Vegetable seed production

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Vegetable seed Production in India

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VEGETABLE SEED PRODUCTION Submitted to: Dr. Narendra Morr Submitted by: DipendraShahi (2008A72BIV )

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Yields of vegetables are variable due to technologies used. Seeds smaller in size, reflects on cost VEGETABLE Vs CROP SEED PRODUCTION Need special climate Some are biennial Seed storage is easier and more feasible

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ClLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING VEGETABLE SEED PRODUCTION 1.INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE Most important environmental factors for induction of flowering Important with regard to adaption of the crop Monoecious cucurbits (Cucumber, pumpkin, bitter gourd, ridge gourd, watermelon etc.) Yield increases under moderate temperature of 20-25 0 C with short day condition Tomato Daily mean temperature of 22-26 0 C is critical Early study indicates night temperature is critical optimum range being 15-210 0 C

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Brinjal Long and warm growing season with temp.range of 17-25 0 C Chilli Tropical crop ,however, moderate tmp.of 15-20 0 C required Night temp. above 24 0 C and day temp.above 30C 0 C causes flower drop Potato Long day length with cool temp. of 10-12 0 C

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Biennial and temperate annual crops (Cabbage, knolkhol, Cauliflower, Beet,Turnip, European Radish, Carrot etc.) Vernalization required Low temp. requirements vary with crop and cultivars Lettuce Temp. above 22 o C French bean Short day temp and moderate temp of 18-20o C

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INFLUENCE OF PHOTOPERIOD IN FLOWERING Classified into three groups

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Effect of rainfall Apporpiate balance between sufficient rainfall for crop growth and satisfactory pollination and seed ripening Sufficient soil moisture during flowering Bright sunshine and low atmospheric humidity at seed maturity Effect of Wind Excessive wind increases water loss from crop Prevents maximum activity of pollinating insects Dislodges the pollens from stigma head Increases loss of seed by shattering during seed ripening

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Pollination and fruit set in vegetable crops Transfer of pollen from the stamen to the pistil of same or different flower. Classification of vegetables according to manner of pollination Tomato flower

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. Radish flower Pumpkin flower Asparagus flower

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MANAGEMENT OF BEES FOR EFFECTIVE POLLINATION AND SEED PRODUCTION Bee keeping to be taken together concurrently with seed production of cross-pollinated vegetable crops by insect –borne pollens At least 2 colonies per acre Eg, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Muskmelon, Pumpkin Radish, Onion, Carrot, etc. Selective use of pesticides (avoid systemic Insecticide) Spray insecticide during dusk and after dark (no bees present in field)

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PRINCIPLES OF SEED PRODUCTION Genetic principles : Factors for Genetic deterioration Genetic shift Natural crossing Mechanical mixture Spontaneous mutation Use of seed of anappropiate class and from approved source Minimize the risk of plant material or dormant seed from previous crop Control of seed source Crop rotation

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Minimize the possibility of cross-pollination between different Cross compatible plants Isolation by time Possible within individual farms within individual farms of multiplication stations Cross compatible varieties are grown in successive years or seasons Isolation by distance Depends upon nature of pollination Also depends upon category of seed to be produced . Isolation

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Removing of off type plants Avoid genetic contamination and done on the basis of DUS characters i)Vegetative stage Ii)Flowering stage Iii)Maturity stage For testing of genetic purity Makes sure crops are maintained in true form Rogueing of seed crop Three stages for rogueing Grow-out test

AGRONOMIC PRINCIPLES::

AGRONOMIC PRINCIPLES: Climatic factors like rainfall, humidity, temp, wind Adapted to climatic condition of production area Genetically pure and high yield Desirable attributes eg. consumer’s preference, disease resistance Known purity, apporpiate class andobtained from authorized official agency Selection of suitable areas Selection of variety Source of seed

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Prevent from seed borne diseases and insects Application of fungicide, insecticide or combination of both Hydrating the seeds which starts germination internally Improve percentage germination and reduce germination time Timely seed sowing,optimum population,optimum irrigation Nutrient requirement should be fulfilled Seed treatment Seed priming Better agronomic practices

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Use of approved and proved products Use of honey bees Hand pollination in cucrbits Legally sanctioned system for quality control Ensures quality production of seeds Disease and insect control Supplementry pollination Seed Certification

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TOMATO( Lycopersicon esculentum ) No requirements as to previous crop but free of volunteer plants Optimum day temperature 21-24 oc PH 6-7 Hills :March-April Northern plains :June-August, Nov-Dec Southern states :Sept-Dec Haryana : Jan - Feb (spring summer) Land requirement Soil and climate Time of sowing

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500gms/ha Raised nursery(2.5 cm length,1.25cm wide) Drenched with Captan@3-4 kg/m2 7.5 -10 cm in height seed Requirement Nursery Transplanting

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25 tonnes of well rotten FYM 550 kg superphosphate 175 kg potassium sulphate and ammonium sulphate Autumn ,Winter crop :75 x 60 cm Spring,Summer crop :75x 40 cm Fortnightly during winter and weekly in summer Irrigation Spacing Fertilisation

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Insects Control measures Leaf eating caterpillar Fruit borer Jassids Spray 1250 gm of sevin /ha from 20 days after planting Mealy bugs Spray 625 ml of parathion in 625-750 litres of water/ha Insect and disease control Diseases Control measures Damping off Drench seed bed with captan at 150 gm in 100 litres of water to cover a 200 square meter area Early blight Fruit rot Spray dithane M-45 at one kg in 300 litres of water Virus Rogue the affected plants as soon as they appear and spray periodically with folidol or malathion

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Onion ( Alium cepa ) Land requirement Field in which onion crop was not taken previous year Method of seed production Seed to seed method First season bulb crop is left to over-winter in the field so as to produce seed in following season Bulb to seed method Bulbs produced in previous season are lifted, selected,stored and replanted in the second year Prefered method because Permits selection of true to type and healthy bulbs for seed production High seed yield

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Time of sowing(nursery) Mid Oct-mid Nov in plains April-June in hills Seed Requirement : 8-10 kg/ha Transplanting: 8 to 10 wks old seedlings Fertilisation 20 tonnes of well rotten FYM 250 kg superphosphate 250-375 kg potassium sulphate and ammonium sulphate Spacing 10 to 15 cm Irrigation Fortnightly during winter and weekly in summer

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Insects Control measures Onion thrips Dust with 5% BHC dust at 25 to 30 kg per hactre Onion maggot Spray sevimol 50 WP at 600-700ml per hactre Insect and disease control Diseases Control measures Damping off Use treated seed Drench nursery with 0.3% captan or thiram Purple blotch s Spray copper fungicide like blitox 50 at 0.2 %

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Harvesting and cutting of bulbs Maturity indicated by tops drooping just above the bulb while the leaves are still green Storage Shallow trays with perforated bottoms Temp. 0-4.5o C until 3-4 weeks prior to planting then to 10 oC Planting of bulbs and seed production (second year) Time:Second fortnight of October Spacing 45x30 cm Seed yield 850-1000 kg/ha

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SEED PLOT TECHNIQUE FOR PRODUCTION OF SEED POTATO Land requirement Preference to 2-3 yrs crop rotation Land should be free from wart and cyst nematodes Isolation requirements 5 meters for foundation and certified seed class Time of sowing 20 Sept-15Oct Seed rate : 25-30 qtl/ha

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Fertilisation 100-125 kg N 80-100kg P 100kg K Method of sowing Each piece has 2-3 emerging eyes and weigh at least 40 gm3-4 cm deep Row to row spacing 60 cm and tuber to tuber spacing 15-20 c Irrigation Light and frequent irrigations Haulm cutting Avoid chances of viral diseases transmission through vectors like aphids End of Oct –first wk of Janaury before aphid population reaches critical stage(20 aphids per hundred compd leaves)

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Insects Control measures Aphids Jassids Apply 15 kg per hactare thimet 10 G at the time of first earthing -up or metasystox at 625ml per hactare After 60 days of sowing, spray 300ml of dimecron or 625 ml of metasystox Potato cut worm Apply 6.25 litres aldrin per hactare in 2500 ltrs of water before sowing Insect and disease control Diseases Control measures Early and late blight Spray the crop with dithane M-45 at 2.25g per hactare in 625 litres of water Black scurf Deep potato in agallol solution, at the rate of 100gm in 100 litres of water for 3 minutes

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Rogueing 1. First rogueing 25 days after sowing to remove A) all virus affected plants B) all plants apparently belonging to other varieties 2.Second rogueing 50-60 days after sowing Upper portion as well as tubers removed 3.Third rogueing Before cutting the foliage Foliage should not be cut unless the rogueing is completed

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Time of harvesting 10-15 days after haulm cutting after the skin of tuber hardened Moisture in the soil should be optimum Curing After harvesting the tubers should be lifted and carried to airy shed and kept in piles for 7-10 days for hardening of skin

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CARROT ( Daucus carota ) Climate Optimum temp for root formation 18-22o C Seed germination 7.2-23.9oC Tropical oriental cultivars True annuals Seed produced in plains after winter at the advent of spring Temperate European varieties Biennial crop requires 6-8 wks of vernalization Can only be produced in hills of HP and Kashmir Time of sowing Asiatic types :September to first week of October European types:Second fortnight of August -1 st wk of Sept.

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Spacing Root production Tropical type :45x20 cm Temperate type :30x20 cm Replanting for seed production Tropical asiatic type :60 cm x 30 cm Oriental temperate type :75cmx15 cm,30x30 cm Fertilisation 25 tonnes of well rotten FYM 150kg N 60 kg p2O5 100kg K2O Irrigation 8-10 days interval as required

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Method of seed production Root to seed method When roots are fully matured ,the crop is harvested True-to-type roots are selected and after giving proper root and shoot cuts they are transplanted, Seed to seed method annual crop sown in sept-oct in plains and biennial during Aug to sept in hills Crop is allowed to grow and produce seeds at their original position. Rigorous rogueing to be practiiced

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