Water-borne Diseases

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Presentation Transcript

Water-borne Diseases :

Water-borne Diseases

Diseases Related to Water:

Diseases Related to Water Water-borne Diseases Water-washed Diseases Water-based Diseases Water-related Diseases

Water-borne Diseases :

Water-borne Diseases Diseases caused by ingestion of water contaminated by human or animal excrement, which contain pathogenic microorganisms

Slide 4:

Include cholera, typhoid, amoebic and bacillary dysentery and other diarrheal diseases

Diarrheal Diseases:

Diarrheal Diseases Giardiasis (Protozoan) Cryptosporidiosis (Bacteria) Campylobacteriosis (Bacteria) Shigellosis (Bacteria) Viral Gastroenteritis (Virus) Cyclosporiasis (Parasite)

Slide 6:

In addition, water-borne disease can be caused by the pollution of water with chemicals that have an adverse effect on health

Slide 7:

Arsenic Flouride Nitrates from fertilizers Carcinogenic pesticides (DDT) Lead (from pipes) Heavy Metals

Water-washed Diseases:

Water-washed Diseases Diseases caused by poor personal hygiene and skin and eye contact with contaminated water

Slide 9:

These include scabies, trachoma, typhus, and other flea, lice and tick-borne diseases.

Water-based Diseases:

Water-based Diseases Diseases caused by parasites found in intermediate organisms living in contaminated water

Slide 11:

Includes Schistosomiasis and Dracunculiasis

Water-related Diseases:

Water-related Diseases Water-related diseases are caused by insect vectors, especially mosquitoes, that breed or feed near contaminated water.

Slide 13:

They are not typically associated with lack of access to clean drinking water or sanitation services Include dengue, filariasis, malaria, onchocerciasis, trypanosomiasis and yellow fever

Other Water-borne diseases:

Other Water-borne diseases Bathing Swimming Other recreational activities that have water contact Agriculture Aquaculture

The Problem:

The Problem ~80% of infectious diseases > 5 million people die each year > 2 million die from water-related diarrhea alone Most of those dying are small children

Other Consequences:

Other Consequences Lost work days Missed educational opportunities Official and unofficial healthcare costs Draining of family resources

Water Quality & Child Survival:

Water Quality & Child Survival

Control & Prevention:

Control & Prevention

Global:

Global Governments Communities Individuals

Education Issues:

Education Issues Hygiene education Good nutrition Improvements in habitation and general sanitation Higher education training in water-related issues

Global Surveillance:

Global Surveillance Public health infrastucture Standardized surveillance of water-borne disease outbreaks Guidelines must be established for investigating and reporting water-borne diseases

Communication and the Media:

Communication and the Media Impacts at all levels Very powerful, when others fail

General Guidelines:

General Guidelines Avoid contacting soil that may be contaminated with human feces. Do not defecate outdoors. Dispose of diapers properly.

Slide 26:

Wash hands with soap and water before handling food. When traveling to countries where sanitation and hygiene are poor, avoid water or food that may be contaminated. Wash, peel or cook all raw vegetables and fruits before eating.

A Simple Rule of Thumb:

A Simple Rule of Thumb "Boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it"

The Future:

The Future Even if by the year 2015 the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water is halved, between 34 and 76 million people, mostly children, will die from preventable water-borne diseases

More Challenges:

More Challenges Developed countries and chlorine-resistant microbes Climate Changes Economic barriers for developing countries to sanitize large amounts of water

The Answer:

The Answer Unmet human needs for water Education Commitment to the elimination of specific diseases Research

Climate Change:

Climate Change Water scarcity compromises hygiene Reduced water pressure increases risk of back siphoning of contaminated water Floods causing breaching of barriers between sewage and water systems

Slide 33:

Warming/cooling changes distribution of pathogens and vectors Increased UV exposure resulting in increased susceptability to disease Increased mutation rates with unpredictable effects on ecosystems (pathogen development)

- DHRUVA :

- DHRUVA THE END

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