biogeography

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BIOGEOGRAPHY BYDIVYASHREE.B.R

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Biogeography Biogeography is a branch of geography that studies the past and present distribution of the world's many species. It is usually considered to be a part of physical geography as it often relates to the examination of the physical environment and how it affects species and shaped their distribution across space. As such it studies the world's biomes and taxonomy - the naming of species. In addition, biogeography has strong ties to biology, ecology, evolution studies, climatology, and soil science.

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The study of biogeography gained popularity with the work of Alfred Russel Wallace in late 19th Century. Wallace, originally from England, was a naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist. He first extensively studied the Amazon River and then the Malay Archipelago and gave the concept of “Wallace line”. Because of his extensive early research, Wallace is often called the "Father of Biogeography." HISTORY OF Biogeography Alfred Russel Wallace

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TYPES OF Biogeography Historical Biogeography – Reconstruct the origins, dispersal, and extinctions of taxa and biotas. Ecological Biogeography – Accounts for the present distributions in terms of interactions between organisms and their physical and biotic environments. Conservation Biogeography - Work on the protection and restoration of natural environments.

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HISTORICAL Biogeography Historical biogeography includes data from subjects as geology, geography, and biology to meet its aim. The branch of historical biogeography is called paleobiogeography because it often includes paleogeographic ideas. Paleobiogeography also takes varying climate as a result of the physical land being in different places into account for the presence of different plants and animals.

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The five basic historical biogeographic methods are: Dispersalism Phylogenetic Biogeography Panbiogeography Cladistic Biogeography Parsimony Analysis of Endemity. 1. Dispersalism derives from the traditional concepts of center of origin and dispersal. 2. Phylogenetic biogeography applies the rules of progression and deviation to elucidate the history of the geographical distribution of a group. 3. Panbiogeography consists of plotting distributions of different taxa on maps, connecting their distribution areas together with lines called individual tracks, and looking for coincidence among individual tracks to determine generalized tracks.

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4. Cladistic biogeography assumes a correspondence between taxonomic relationships and area relationships, where comparisons between area cladograms derived from different taxa allow one to obtain general area cladograms. The most important cladistic biogeographic procedures are: component analysis, Brook’s parsimony analysis, three-area statements, and reconciled trees. 5. Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) classifies areas by their shared taxa, analogous to characters, according to the most parsimonious solution. It has the capability of resolving different problems, such as the recognition of spatial homology (panbiogeography), the identification of areas of endemism (PAE), and the formulation of hypotheses about area (cladistic relationships biogeography).

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ECOLOGICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY The most common fields of research within ecological biogeography are : climatic equability looks at the variation between daily and annual temperatures. primary productivity looks at the evapotranspiration rates of plants. habitat heterogeneity leads to the presence of more biodiversity.

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Climate Change and its Effect on Polar Bears I think the place that best represents the rapid climate changes on our planet is the Arctic ice shelf. The ecosystem in this harsh environment is very fragile, so even the slightest alteration will greatly affect it. One of the animals that will be greatly affected by climate change in the Arctic is the polar bear. EVENTS FOR CURRENT BIOGEOGRAPHY Polar bears live exclusively in the Arctic, so if they cannot adapt to their changing environment, they will be lost forever.

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BIOMES A BIOME is the largest geographic biotic unit, a major community of plants and animals with similar life forms and environmental conditions. There are terrestrial biomes , which are located on land, and aquatic biomes , which are located in oceans, lakes, rivers, or other bodies of water.

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TERRESTRIAL BIOMES Types Of Terrestrial Biomes: Tropical Forest Savanna Desert Chaparral Temperate Grassland Temperate Deciduous Coniferous Forest (Taiga) Tundra

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TROPICAL FOREST Global Position: Amazon Basin; Congo Basin of equatorial Africa; East Indies, from Sumatra to New Guinea. Temperature Range: 23 °C Average Annual Precipitation: 60 -160 in Latitude Range: 23.5°N.

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The vegetation in tropical rain forests is divided into five general layers: These include monkeys, sloths, parrots, toucans, bats, tapirs, frogs, and a wide variety of insects.

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SAVANNA Temperature Range: 16 °C Annual Precipitation: 0.25 cm. Latitude Range: 15 ° to 25 ° N and S Global Range: India, Indochina, West Africa , southern Africa, South America and the north coast of Australia

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These biomes are often found on either side of rainforests.   The soils of the savanna are usually low in nutrients.  The soils are porous, having only a thin layer of nutrient rich matter called humus. Plant life is composed of low growing grasses with scattered deciduous trees and thorny shrubs, Acacias, Eucalypts and Baobab. There are frequent fires in the savanna.  The dominant vegetation is fire adapted, but many seedlings are killed before they become established, by fire or by grazing animals.  The fires also remove dead plant material and  recycle nutrients that support new growth.

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Animals found here include large herbivores such as giraffes, zebras, antelopes, buffalo, kangaroos, wildebeests, and ostriches. There are also many burrowing animals found here, including mice, gophers, snakes, as well as ants and termites.  During the dry season, many small animals are dormant, and larger mammals often migrate to other areas.

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DESERT Temperature Range: 16° C Annual Precipitation: less than 3o cm. Range: 15° - 35° N and S. Global Range: southwestern United States and northern Mexico Argentina; north Africa; south Africa; central part of Australia.

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Deserts are the driest of all biomes.  Most deserts are very hot, but cold deserts also exist. The hot deserts generally experience hot days and cold nights. Hot deserts can be found in the southwest of the United States, along the coast of South America, in northern Africa, and in the Middle East. There are cold deserts to the west of the Rocky Mountains, in eastern Argentina and central Asia.

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Common desert animals include many kinds snakes and lizards, scorpions, ants, beetles, migratory and resident birds, and seed-eating rodents. Many species are nocturnal. Water conservation is a common adaptation. In less arid regions, the plant life includes some grasses, shrubs, cacti, creosote, and rosette plants. These plants have numerous adaptations to life in the desert.

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CHAPARREL Temperature Range: 7 °C (12 °F) Annual Precipitation: 42 cm (17 in). Latitude Range: 30° - 50° N and S Global Position: central and southern California; coastal bordering the Mediterranean Sea; Cape Town region of South Africa.

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The plants found in these region are dense, spiny shrubs with tough evergreen leaves. These Plants have adaptations to fire etc. Animals found here include deer, and fruit eating birds, which are browsers.  There are also ants and rodents, which eat seeds, as well as lizards and snakes.

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TEMPERATE GRASSLAND Temperature Range: -10°C -30 °C Annual Precipitation: 30 cm – 100 cm. Global position: South Africa, Hungary, Argentina, Uruguay, Russia, and North America.

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The soil of grassland is the deepest and most fertile in the world. The dominant plants are grasses and forbs. Some of the main adaptations of plants are for droughts and fire. Large vertebrate grazers are the most conspicuous, such as bison, antelopes and wild horses.

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TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST Temperature Range: 31 °C (56 ° F) Average Annual Precipitation: 81 cm Latitude Range: 30° - 55° N and S (Europe: 45° - 60° N). Global Position: eastern parts of the United States and southern Canada; northern China; Korea; Japan; central and eastern Europe.

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The soils are fertile, due to plenty of leaf litter. There is extensive plant diversity in this biome, dominated by broadleaf deciduous hardwood trees such as oak, hickory, maple, ash, beech and more.  The forests consist of 3-5 layers. Animals found here are bears, deer, bobcats, raccoons, squirrels, as well as many birds and invertebrates.

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CONIFEROUS FOREST(TAIGA) Temperature Range: 41 °C, lows; -25 °C, highs; 16 °C Average Annual Precipitation: 31 cm (12 in). Latitude Range: 50° - 70° N and S. Global Position: central and western Alaska; Canada, from the Yukon Territory to Labrador; Eurasia, from northern Europe across all of Siberia to the Pacific Ocean.

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Taiga, also known as coniferous or boreal forest,. It is the largest terrestrial biome on earth.  The soil is thin, nutrient poor, and acidic. These include different species of spruce, pine, or fir, and often there is little undergrowth present. Larger browsing animals such as deer, moose, elk, snowshoe hare, and beavers.  The typical predators for this area are grizzly bears, wolves, lynxes and wolverines.

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TUNDRA Temperature Range: -22 °C to 6 °C (-10 °F to 41 °F). Average Annual Precipitation: 20 cm (8 in). Latitude Range: 60° - 75° N. Global Position: arctic zone of North America; Hudson Bay region; Greenland coast; northern Siberia bordering the Arctic Ocean.

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The vegetation of tundra is mostly herbaceous, consisting of a mixture of lichens, mosses, grasses, and forbs along with dwarf shrubs and trees. Decomposition takes place slowly, because of the low temperatures. The ground is frozen year-round, known as permafrost. Largest grazing musk ox is resident, while caribou and rein deer are migratory. Predators include bears, wolves, and foxes

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AQUATIC BIOMES Types Of Aquatic Biomes:

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FRESH WATER BIOMES

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Ponds and lakes These regions range in size from just a few square meters to thousands of square kilometers. Scattered throughout the earth. Many ponds are seasonal, lasting just a couple of months (such as sessile pools) while lakes may exist for hundreds of years or more. Ponds and lakes may have limited species diversity since they are often isolated from one another and from other water sources like rivers and oceans. Temperature varies in ponds and lakes seasonally. During the summer, the temperature can range from 4° C near the bottom to 22° C at the top. During the winter, the temperature at the bottom can be 4° C while the top is 0° C

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Lakes and ponds are divided into three different “zones” which are usually determined by depth and distance from the shoreline.

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These are bodies of flowing water moving in one direction. Streams and rivers can be found everywhere — they get their starts at headwaters, which may be springs, snowmelt or even lakes, and then travel all the way to their mouths, usually another water channel or the ocean. The characteristics of a river or stream change during the journey from the source to the mouth. STREAMS AND RIVERS

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Wetlands are areas of standing water that support aquatic plants. Marshes, swamps, and bogs are all considered wetlands. Plant species adapted to the very moist and humid conditions are called hydrophytes. These include pond lilies, cattails, sedges, tamarack, and black spruce. Wetlands have the highest species diversity of all ecosystems. Many species of amphibians, reptiles, birds (such as ducks and waders), and furbearers can be found in the wetlands. Wetlands

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MARINE BIOMES Marine regions cover about three-fourths of the Earth's surface. Marine algae supply much of the world's oxygen supply and take in a huge amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The evaporation of the seawater provides rainwater for the land. It includes: Oceans Coral Reefs Estuaries

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The largest of all the ecosystems, oceans are very large bodies of water that dominate the Earth's surface. Like ponds and lakes, the ocean regions are separated into separate zones: intertidal, pelagic, abyssal, and benthic. All four zones have a great diversity of species. OCEANS

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Coral reefs are widely distributed in warm shallow waters. They can be found as barriers along continents (e.g., the Great Barrier Reef off Australia), fringing islands, and atolls. Naturally, the dominant organisms in coral reefs are corals. Corals are interesting since they consist of both algae and tissues of animal polyp. Since reef waters tend to be nutritionally poor, corals obtain nutrients through the algae via photosynthesis and also by extending tentacles to obtain plankton from the water. Besides corals, the fauna include several species of microorganisms, invertebrates, fishes, sea urchins, octopuses, and sea stars. CORAL REEFS

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Estuaries are areas where freshwater streams or rivers merge with the ocean. This mixing of waters with such different salt concentrations creates a very interesting and unique ecosystem. Microflora like algae, and macroflora, such as seaweeds, marsh grasses can be found here. Estuaries support a diverse fauna, including a variety of worms, oysters, crabs, and waterfowl. ESTUARIES

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