Different states of matter

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“ States Of Matter ” Prepared By : Deepti Jain

Matter: 

Matter Matter is a general term for the substance of which all physical objects consist. Typically, matter includes atoms and other particles which have mass. A common way of defining matter is as anything that has mass and occupies volume. In practice however there is no single correct scientific meaning of "matter," as different fields use the term in different and sometimes incompatible ways. Matter is commonly said to exist in four states : solid, liquid, gas and plasma. However, advances in experimental techniques have realized other phases, previously only theoretical constructs, such as Bose–Einstein condensates and fermionic condensates.

States Of Matter: 

States Of Matter States of matter are the distinct forms that different phases of matter take on. Solid, liquid and gas are the most common states of matter on Earth. However, much of the baryonic matter of universe is in the form of hot plasma, both as rarefied interstellar medium and as dense stars States of matter are also distinguished by pressure and temperature conditions, transitioning to other phases as these conditions change to favor their existence; for example, solid transitions to liquid with an increase in temperature. Each state of matter is also known as a phase.

Different States of Matter : 

Different States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Bose- Einstein condensates

Solid: 

Solid Solid is one of the major states of matter. It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume. Unlike a liquid, a solid object does not flow to take on the shape of its container, nor does it expand to fill the entire volume available to it like a gas does. Solids can be made up of many things. They can have pure elements or a variety of compounds inside. When you get more than one type of compound in a solid it is called a mixture. Mos rocks are mixtures of many different compounds. Concrete is a good example of a manmade mixture.

Liquid: 

Liquid Liquid is one of the three classical states of matter. Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Some liquids resist compression, while others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly constant density. A distinctive property of the liquid state is surface tension, leading to wetting phenomena. Liquid is one of the three primary states of matter, with the others being solid and gas. A liquid is a fluid. Unlike a solid, the molecules in a liquid have a much greater freedom to move.

Gas: 

Gas Gas phase particles move around freely in the absence of an applied electric field. Gas is one of the three classical states of matter. Near absolute zero, a substance exists as a solid. As heat is added to this substance it melts into a liquid at its melting point, boils into a gas at its boiling point, and if heated high enough would enter a plasma state in which the electrons are so energized that they leave their parent atoms from within the gas. A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms molecules made from one type of atom , or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms.

Plasma : 

Plasma Plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. The basic premise is that heating a gas dissociates its molecular bonds, rendering it into its constituent atoms. Further heating leads to ionization , turning it into a plasma: containing charged particles, positive ions and negative electrons. The presence of a non-negligible number of charge carriers makes the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields. Plasma, therefore, has properties quite unlike those of solids, liquids, or gases and is considered a distinct state of matter

Bose- Einstein condensates: 

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of weakly interacting bosons confined in an external potential and cooled to temperatures very near absolute zero (0 K or −273.15 °C). Under such conditions, a large fraction of the bosons occupy the lowest quantum state of the external potential, at which point quantum effects become apparent on a macroscopic scale This state of matter was first predicted by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein in 1924–25. The slowing of atoms by the use of cooling apparatus produces a singular quantum state known as a Bose condensate or Bose–Einstein condensate Bose- Einstein condensates

Properties of Solid: 

Properties of Solid Retains a fixed volume and shape. Rigid - particles locked into place. Not easily compressible. Little free space between particles. Does not flow easily . Rigid - particles cannot move/slide past one another.

Properties of Liquid: 

Properties of Liquid Assumes the shape of the part of the container which it occupies. Particles can move/slide past one another . Not easily compressible . Little free space between particles. Flows easily . Particles can move/slide past one another .

Properties of Gas: 

Properties of Gas Assumes the shape and volume of its container. Particles can move past one another . Compressible. Lots of free space between particles . Flows easily . Particles can move past one another .

Introversion of three states of matter : 

Introversion of three states of matter