking and creating the second suitable objectives And So On……………………….

Types of Learning Styles:

Types of Learning Styles Visual - by seeing. Auditory - by hearing. Kinesthetic - by touching, feeling, or doing.

Learning Domains:

Learning Domains Cognitive domain - involves intellectual understanding. Affective domain - involves attitudes, beliefs, and emotions. Psychomotor domain - performance of motor skills.

Teaching Methods for the Cognitive Domain:

Teaching Methods for the Cognitive Domain Formal lecture. Question-and-answer sessions . Group discussion.

Teaching Methods for the Affective Domain:

Teaching Methods for the Affective Domain Role Play. Discussion.

Teaching Methods for the Psychomotor Domain:

Teaching Methods for the Psychomotor Domain Demonstration. Supervised practice. Return demonstration.

Planning Considerations:

Planning Considerations Why teach? What should be taught? How should teaching be done? Who should teach and who should be taught? When should teaching occur? Where should teaching occur ? How to assess and what to assess?

Answers which created the need to rethink about teaching learning process:

Answers which created the need to rethink about teaching learning process Questions In which battle did Napoleon died? Where was the declaration of independence signed? River Gomti flows in which state? What is the main reason for divorce? What is the main reason for failure? Answers His last battle At the bottom of the page Liquid state Marriage Exams

System Approach:

System Approach Collection of components which are interdependent. Ability to influence the functioning of others as well as get influenced in the process of attaining desired outcome. In education setting the part of systems are (Teaching, Learning, Assessment)- Change in any is bound to produce change in other. Eg . P.G. entrance exams Educational system may be Open Type or Closed Type Open - Inputs-Mental processing-learning Closed- inputs- Mental processing- learning (Feedback Loop)

Most crucial:

Most crucial Specify the final product- Know what the graduate will be able to do after successfully completing MBBS (Beginning with the end in mind) How we will know that students have leant what we wanted them to. (Outcomes in measurable terms) Select appropriate teaching methods and materials Surprise that planning for assessment comes before planning for instruction

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Once we have planned assessment then we start thinking about what learning resources and methods are required. (lectures, group discussion, laboratories, models, hospital round, community visit…………….) How many………….. Other components of education system (Be aware of all these components when thinking of change..) Society Regulatory bodies (National and Institutional)

Which one is most appropriate?:

Which one is most appropriate? A Objectives Plan for Assessment Subject matter and Teaching methodology Assessment B Objectives Subject matter and Teaching methodology Plan for Assessment Assessment

Teaching, Learning and the Phenomenology of Meaning :

Teaching, Learning and the Phenomenology of Meaning In young children learning is so easy, so natural it is hard to imagine that it could ever be as difficult as it seems to become for older children or adults. As teachers, we dream of rekindling the joy of learning. The adults learn joyfully when they want, when the subject of their learning is important to them and when it is meaningful What does meaningful learning involve and how can we make it more likely………..

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Summary Outcome (Skills) based teaching increases effectiveness of the TL processes Teaching Learning is a two way process in which learner involvement is crucial Spiral movement rather than liner (conventional) Teachers should keep instructional objectives, entering behavior of learners, instructional strategies and performance assessment An expert facilitator is one who is knowledgeable, can communicate ideas effectively and generate a passion for learning.

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If the student can’t learn the way we teach, maybe we should teach the way they learn- I. Estrada

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Don’t Strain the Brain Train the Brain

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Thanks everyone

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