Drug Schedules

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this power point is useful to understand various laws governing the medicine and medicinal products

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Drug Schedules : 

Drug Schedules Dr. R. K. Dixit Professor Pharmacology and Therapeutics C. S. M. Medical University Lucknow dixitkumarrakesh@gmail.com

What is meant by schedule ???? : 

A plan for performing work or achieving an objective, specifying the order and allotted time for each part A timetable Plan for something to happen or for to do something A supplemental statement of details appended to a document  A federally regulated list of controlled substances, ranked in classes by potential for abuse. List or inventory, usually supplementary . A written or printed statements. Auxiliary, explanatory, or supplemental document that forms part of a principal document. Written or printed catalog or list of charges, items, prices, etc. What is meant by schedule ????

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The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies. Regulation is aimed at ensuring the safety, quality, and efficacy of the therapeutic goods. In some countries, such as the United States, they are regulated at the national level by a single agency. whereas In others they are regulated at the state level, or at both state and national levels.

In other countries……………. : 

Australia Therapeutic goods in Australia are regulated by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). The availability of drugs and poisons is regulated by scheduling under individual state legislation, but is generally under the guidance of the national Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons (SUSDP). Under the SUSDP, medicinal agents generally belong to one of five categories: Unscheduled Schedule 2 (S2) - Pharmacy Medicines Schedule 3 (S3) - Pharmacist Only Medicines Schedule 4 (S4) - Prescription Only Medicines Schedule 8 (S8) - Controlled Drugs In other countries…………….

In other countries……………. : 

Canada In Canada, regulation of therapeutic goods are governed by the Food and Drug Act and associated regulations. In addition, the Controlled Drugs and Substance Act In other countries…………….

In other countries……………. : 

China The regulation of drugs in China is governed by the State Food and Drug Administration. In other countries…………….

In other countries……………. : 

United Kingdom Medicines for Human Use in the United Kingdom are regulated by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). The availability of drugs is regulated by classification by the MHRA as part of marketing authorisation of a product. The United Kingdom has a three-tiered classification system: General Sale List (GSL) Pharmacy medicines (P) Prescription Only Medicines (POM) In other countries…………….

In other countries……………. : 

United States Therapeutic goods in the United States are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which makes some drugs available over the counter at retail outlets and others by prescription only. The possession of some substances is prohibited by scheduling under the Controlled Substances Act, under the joint control of FDA and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). In other countries…………….

In other countries……………. : 

Schedule I,category of drugs not considered legitimate for medical use. Included are heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and marijuana. Schedule II, category of drugs considered to have a strong potential for abuse or addiction but that also have legitimate medical use. Included are opium, morphine, and cocaine. Schedule III, category of drugs that have less potential for abuse or addiction than Schedule I or II drugs and have a useful medical purpose. Included are short-acting barbiturates and amphetamines. Schedule IV,  medically useful category of drugs that have less potential for abuse or addiction than those of Schedules I, II, and III. Included are diazepam and chloral hydrate. Schedule V, medically useful category of drugs that have less potential for abuse or addiction than those of Schedules I through IV. Included are antidiarrheals and antitussives with opioid derivatives. In other countries…………….

In other countries……………. : 

Norway Medicines in Norway are divided into five groups: Class A Narcotics, sedative-hypnotics, and amphetamines in this class require a special prescription form:morphine and its immediate family, heroin, desomorphine, nicomorphine; codeine and its immediate family, dihydrocodeine, ethylmorphine, nicocodeine; Class B Restricted substances which easily lead to addiction like: co-codamol, diazepam, nitrazepam, and all other benzodiazepines(with the exception of temazepam and flunitrazepam), phentermine; Class C - All prescription-only substances Class F - Substances and package-sizes not requiring a prescription Unclassifieds - Brands and packages not actively marketed in Norway In other countries…………….

India : 

Medicines in India are regulated by CDSCO - Central Drugs Standard Control Organization Under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Headed by Directorate General of Health Services CDSCO regulates the Pharmaceutical Products through DCGI - Drugs Controller General of India. Retail and Distribution:- Drugs classified under 5 heads 1. Schedule X drugs – Narcotics 2. Schedule H and L – Injectables, Antibiotics, Antibacterials 3. Schedule C and C1- Biological Products-example Serums and Vaccines Manufacturing Practice 1. Schedule N List of the equipment for the efficient running of manufacturing wing, Qualified personnel 2. Schedule M Clinical Trials and new drug development Schedule Y India

The Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules : 

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE (Department of Health) Introduced THE DRUGS AND COSMETICS ACT (1940) AND RULES (1945) [PASSED BY THE INDIAN LEGISLATURE] (Received the assent of the Governor General on the 10th April, 1940) , An Act to regulate the import, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs and cosmetics Amended regularly………………. the Drugs (Amendment) Act, 1955, the Drugs (Amendment) Act, 1960, the Drugs (Amendment) Act, 1962, the Drugs and Cosmetics (Amendments) Act, 1964, the Drugs and Cosmetics (Amendments) Act, 1972, the Drugs and Cosmetics (Amendments) Act, 1982, the Drugs and Cosmetics (Amendments) Act, 1986 the Drugs and Cosmetics (Amendments) Act, 1995. the Drugs and Cosmetics (Amendments) Act, 2003 The Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules

Chapters in the “Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules” : 

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTON Short title, extent and commencement and Definitions CHAPTER II THE DRUGS TECHNICAL ADVISORY BOARD, THE CENTRAL DRUGS LABORTORY AND THE DRUGS CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE Chapters in the “Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules”

Chapters (Contd.) : 

CHAPTER III IMPORT OF DRUGS AND COSMETICS Standards of quality, Misbranded drugs, Adulterated drugs ,Spurious drugs., Misbranded cosmetics., Spurious cosmetics etc. CHAPTER IV MANUFACTURE, SALE AND DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS AND COSMETICS Chapters (Contd.)

Chapters (Contd.) : 

CHAPTER IVA PROVISIONS RELATING TO AYURVEDIC SIDDHA AND UNANI DRUGS CHAPTER V MISCELLANEOUS like Publication of sentences passed under this Act, Magistrate’s power to impose enhanced penalties Chapters (Contd.)

Schedule A : 

contains number of forms for various purposes. (about 50 in number) FORM 1 Memorandum to the Central Drugs Laboratory Certificate of test or analysis by the Central Drugs Laboratory FORM 8 Application for licence to import drugs (excluding those specified in Schedule X) to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945. FORM 11 Licence to import drugs by a Government Hospital or Autonomous Medical Institution for the treatment of patients. Schedule A

Schedule-B : 

Fees for test or analysis by the Central Drugs Laboratories or State Drugs Laboratories : Fees for test and assay of Drugs requiring use of animals - Schedule-B

Schedule -C : 

Biological and Special Products Sera. Solution of serum proteins intended for injection. Vaccines for parenteral injections. Toxins. Antigen. Antitoxins. Insulin. Putuitary (Posterior Lobe) Extract. Adrenaline and Solutions of Salts of Adrenaline. Schedule -C

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(ii) Schedule C (1) The drugs under this schedule include other special products Examples of a few drugs under Schedule C (1) Fish Liver Oil and preparations containing Fish Liver Oil Vaccines not in a form to be administered parenterally In vitro Blood Grouping Sera

Schedule - D : 

Class of drugs Extent and conditions of exemption Substances not intended for medicinal use Substance is imported for non-medicinal uses, and if imported otherwise than in bulk, each container shall bear a label indicating that the substance is not intended for medicinal use or is intended for some purposes other than medicinal use or is of commercial quality. Schedule - D

Schedule- E : 

List of poisonous substances under the Ayurvedic (including Siddha) and Unani Systems of Medicine Schedule- E

Schedule - F : 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE FUNCTIONING AND OPERATION OF A BLOOD BANK AND / OR FOR PREPARATION OF BLOOD COMPONENTS. BLOOD BANKS / BLOOD COMPONENTS. SCHEDULE F(I) PART 1- VACCINES (A) PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO THE PRODUCION OF BACTERIAL VACCINES. PART II ANTISERA Provisions applicable to the production of all Sera from Living Animals Schedule - F

SCHEDULE -FF : 

Standards for ophthalmic preparations. Part-A. Ophthalmic Solutions and suspensions. SCHEDULE -FF

Schedule - G : 

Details the drugs to be labeled with the words “Caution- it is dangerous to take this preparation except under medical supervision” Eg. Antihistaminics They do not need prescription to purchase but require the mandatory text on the label Schedule - G

SCHEDULE - H : 

PRESCRIPTION DRUGS Drugs which must be sold by retail only when a prescription by registered medial practitioner is produced Acebutolol Hydrochloride Aclarubicin Inj Actilyse Acyclovir Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) Alclometasone Dipropiponate Allopurinol Alphachymotrypsin Alprazolam Amantadine Hydrochloride SCHEDULE - H

Schedule - I : 

omited Schedule - I

Schedule - J : 

Diseases and ailments (by whatever name described) which a drug may not purport to prevent or cure or make claims to prevent or cure. 1. AIDS 2. Angina Pectoris 3. Appendicitis 4. Arteriosclerosis 5. Baldness 6. Blindness 7. Bronchial Asthma 8. Cancer and Benign tumour 9. Cataract 10. Change in colour of the hair and growth of new hair. 11. Change of Foetal sex by drugs. Schedule - J

Schedule - K : 

Class of Drugs is not sold for medicinal use or for use in the manufacture of medicines and that each container is labeled conspicuously with the words “NOT FOR MEDICINAL USE”. The medicines that continue to be under the 'household remedy' category include Paracetamol tablets, Analgesic Balms, Antacid Preparations, Calcium preparations with or without Vitamin D, Gripe Water for use of infants, Inhalers (containing drugs for treatment of cold and nasal congestion), Syrups, lozenges, pills and tablets for cough, cold or sore throat, Liniments for external use, Skin ointments and ointments for burns, Absorbent cotton wool, bandages absorbent gauze and adhesive plaster, Castor Oil, liquid Paraffin and Epsom Salt, Eucalyptus Oil, Tincture Iodine, Tincture Benzoin Co and Mercurochrome (in containers not exceeding 100 ml), and tablets of Iodochlorohydroxy quinoline 250 mg, Medicated dressings and bandages for first aid etc. However, these drugs should not contain any substance specified in Schedules G, H or X of D&C Act and Rules. The shopkeepers are also to ensure that the drugs are sold in the original unopened containers of the licensed manufacturers. Note- Aspirin and Quinine Sulphate have been removed from this schedule Schedule - K

SCHEDULE - L : 

? [Omitted] SCHEDULE - L

SCHEDULE -M : 

GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP) AND REQUIREMENTS OF PREMISES, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS. SCHEDULE -M

GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES FOR PREMISES AND MATERIALS. : 

(1) GENERAL REQUIREMENTS (A) Location and surroundings.- The factory building(s) for manufacture of drugs shall be so situated and shall have such measures as to avoid risk of contamination from external environmental including open sewage, drain, public lavatory or any factory which product disagreeable or obnoxious odour, fumes, excessive soot, dust, smoke, chemical or biological emissions. (B)Building and premises.- The building(s) used for the factory shall be designed, constructed, adapted and maintained to suit the manufacturing operations so as to permit production of drugs under hygienic conditions. They shall conform to the conditions laid down in the Factories Act, 1948 (63 of 1948) GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES FOR PREMISES AND MATERIALS.

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(C ) Water Supply. - There shall be validated system for treatment of water drawn from own or any other source to render it potable in accordance with standards specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards or Local Municipality, as the case may be, so as to produce Purified Water conforming to Pharmacopoeial specification. Purified Water so produced shall only be used for all operations except washing and cleaning operations where potable water may be used. Water shall be stored in tanks, which do not adversely affect quality of water and ensure freedom from microbiological growth. The tank shall be cleaned periodically and records maintained by the licensee in this behalf.

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(D)Disposal of waste. - (i) The disposal of sewage and effluents (solid, liquid and gas) from the manufactory shall be in conformity with the requirements of Environment Pollution Control Board. (ii) All bio-medical waste shall be destroyed as per the provisions of the Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1996. (iii)Additional precautions shall be taken for the storage and disposal of rejected drugs. Records shall be maintained for all disposal of waste. (iv) Provisions shall be made for the proper and safe storage of waste materials awaiting disposal. Hazardous, toxic substances and flammable materials shall be stored in suitably designed and segregated, enclosed areas in conformity with Central and State Legislations. Personnel.- The manufacture shall be conducted under the direct supervision of competent technical staff with prescribed qualifications and practical experience in the relevant dosage and / or active pharmaceutical products.

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SCHEDUE M-I Requirements of factory premises for manufacture of Homoeopathic preparations. – SCHEDULE M-II REQUIREMENT OF FACTORY PREMISESFOR MANUFACTURE OF COSMETICS.

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SCHEDULE M-III REQUIREMENTS OF FACTORY PREMISES FOR MANUFACTURE OF MEDICAL DEVICES

SCHEDULE - N : 

List of minimum equipment for the efficient running of a pharmacy:- SCHEDULE - N

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SCHEDULE - O STANDARD FOR DISINFECTANT FLUIDS

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SCHEDULE - P LIFE PERIOD OF DRUGS

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SCHEDULE P-1 PACK SIZES OF DRUGS

SCHEDULE - Q : 

List of Dyes, colours and Pigments permitted to be used in Cosmetics and Soaps SCHEDULE - Q

SCHEDULE – R : 

Standards for condoms made of rubber latex intended for single use and other mechanical contraceptives. SCHEDULE – R

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SCHEDULE -S STANDARDS FOR COSMETICS Standards for cosmetics in finished form.- The following cosmetics in finished form shall conform to the Indian Standards specifications laid down from time to time by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)]. 1. Skin Powders 2. Skin Powder for infants 3. Tooth Powder 4. Toothpaste 5. Skin Creams 6. Hair Oils

SCHEDULE -T : 

GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES FOR AYURVEDIC, SIDDHA AND UNANI MEDICINES. The Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) are prescribed as follows in Part I and Part II to ensure: PART I GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES SCHEDULE -T

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PART II A. LIST OF MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT AND MINIMUM MANUFACTURING REMISES REQUIRED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF AYURVEDIC, SIDDHA SYSTEM OF MEDICINES.

SCHEDULE -U : 

I.PARTICULARS TO BE SHOWN IN MANUFACTURING RECORDS A. Substances other than parenteral in preparation in general. 1. Serial number 2. Name of the product 3. Reference of Master Formula Records. 4. Lot/Batch Size. 5. Lot/Batch Number 6. Date of commencement of manufacture and date of completion of manufacture and assigned date of expiry. SCHEDULE -U

SCHEDULE -V : 

Patent or proprietary medicines SCHEDULE -V

SCHEDULE -W : 

(Schedule W) – Inserted as per G.O.I. Notificiation No. GSR 27(E) dt 17.1.1981 and deleted as per G.O.I. Notification No. GSR 94(E) dt 8.2.2000. Gives the names of the drugs which shall be marketed under generic names only. SCHEDULE -W

SCHEDULE - X : 

Gives the names of psychotropic drugs requiring special licenses for manufacture and sale. Amobarbital 2[ Omitted] Amphetamina Methylphenidate Barbital Methylphenobarbital Cyclobarbital Pentobarbital Dexamphetamine Phencyclidine Ethclorvynol Phenmetrazine Glutethimide 3[Omitted} Meprobamate Secobarbital Methamphetamine Note:- 1. Any stereoisometric form of the substance specified in this Schedule, any salt of the substance and preparation containing such substances are also covered by this Schedule. SCHEDULE - X

SCHEDULE Y : 

REQUIREMENT AND GUIDELINES ON CLINICAL TRIALS IMPORT MANUFACTURE SCHEDULE Y OF NEW DRUG.

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Clinical Trials. Nature of trials. - The clinical trials required to be carried out in the country before a new drug is approved for marketing depend on the status of the drug in other countries. If the drug is already approved/marketed, Phase III trials as required under Item 7 of Appendix 1 usually are required. If the drug is not approved / marketed trials are generally allowed to be initiated at one phase earlier to the phase of trials in other countries.

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For new drug substances discovered in other countries phase I trials are not usually allowed to be initiated in India unless Phase I from other countries are available. However, such trials may be permitted even in the absence of Phase I data from other countries if the drug is of special relevance to the health problem of India. For new drug substances discovered in India, clinical trials are required to be carried out in India right from phase I. Though Phase III permission to carry out these trials is generally given in stages, considering the data emerging from earlier phase

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Permission for trials. – Permission to initiate clinical trials with a new drug may be obtained by applying in Form 12 for a test licence (TL) to import or manufacture the drug under the Rules. Data appropriate for the various phases of clinical trials to be carried out should accompany the application. In addition, the protocol for proposed trials, case report forms to be used, and the names of investigators and institutions should also be submitted for approval. The investigators selected should possess appropriate qualifications and experience and should have such investigations facilities as are required to the proposed trials protocol.

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It is desirable that protocols for clinical trials be reviewed and approved by the institution’s ethical committee. (Since such committees at present do not exist in all institutions, the approval granted to a protocol by the ethical committee of one institution will be applicable to use of that protocol in other institutions which do not have an ethical committee. ) For new drugs having potential for use in children, permission for clinical trials in the pediatric age group is normally given after phase III trials in adults are completed.

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Responsibilities of Sponsor/Investigator. – Sponsors are required to submit to the licensing authority as given under Rule 21 an annual status report on each clinical trial, namely ongoing, completed, or terminated. In case a trial is terminated, reason for this should be stated. Any unusual, unexpected or serious adverse drug reaction (ADR) detected during a trial should be promptly communicated by the sponsor to the licensing authority and the other investigators. In all trials an informal, written consent required to be obtained from each volunteer/patient in the prescribed Forms which must be signed by the patient/volunteer and the chief investigator.

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Animal Toxicology. Acute Toxicology. - should be carried out in at least two species usually mice and rats using the same route as intended for humans. In addition, at least one more route should be used to ensure systemic absorption of the drug; this route may depend on the nature of the drug. Mortality should be looked for up to 72 hours after parenteral administration and up to 7 days after oral administration. Symptoms, signs and mode of death should be reported, with appropriate macroscopic and microscopic findings where necessary. LD 50s should be reported preferably with 95 per cent confidence limited, if LD 50s cannot be determined, reasons for this should be stated.

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Long term toxicity: - should be carried out in at least two mammalian species, of which one should be a non rodent. The duration of study will depend on whether the application is for marketing permission or for clinical trial, and in the latter case, on the phase of trials . If a species is known to metabolize the drug in the same way as humans, it should be preferred. In long-term toxicity studies the drug should be administered 7 days a week by the route intended for clinical use in humans. A control group of animals given the vehicle along should always be included and three other groups should be given graded dose of the drug; The highest dose should produce observable toxicity, The lowest dose should not cause observable toxicity, but should be comparable to the intended therapeutic dose in humans of a multiple of it, e.g. 2.5 to make allowance for the sensitivity of the species; The intermediate dose should cause some symptoms, but not gross toxicity or death, and may be placed logarithmically between the other two doses. The variables to be monitored and recorded in long-term toxicity studies should include behavioral, physiological, biochemical, and microscopic observations.

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Reproduction studies. - Reproduction studies need to be carried out only if the new drug is proposed to be studied or used in women or childbearing age. Two species should generally be used, one of them being a non-rodent if possible. Fertility Studies. - The drug should be administered to both males and females, beginning a sufficient number of days before mating. In females the medication should be continued after mating and the pregnant one should be treated throughout pregnancy. The highest dose used should not affect general health or growth of the animals. The route of administration should be the same as for therapeutic use in humans. The control and the treated group should be similar size and large enough to give at least 20 pregnant animals in the control group of rodents and at least 8 pregnant animals in the control group of non-rodents. Observations should include total examination of the litters from both the groups, including spontaneous abortions, if any.

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Teratogenicity studies. - The drug should be administered throughout the period of organogenesis, using three dose levels. One of the doses should cause minimum maternal toxicity and one should be proposed dose for clinical use in humans or a multiple of it. The route of administration should be the same as for human therapeutic use. The control and the treated group should consist of at least 20 pregnant females in case of non-rodents, on each dose used. Observations should include the number of implantation sites; resorptions if any; and the number of foetuses with their sexes, weights and malformations, if any.

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Perinatal studies. - The drug should be administered throughout the last third of pregnancy and then through lactation of weaning. -The control of each treated group should have at least 12 pregnant females and the dose which causes low foetal loss should be continued throughout lactation weaning. -Animals should be sacrificed and observations should include macroscopic autopsy and where necessary, histopathology.

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Local toxicity. – These studies are required when the new drug is proposed to be used topically in humans. The drug should be applied to an appropriate site to determine local effects in a suitable species such as guinea pigs or rabbits, if the drug is absorbed from the site of applications, appropriate systemic toxicity studies will be required.

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Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity. - These studies are required to be carried out if the drug or its metabolite is related to a known carcinogen or when the nature and action of the drug is such as to suggest a carcinogenic/mutagenic potential. For carcinogenicity studies, at least two species should be used. These species should not have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors and should preferably be known to metabolize the drug in the same manner as humans. At least three dose level should be used; the highest dose should be sublethal out cause observable toxicity; the lowest dose should be comparable to the intended human therapeutic dose or a multiple of it, e.g. 2.5 X; to make intermediate dose to be placed logarithmically between the other two doses. A control group should always be included. The drug should be administered 7 days a week or a fraction of the life span comparable to the fraction of human life span over which the drug is likely to be used therapeutically. Observations should include macroscopic changes observed at autopsy and detailed histopathology.

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Animal pharmacology. Specific pharmacological actions are those with therapeuticpotential for humans. These should be described according to the animal models and species used. General pharmacological action are effects on other organs and systems, specially cardiovascular, respiratory and central nervous systems. Pharmacokinetic data help relate drug effect to plasma concentration and should be given to the extent available.

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Human/Clinical Pharmacology (Phase I). The objective of phase I of trials is to determine the -Maximum tolerated dose in humans; -Pharmacodynamic effects; -Adverse reactions, if any, with their nature and intensity; -Pharmacokinetic behaviour of the drug as far as possible. These studies are carried out in healthy adult males, using clinical, physiological and biochemical observations. At least 2 subjects should be used on each dose. Phase I trials are usually carried out by investigators trained in clinical pharmacology and having the necessary facilities to closely observe and monitor the subjects. These may be carried out at one or two centers.

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Explanatory trials (Phase II). In phase II trial a limited number of patients are studies carefully to determine possible therapeutic use, effective dose range and further evaluation of safety and pharmacokinetics. Normally 10-12 patients should be studied at each dose level. These studies are usually limited to 3-4 centres having adequate facilities to perform the necessary investigations for efficacy and safety.

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Confirmatory trials (Phase III). The purpose of these trials is to obtain sufficient evidence about the efficacy and safety of the drug in a larger number of patients, generally in comparison with a standard drug and/or a placebo as appropriate. These trials may be carried out by clinicians in the concerned therapeutic areas, having facilities appropriate to the protocol. If the drug is already approved/marketed in other countries, phase III data should generally obtained on at least 100 patients distributed over 3-4 centres primarily to confirm the efficacy and safety of the drug in Indian patients. If the drug is a new drug substance discovered in India and not marketed in any other country, phase III data should be obtained at least 500 patients distributed over 10-15 centres

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Special Studies. A. These include studies on solid oral dosage form, such as, bio-availability and dissolution studies. These are required to be submitted on the formulations manufactured in the country. B. These include studies to explore additional aspects of the drug, e.g. use in elderly patients or patients with renal failure, secondary or ancillary effects, interactions, etc.

Submission of Reports : 

The reports of completed clinical trials shall be submitted by the applicant duly signed by the investigator with a stipulated period of time. Submission of Reports

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Marketing information. The product monograph should comprise the full prescribing information necessary to enable a physician to use the drug properly. It should include description, actions, indications, dosage precaution, drug interactions, warnings and adverse reactions. Post-marketing surveillance study. On approval of a new drug, the importer or the manufacturer shall conduct post-marketing surveillance study of that new drug after getting the protocols and the names of the investigators approved by the Licensing Authority during the initial period of two years of marketing.

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Data required to be submitted with application for permission to market a New Drug 1. INTRODUCTION A brief description of the drug and the therapeutic class to which it belongs. 2. CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL INFORMATION. 2.1. Chemical name, code name or number, if any, non-proprietary or generic name, if any, structure 2.2 Dosage form and its composition. 2.3 Specifications of active and inactive ingredients. 2.4. Tests for identification of the active ingredient and method of its assay. 2.5. Outline of the method of manufacture of the active ingredient. 2.6 Stability data 3. ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY 3.1. Summary 3.2. Specific pharmacological actions. 3.3 General pharmacological actions. 3.4. Pharmacokinetics, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion. 4. ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY 4.1. Summary 4.2 Acute Toxicity 4.3. Long Term Toxicity 4.4 Reproduction Studies. 4.5 Local Toxicity 4.6. Mutagenicity and Carnicogenicity. 5. HUMAN/CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (PHASE I). 5.1. Summary 5.2 Specific Pharmacological effects. 5.3 General Pharmacological effects. 5.4. Pharmacokinetics, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion.

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6. EXPLANATORY CLINICAL TRIALS (PHASE II). 6.1. Summary 6.2 Investigator reports. 7.. CONFIRMATORY CLINICAL TRIALS (PHASE III) 7.1. Summary 7.2 Investigator reports 8. SPECIAL STUDIES 8.1. Summary 8.2 Bioavailability and dissolution studies. 8.3 Investigator reports. 9. REGULATORY STATUS IN OTHER COUNTRIES. 9.1. Countries where – (a) Marketed (b) Approved. (c) Under trial, with phase. (d) Withdrawn, if any, with reasons. 9.2. Restrictions on use, if any, in countries where marketed/approved. 9.3 Free sale certificate from country of origin. 10.MARKETING INFORMATION. 10.1. Proposed product monograph 10.2. Drafts of labels and cartons. 10.3. Sample of pure drug substance, with testing protocol.

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Format for submission of clinical Trial Reports. ___ Title of the trial ___ Name of investigator and institution ___ Objectives of the trial ___ Design of study: Open, single-blind or double blind, non-comparative or comparative, parallel group or crossover. ___ Number of patients, with criteria selection and exclusion, whether written, informed consent, was obtained. ___ Treatments given – drugs and dosage forms, dosage regimens, method of allocation of patients to treatments, method of verifying compliance, if any ___ Observations made before, during and at the end of treatment, for efficacy and safety, with methods used. ___ Results : exclusions and dropouts, if any, with reasons, description of patients with initial comparability of groups where appropriate, clinical patients with initial comparability of groups where appropriate, clinical and laboratory observations on efficacy and safety, adverse drug reactions. ___ Discussion of results ; relevance to objectives, correlation with other reports/data, if any, guidance for further study, if necessary. ___ Summary and conclusion.

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Patient consent form for participation in a Phase I Clinical Trial The clinical trial involves the study of a new …………. agent …………….. in volunteers/patients suffering from ………………………………………………………………. The drug which will be administered to volunteers/patients has been found to be safe in animal toxicity tests and other experimental data. The volunteers /patients will be required to undergo, if necessary, all routine examinations including taking of X-ray, ECG, EEG etc. at intervals. The volunteers/patients may be asked to collect stool and urine, and there may be need to draw blood or any other body fluid on several occasions to test the effects of concentrations of the drug. The volunteers/patients are free to withdraw from the trial at any stage. Authorisation I have read/been briefed on the above project summary and I voluntarily agree to participate in the project. I understand that participation in this study may or may not benefit me. Its general purpose, potential benefits, possible hazards, and inconveniences have been explained to my satisfaction, I hereby give my consent for this treatment. Name of the volunteer/patient Signature or thump impression of the volunteer/patient. Signature of Chief Investigator Date:

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Patient consent form for participation in Phase II and Phase III Clinical Trial: - I…………………………….. exercising my free power of choice, hereby give my consent to be included as a subject in the clinical trial of a new drug, namely……………….. for the treatment of …………………….. I understand that I may be treated with this drug for the diseases. I am suffering from ………………………I have been informed to my satisfaction, by the attending physician the purpose of the clinical trial and the nature of drug treatment and follow up including the laboratory investigation to monitor and safeguard my body functions. I am also aware of my right to opt out of the trial at any time during the course of the trial without having to give the reasons for doing so. Signature of the attending physician. Date: …………. Signature of the patient Date:

Some important Definitions : 

Spurious drugs. -- (a) if it is imported under a name which belongs to another drug; or (b) if it is an imitation of , or a substitute for, another drug or resembles another drug in a manner likely to deceive or bears upon it or upon its label or container the name of another drug unless it is plainly and conspicuously marked so as to reveal its true character and its lack of identity with such other drug ; or (c) if the label or the container bears the name of an individual or company purporting to be the manufacturer of the drug, which individual or company is fictitious or does not exist; or (d) if it has been substituted wholly or in part by another drug or substance; or (e) if it purports to be the product of a manufacturer of whom it is not truly a product . Some important Definitions

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Adulterated drugs. – (a) if it consists, in whole or in part, of any filthy, putrid or decomposed substance; or (b) if it has been prepared, packed or stored under insanitary conditions whereby it may have been contaminated with filth or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health; or (c) if its container is composed in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health; or (d) if it bears or contains, for purposes of colouring only, a colour other than one which is prescribed; or (e) if it contains any harmful or toxic substance which may render it injurious to health; or (f) if any substance has been mixed therewith so as to reduce its quality or strength

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Misbranded drugs. --- (a) if it is so coloured, coated, powdered or polished that damage is concealed or if it is made to appear of better or greater therapeutic value than it really is; or (b) if it is not labelled in the prescribed manner; or (c) if its label or container or anything accompanying the drug bears any statement, design or device which makes any false claim for the drug or which is false or misleading in any particular

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OTC Drugs The phrase „OTC‟ has no legal recognition in India, all the drugs not included in the list of prescription-only drugs” are considered to be non-prescription drugs (or OTC drugs). OTC Drugs‟ means drugs legally allowed to be sold “Over The Counter‟ by pharmacists, i.e. without the prescription of a Registered Medical Practitioner. Prescription-only drugs are those medicines that are listed in Schedule H and X and Schedule G Currently, non drug-licensed stores (e.g. non-pharmacists) can sell a few medicines classified as “Household Remedies‟ listed in Schedule K

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Ayurvedic (OTC) Medicines OTC drugs registered as “Ayurvedic Medicines” containing natural / herbal ingredients Ayurvedic drugs are manufactured under a manufacturing licence issued by the Ayurvedic State Licensing Authorities. However, they do not require a drug sale licence and can be sold freely by non-chemists. Largest OTC brands in India are registered as “Ayurvedic Medicines‟ because of their plant-based natural active ingredients

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Categories with OTC potential Vitamins and minerals; Health tonics, Cough and cold Gastrointestinal drugs Analgesics Dermatological preparations Herbal / Ayurvedic medicines

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MARKETING AUTHORISATION Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 (DCA) Drugs and Cosmetics Rules,1945 (DCR) Drug (Prices Control) Order, 1995, Drugs (Magic Remedies) Objectionable Advertisement Act, 1954 Pharmacy Act, 1948 The office of the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) has the primary responsibility for approving new drugs, molecules and standards, Vaccines & Sera, new usage and claims, new method of administration, clinical research and trials, introductions of a new unique formulation and granting import and export licences. The DCGI also exercises control over medical devices imported or manufactured in India. Power to provide manufacturing and selling licences - individual State Government through its Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Summary : 

Summary A- Forms B- Fees C- Biologicals D-Exemption E- Poisonous of Ayush F-Vaccines FF-Opthalmic F(II)- Surgicals F (III)- Umbilical tapes G- Caution H- Prescription only drugs J-List of ailments K-House hold remedies M- GMP MI- Homeopathic MII-Cosmetics MIII-Medical Devices N- Pharmacy development O-Disinfectant fluid P- Expiry of medicine P1- Pack size of drugs Q- Dyes, colours and pigments R-Mechanical contraceptives R1- Medical devices S- Cosmetics T- Factory of ayurvedic and unani U- Manufacturing records V- Patent W- Under generic names (???) X-Psychotropic drugs Y- Guidelines on clinical trials and manufacturing of new drug

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