13-Nationalism and European Unity

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Nationalism and European Unity:

Nationalism and European Unity MADE BY : DISHANT A ARORA CLASS : X B

The Origin of European Unity:

The Origin of European Unity Europe was 'united' at several times in the past, mainly in classical times Roman Empire Christendom Successors like Charlemagne, Habsburgs claim title of Holy Roman Emperor - just as various rulers in the Islamic world claimed to be Caliph 'Europe' replaces Christendom as key idea, c 1300-1350

The Rise of the 'European Idea':

The Rise of the 'European Idea' Division of Church and Empire into East (Orthodoxy) & West (Catholic), followed by Protestant Reformation of 16th c. Prompts calls from Catholic church for reunification of church under God: ecumenical movement born Church also seeks to claim authority over new states which break from Papal control Even as new states form in 16th c and, later, the nation-state emerges, the 'European Idea' remains a dream for religious and secular thinkers

Warfare and the European Idea:

Warfare and the European Idea Desire to limit warfare within states was always key to the European Idea George Podebrad (Hussite king of Bohemia) scheme for a compact against the Turks (1458-71). Main European Institutions: Assembly Court of Justice International arbitration Army Confederal budget

French Ideals of Europe, c. 1600:

French Ideals of Europe, c. 1600 Sully's 'Grand Design': Peace in Europe Joint army Alliance against Turks and Tsar Trade promotion Representational central body French as lingua franca France viewed as leader A federal plan which respected national distinctiveness Sought revival of Imperial and Papal authority as sources of legitimacy

Enlightenment Europeanism:

Enlightenment Europeanism Penn, Diderot, Paine, St Simon and others Were cosmopolitan liberals Europeanism and cosmopolitanism linked Favoured Europeanism as a ticket to peace, prosperity and Enlightenment St Simon claims in 1821 that Europeanism as a sentiment already took precedence over nationalism St Simon sees Anglo-French hub as motor of Europe End to Papal and Roman dreams; harmony among peoples rather than rulers

The Evolution of the European Idea:

The Evolution of the European Idea Napoleon speaks of one European fatherland After Napoleonic Wars, St Simon's ideas influential and popular. Influenced Lemonnier's Les Etats-Unis d'Europe (1872) Revival of interest in St Simon after WWI Most schemes were federal, though some post-WWI radicals rejected the nation outright

Practical Action: Inter-War:

Practical Action: Inter-War Habsburg federalism and gold standard pre-1918 Louis Loucheur's Steel Cartel, 1919, and proposals for customs union, 1924-27 Loucheur believed that economic arguments would pave the way for political union: functionalism David Mitrany later makes functionalist argument in his A Working Peace System (1943) Main impetus comes from Paneuropean social movements - especially in France Membership in French pro-European movements number in the hundreds of thousands in 1920s

Diplomatic Pressure of Paneuropean Groups:

Diplomatic Pressure of Paneuropean Groups Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi writes Pan-Europa (1923) manifesto. Links to French politicians like Herriot, Loucheur, Leger, Briand Edouard Herriot, 1925 : 'My greatest wish is to see one day the United States of Europe become a reality ' First Pan-European Congress, 1926. Sponsored by Chancellor Seipel of Austria Many Paneuropeans also strongly supported the League of Nations Briand's Memorandum on a European Federal System (1930) circulated to European statesmen

Europeanism pre-1939:

Europeanism pre-1939 Briand envisions 'union for economic, political [and] social cooperation ' Took care not to infringe state sovereignty Met a cool reception from most politicians and opposition from many newspapers, especially on the French right Paneuropean ideas taken up by non-Communist resistance movements during WWII Kalergi influences Churchill's 'United States of Europe' speech of 1946

Post-WWII:

Post-WWII Favourable climate due to war But this time, improved communications and a more cosmopolitan temper converted the dream into a reality Christian Democratic parties in Europe with their Catholic links, romanticise the Papal past and favour union, as do many socialists Humanitarian, pacifist and religious themes blend with economic rationality of free traders

Council of Europe:

Council of Europe Not EC 10 original members, 1949 Developed European Convention on Human Rights (1950) Elements: The Secretariat The Committee of Ministers The Parliamentary Assembly The European Court of Human Rights The Commissioner for Human Rights European Commission for Democracy through Law, better known as the Venice Commission.

Council of Europe's Cultural 'Nationalism':

Council of Europe's Cultural 'Nationalism' Developed European flag with 12 golden stars (1955) Established 5 May 1949 as Europe Day (1964) Anthem based on Beethoven's Ode to Joy (1972) Has 46 members today: distinct from EU, but complementary

European Community:

European Community Council of Europe, 1949, a forerunner European Coal & Steel Community, 1952 European Economic Community, 1957 Euratom Further aspects added after 1957 Expansion from original 'Six' to present 25

The Evolution of the European Community:

The Evolution of the European Community

EU Structure:

EU Structure

The Role of Idealists in the EU Legislative Process:

The Role of Idealists in the EU Legislative Process

EU structure:

EU structure Degree of centralisation varies by function: A Federation (i.e. 'State') in monetary affairs, agricultural, trade and environmental policy. Also in legal-social aspects and citizenship A Confederation in social and economic policy, consumer protection, internal affairs An International Organisation in foreign affairs

Qualified Majority Voting (QMV):

Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) Since Nice Treaty (2000), an increasing number of decisions taken by QMV rather than unanimity QMV threshold set to fall from 71% to 62% Means that nations no longer have a veto on integration. A step favouring integration rather than nationalism (intergovernmentalism) Council of Ministers

Shift from Unanimity to QMV:

Shift from Unanimity to QMV 27 new provisions are passing in whole or in part from unanimity to a qualified majority, including: judicial cooperation in civil matters industrial policy measures to facilitate the free movement of citizens economic, financial and technical cooperation with third countries the appointment of members of certain institutions the move to qualified majority voting was not accepted for social and tax policy.

EU Citizenship vs National:

EU Citizenship vs National Freedom to move and take up residence anywhere in the Union; The right to vote and stand in local government and European Parliament elections in the country of residence Clearly gives foreigners important rights within nation-states

Balance between Nation and EU:

Balance between Nation and EU Always a balance between nation-state interests and pan-European interest Battle goes on between and within institutions Balance between Euro-idealism and proponents of national interest ('intergovernmentalism') Sometimes interests of small nations dovetail with that of integrationists (they have more clout to gain from being part of Europe )

European Court of Justice:

European Court of Justice A more direct proponent of integration than even the Commission One judge per state, but decisions based on simple majority Judges and the 8 appointed advocates-general may often be Euro-idealists or activist in their philosophy Van Gend en Loos case (1963) gives individuals rights under EU law against their nation-states Costa v. ENEL case (1964): where national and EU law conflict, latter is supreme

ECJ Positive and Negative Integration:

ECJ Positive and Negative Integration Promotes 'negative integration': barriers to intra-EU activity declared invalid Promotes 'positive integration': EC legal regimes constructed to replace national ones Negative Integration: 1974 case declared rules which hinder intra-EC trade illegal; 1979 Cassis de Dijon

ECJ Positive Integration:

ECJ Positive Integration Examples: Gender Equality: Art. 119 of EEC Treaty: 'equal pay for equal work' EU as 'Social Community', despite opposition from UK Opens up a flood of litigation from women

EU Expansion:

EU Expansion

Impact of Expansion:

Impact of Expansion Expansion to 25 will dilute integration Harder for a common foreign policy and common action More poor countries will put strain on EU budget - unlikely that wealthy countries will contribute more (EU budget around 1.5% of EU GDP) Turkey and E Europe: Unclear where limits lie: will this not dilute identity of EU (ie. No longer between Tsar and Sultan) Possible 'Two-Speed' Europe

Problems with European Cultural or Civilizational Identity:

Problems with European Cultural or Civilizational Identity Exclusive or Partial Items: Christianity (Catholic, Prot, Orthodox, non-Christian) Greco-Roman Inheritance (Islam?) Reformation/Enlightenment (Islam, Catholicism?) Caucasian ‘race’ (US, non-white Europeans?) Geography (but what about EU expansion) ‘Others’ (but if Turks and Russians come in, where are the traditional enemies?)

Pro-European Nations:

Pro-European Nations Certain states embrace integrationist sentiments more than others France, Germany and other original members (especially the 'Six') are most pro-Europe among western European countries Much has to do with national identities of these states as opposed to mere national interest Europe also a route to prominence on the world stage for certain nations Less well-off nations tend to be pro-Europe for economic reasons (S & E Europe + Ireland)

France: Gaullist pro-Europeanism:

France: Gaullist pro-Europeanism Seeks to reclaim French cultural predominance of 18 th -19 th c Seeks to challenge Anglo-Saxon hegemony of 19 th -20 th c Sees Anglo-Saxon west as ‘other’ De Gaulle positions France at the heart of a Europe that includes Russia and is flanked by Anglo-Saxon West and Chinese East 1963 crisis over UK entry into EEC which De Gaulle seeks to block UK entry

German pro-European Idealism:

German pro-European Idealism Nazi period discredits nationalism Cosmopolitan as opposed to Gaullist spirit Desire for influence and self-respect without nationalism Less anti-Anglo-Saxon due to post-WWII (witness different attitudes toward English as language) More truly cosmopolitan than French pro-Europeanism

Smaller Nations: Benelux:

Smaller Nations: Benelux History of neutrality and fear of larger nations History of pooling sovereignty in alliances Only chance of agency is through a larger unit Identity is less significant in absence of larger blocks Belgium and Luxembourg lack clear linguistic or religious markers of nationhood unlike say Germany or France

Do you feel national, European or Both (2004)?:

Do you feel national, European or Both (2004)?

Views of Unification (1995):

Views of Unification (1995)

Euroskepticism – On the Rise?:

Euroskepticism – On the Rise? Smith: elites identify more easily because Europeanism may be a proxy of class/education Smith: without European education and media, little resonance among masses – esp less mobile Evidence shows that Euro-skepticism and anti-immigration sentiment strongly linked and tied to less well-educated population segments Rise in support for European integration peaks, 1988

Conclusion:

Conclusion Idea of Europe is at least 1000 years old Many aspects of the European Union challenge national sovereignty But the EU also reinforces national identity Particular nations tend to favour European unity due to their own historical experience and economic interests Trend towards integration appears to have stalled due to expansion and the rise of Euro-skepticism in western Europe

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