DRUG AND ITS PROPERTIES: By Mr.dineshsuvitha . (Ms pharmacology,) london university DRUG AND ITS PROPERTIES PCTX 201 Introduction to Pharmacology: PCTX 201 Introduction to Pharmacology ORIENTATION TO PHARMACOLOGY : ORIENTATION TO PHARMACOLOGY Objectives: Definition of the four basic terms ( drug , pharmacology , clinical pharmacology, and therapeutics ) for the study of pharmacology. Properties of an ideal drug. Therapeutic objective of drug therapy. Factors that determine how an individual will respond to a specific drug and dosage PowerPoint Presentation: Four Basic Terms: 1. Drug : any chemical that can affect living processes 2. Pharmacology : the study of drugs and their interactions with living systems Physical and chemical properties Biochemical and physiological effects Knowledge of the history, source, and use of drugs Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion 3. Clinical Pharmacology : study of drugs in humans (patient and volunteers) 4. Therapeutics : use of drugs to diagnose, prevent and treat illness (and/or pregnancy)= medical use of drugs Definitions: Definitions Define Living Respiration- energy formation Metabolism- anabolism and catabolism Reproduction- DNA replication and cell division Cell types Eukaryotic cells: A unicellular organism having a true nucleus and nuclear membrane Contain ribosomes (80S), nucleus, mitochondria, ER, Golgi-bodies Prokaryotic cells: A unicellular organism lacking a true nucleus and nuclear membrane, have a single loop of double stranded DNA Contain ribosomes (70S), NO mitochondria, nucleus, ER, Golgi- bodies Viruses Contain NA (DNA or RNA not both), capsid, and no other organelles Definition of Disease: Definition of Disease Disease occurs when: Enough cells become dysfunctional Enough cells die and organ loses function Diseases can be due to: Autoimmune Prokaryotic: bacteria (cause disease 1 o by toxin release, not by direct invasion into cells and killing of cells) Viruses: cause disease 1 o by lysis of infected cells Chemicals- environment, pollution Drugs- medicinal or otherwise Properties of Ideal Drug: Properties of Ideal Drug Effectiveness: A drug that elicits the response it was meant to. It is the most important property. No effect=no justification of use (FDA approved with appropriate experiments). Safety: Pharmakon = poison in Greek Safe even at high concentrations and for long periods of administration ( no such thing as a safe drug ) Reduced by proper administration (iv, ip, im, sc, etc…) No habit forming aspects No side effects ( excessive dosage of opioid analgesics carries a risk of respiratory failure, cancer drugs increase infections,aspirin causes gastric ulcer etc…) Properties of Ideal Drug: Properties of Ideal Drug Selectivity: One that elicits only the response for which it is given Selective for specific reaction with no side effects ( there is no such thing ) Drowsiness can be caused by antihistamines Morning sickness, cramps, and depression can be caused by oral contraceptives Constipation, urinary hesitance, and respiratory depression can be caused by morphine Additional Properties of Ideal Drug (no drug is ideal!): Additional Properties of Ideal Drug ( no drug is ideal! ) 1. Reversible action Effects be reversible, i.e., removal/subside w/i specific time (1/2 life is short but potent during that time) Example: General Anesthetic; Contraceptives 2. Predictability Know how patient will respond 3. Ease of Administration Number of doses should be low and easy to administer 1. increase compliance & 2. decrease errors Diabetic patient: Multiple daily injection of insulin Intravenous infusion Additional Properties of Ideal Drug (Continued): Additional Properties of Ideal Drug (Continued) 4. Freedom from drug interactions Should not augment or decrease action of other drugs or have adverse combined effects Respiratory depression caused by diazepam (valium), which is normally minimal, can greatly be intensified by alcohol . Antibacterial effects of Tetracycline can be greatly reduced by taking iron or calcium supplements 5. Low Cost Easy to afford (especially with chronic illness) Growth hormone ( somatrem ) costs between $10,000 and $20,000 Lifelong medication: hypertension, arthritis, diabetes Additional Properties of Ideal Drug (Continued): Additional Properties of Ideal Drug (Continued) 6. Chemical Stability No lose of effectiveness with storage 7. Possession of a simple generic name Easy to remember and pronounce Example: Viagra (sildenafil); Tylenol (acetaminophen) Because No Drug is Ideal……..: Because No Drug is Ideal…….. Because no drug is ideal……. No medications are not ideal No drug is safe All drugs produce side effects Drug responses may be difficult to predict Drugs may be expensive Drugs may be hard to administer All members of health care team must exercise care to promote therapeutic effects and minimize drug induced harm Therapeutic Objective: Therapeutic Objective To provide maximum benefit with minimum harm Factors that determine Intensity of Response Administration- dosage size and route Pharmacokinetic processes Pharmacodynamics Individual Variations Therapeutic Objective: Therapeutic Objective 1. Administration- dosage size and route - Because of errors in administration routes and dosage and at wrong time there are many discrepancies in what patient gets and could cause more harm than good - Errors could be made by pharmacists, physicians, or nurses - Should give patients complete instruction about their medication and how to take it 2. Pharmacokinetic processes - Determines how much of an administered dose gets to its sites of action 1) drug absorption 2) drug distribution 3) drug metabolism 4) drug excretion Therapeutic Objective (continued): Therapeutic Objective (continued) 3. Pharmacodynamics Once a drug has reached is site of action, pharmacodynamic processes determine the type of response and intensity -Drug must first bind to its specific target site at ( RECEPTOR ) that may be a chemical, a protein on a cell or in blood or tissue spaces, or on a bacteria or virus (i.e., heparin, antibody, leukotriene receptor (new), penicillin, etc…) -Followed by a sequence of events that result in response (inhibition of clotting, inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis, inhibition of inflammation, blocking of virus, etc…). - Functional state of the patient is also important- Tolerance to morphine will cause less of a response & placebo effects may help determine response Therapeutic Objective (continued): Therapeutic Objective (continued) 4. Sources of individual variation Each patient is unique in ability to respond and to how they each respond, but formation of “IDEAL DRUG” will lessen this variation Age- very important factor Sex- due to hormonal differences Weight- less effective and longer lasting in obese individuals (storage in fat) Kidney & liver functions - elimination of drug Genetic variables- tolerance, allergy (though not always genetic) PowerPoint Presentation: Factors that determine the intensity of drug response Summary: Summary To promote desired effects and minimize adverse effects, we need to understand Pharmakokinetics Pharmacodynamics In addition Key Points: Key Points The most important properties of an ideal drug are: effectiveness, safety, and selectivity. If the drug is not effective, it should not be used. There is no such drug as safe drug: all drugs can cause harm. There is no such thing as selective drug: all drugs can cause side effects. The objective of drug therapy is to provide maximum benefit within minimum harm. Because all patients are unique, drug therapy must be tailored to each individual.