Coal and petroleum : Coal and petroleum By Divyanshu Gupta Coal and petroleum : Coal and petroleum are sources of energy that are non- renewable. They were made in the nature a long time before and they will finish after long-time use Coal and petroleum Coal : Coal Coal is a combustible ,sedimentary, organic rock, formed from vegetation. In other words coal is a fossil fuel created from the remains of plants that lived millions of years ago. it is considered as a non renewable source of energy because it takes too much time to form. Types of coal : Types of coal Peat
Graphite Chemical composition of coal : Chemical composition of coal Coal mainly consists of carbon.
It also consists some metal compound and some other impurities. Uses of coal : Uses of coal Coal as fuel
Coking and use of coke
Coal tar Coal as fuel : Coal as fuel Coal is used as a solid fuel to produce electricity.
Coal is used as a solid fuel to produce heat through combustion Click here Coking and use of coke : Coking and use of coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal.
Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
It is further used in making steel.
Click here Ethanol production : Ethanol production The reaction of coal and natural gas was used for making Buna rubber.
This reaction makes ethanol and it is used to make Buna rubber. Click here Coal tar : Coal tar Coal tar is a brown or black liquid of high viscosity, which smells of naphthalene and aromatic hydrocarbons.
Being flammable, coal tar is sometimes used for heating or to fire boilers.
Tar is used in treatment of the skin disease psoriasis, where coal tar is the most effective.
It is also used to make roads. Coal mining : Coal mining There are two ways to mine coal
Underground mining Surface mining : Surface mining Underground mining : Underground mining Deposits of coal over the world : Deposits of coal over the world Legend
-- coal deposits Petroleum : Petroleum Petroleum is a naturally occurring ,flammable liquid , that are found in geologic formations beneath the earth's surface. It was produced when sea creatures died and got covered with sand and clay. Under high pressure , these dead organisms changed into petroleum and natural gases. Products of petroleum : Products of petroleum Ethane and other short-chain alkenes
Diesel fuel (petro diesel)
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Lubricants (light machine oils, motor oils, and greases, ).
Wax, used in the packaging of frozen foods, among others.
Sulfur or Sulfuric acid.
Petroleum coke, used in specialty carbon products or as solid fuel.
Aromatic petrochemicals to be used as precursors in other chemical production.
Plastics Chemical composition : Chemical composition Uses of petroleum : Uses of petroleum Petroleum may be taken to oil refineries and the hydrocarbon chemicals separated by distillation and treated by other chemical processes, to be used for a variety of purposes like:
Diesel fuelLiquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Kerosene Oil well : Oil well An oil well is a general term for any boring through the earth's surface that is designed to find and acquire petroleum oil hydrocarbons. It is used to pump out petroleum. Environmental effects of coal mining : Environmental effects of coal mining Generation of hundreds of millions of tons of waste products is pro
Acid rain from high sulfur coal
Interference with groundwater and water table levels
Contamination of land and waterways and destruction of homes from fly ash spills
Impact of water use on flows of rivers and consequential impact on other land-uses
Subsidence above tunnels, sometimes damaging infrastructure
Coal-fired power plants shorten nearly 24,000 lives a year in the United States, including 2,800 from lung cancer
Coal-fired power plants emit mercury, selenium, and arsenic which are harmful to human health and the environment
Release of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, which causes climate change and global warming according to the IPCC. Coal is the largest contributor to the human-made increase of CO2 in the air Environmental effects of petroleum : Environmental effects of petroleum Extraction
Oil extraction is costly and sometimes environmentally damaging, although Dr. John Hunt of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution pointed out in a 1981 paper that over 70% of the reserves in the world are associated with visible macro seepages, and many oil fields are found due to natural seeps. Offshore exploration and extraction of oil disturbs the surrounding marine environment.
Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged natural ecosystems in Alaska, the Galapagos Islands, France and many other places.
The quantity of oil spilled during accidents has ranged from a few hundred tons to several hundred thousand tons (e.g., Atlantic Empress, Amoco Cadiz). Smaller spills have already proven to have a great impact on ecosystems, such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill
Oil spills at sea are generally much more damaging than those on land, since they can spread for hundreds of nautical miles in a thin oil slick which can cover beaches with a thin coating of oil. This can kill sea birds, mammals, shellfish and other organisms it coats. Oil spills on land are more readily containable if a makeshift earth dam can be rapidly bulldozed around the spill site before most of the oil escapes, and land animals can avoid the oil more easily.
Control of oil spills is difficult, requires ad hoc methods, and often a large amount of manpower. The dropping of bombs and incendiary devices from aircraft on the Torrey Canyon wreck produced poor results; modern techniques would include pumping the oil from the wreck, like in the Prestige oil spill or the Erika oil spill.