INM of pulses and oilseeds

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inm of pulses&oilseeds

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INM OF OILSEED &PULSES

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Integrated nutrient management is an age old practice but its importance was not very much realized in pre-green revolution era due to low nutrient demands of the contemporary subsistence agriculture. This approach of nutrient management aims at judicious use of all the major sources of plant nutrients in an integrated manner, so as to get maximum economic yield without any deleterious effect on physico-chemical and biological properties of the soil. Thus the basic concept underlying the principles of integrated nutrient management is the maintenance and possible improvement in soil fertility for sustained crop productivity on long term basis

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Conjunctive use of mineral fertilizer with organic and biological sources of plant nutrients commonly referred as integrated nutrient supply system , is an established agro-technique for sustaining yield levels, enhancing nutrient use efficiency and restoring soil physical, chemical and biological health.

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The fertilizer consumption ratio throughout the country in all the production systems is highly imbalanced with higher even undesirably excess dose of N at the cost of other major nutrients particularly K. Soil test based fertilizer application is the only way of balanced nutrition . In fact, scientific basis of fertilizer application should be on soil test value. Application of micronutrients without soil test may become toxic because its direct effect is much less than macronutrient . Also fertilizer application without soil test increases the cost of cultivation . Soil test based balanced fertilizer application has resulted in 18-26% increase in crop yield.

Balanced fertilization of NPK proved beneficial in all the oilseed crops both under rainfed and irrigated conditions. K-deficient soil, is more effective when combined with N and K. As a general guideline, N and P2 O5 are recommended in the 2:1 ratio except in legume oilseeds. Under Ca-deficient conditions, application of Ca improves the uptake of B and K in groundnut besides Ca.:

Balanced fertilization of NPK proved beneficial in all the oilseed crops both under rainfed and irrigated conditions. K-deficient soil, is more effective when combined with N and K . As a general guideline, N and P2 O5 are recommended in the 2:1 ratio except in legume oilseeds . Under Ca-deficient conditions, application of Ca improves the uptake of B and K in groundnut besides Ca.

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Doses of a particular nutrient in balanced proportion is also equally important considering cost of mineral fertilizer and the antagonistic or synergistic effect of different nutrients. Several studies have shown the interaction effects of NxP, NxS, KxS, CaxS, and SxZn are synergistic whereas PxS (high level), SxMo and KxMg are antagonistic in influencing yield, nutrient uptake of different oilseed crops.

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Application of more than required N and P often has deleterious effect of NxP interaction on seed yield of sunflower. The decrease in seed yield with higher N and P can be due to large proportion of unfilled seeds in the flower heads. Excessive N prolongs growth period and delays maturity. At lower levels of N, Indian mustard responded to S significantly up to 10 Kg/ha, however, with the increased supply of N from 60 to 90 kg N/ha, the S need of the crop was significantly raised to 30 kg S/ha. An application of 40 kg P2 O5 and 45 kg S as basal gave maximum pod yield, oil yield and protein content of groundnut kernel.

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Various organic sources like FYM, poultry manure, green manure, crop residues and compost can supply adequate amounts of nutrient, including micronutrients to crops. In groundnut application of FYM @ 7.5 t/ha increases the pod yield by 60% over 25:50:25 NPK kg/ha. Application of 5 t/ha poultry manure to groundnut of P-deficient soils increases the pod yield compared to FYM alone. Crop wastes and residues are renewable and readily available resources. Recycling of crop residues is a viable strategy to meet at least a part of the nutrient requirement of oilseed crops.

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Mineral fertilizer: If a cereal or non legume crop succeeds Kharif groundnut, 20-25 kg N/ha can be reduced; and P application is not required if groundnut has already been supplied with P. Leguminous crops in general can more effectively utilize less soluble Ca-phosphate. Groundnut being legume crop has relatively higher nutrient absorption efficiency from soil P.

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Organic manures : Cropping systems based nutrients management is one of the key approaches of integrated nutrient management. The low level of utilization of nutrients supplied through fertilizers and manures calls for choosing appropriate combination or system of crops to effectively utilize the nutrients for long-term sustainability. The use of organic manures along with fertilizers has great significance for maintenance of soil fertility, physical condition and biological activity ( Patel et al., 2009). Hence nutrient management involving technologic innovations brings out a definite improvement in utilization of nutrient with increased nutrient use efficiency and will certainly improve the productivity.

Genotypes :

Genotypes Plant genotypes differ in their ability to respond and utilize nutrients. In calcareous soils where lime-induced iron chlorosis is a major problem causing yield reduction in groundnut, genotypes like Dh 8, PKVG 8, GG 2 identified as iron efficient genotypes should be grown to prevent any further yield loss. Sulphur efficient genotypes showed more chlorophyll (both a and b) and carotene contents than the sulphur inefficient genotypes.

Source, Time and Methods of Application :

Source, Time and Methods of Application Application of right kind of plant nutrient at proper time with appropriate method is one of the strategies to reduce various losses of the nutrient that, in turn, increases the nutrient-use efficiency. Calcium nutrition is groundnut is beneficial for the development of well filled pods and kernels and improved shelling percentage . The SSP and gypsum are superior to ammonium sulphate for groundnut as source of S and Ca. However, in acid soils, gypsum may not be as effective as CaCO 3 because of the latter's effect in eliminating exchangeable. A1 besides providing Ca. Similarly, in some calcareous soils like in medium black soils, the presence of high amount of lime could become a problem. The best method of applying gypsum is to band place the material near the pegging zone at the early flowering stage.

Plant Nutrient Use and Oilseed Quality :

Plant Nutrient Use and Oilseed Quality The quality decides the market price. Phosphorus application has been found to increase crude protein, oil content and iodine number of oil in groundnut and sunflower mainly due to the role of certain P containing enzymes in fatty acid synthesis in seeds. Sulphur plays an important role in improving the quality and marketability of produce. On an average the improvement in oil content in major oilseeds due to S application is 11.3% in groundnut. 9.6% in mustard, 9.2% in soybean, 6.0% in linseed and 3.8% in sunflower.

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Pulses are gaining world wide importance as they are the cheap source of vegetable protein in human diet. Hence, there is a need to enhance the total pulse production to provide sufficient amount of protein to the increasing population. Several factors contribute towards low productivity of pulses. Pulses have been traditionally grown under rainfed condition in marginal lands and in soils of low fertility in contrast to cereal crops which have been grown in more fertile lands with assured water supply.

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Though pulses are energy rich crops, they are cultivated under energy starved conditions with application of low doses of organics and inorganic fertilizers resulting in inadequate growth rate.

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Integration of recommended dose of fertilizer along with enriched farmyard manure would result in better yield of blackgram under rainfed condition (Harisudan et al., 2008). Slow and steady release of nutrients from organics and inorganics would increase the availability of nutrients, which will result in translocation of more photosynthates from source to sink and finally improve the yield attributing character.

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Phosphorus was the second most crucial plant nutrient, but for pulses it assumes primary importance owing to its important role in root proliferation and thereby atmospheric nitrogen assimilation. Application of nitrogen and phosphorus singly or in combination could significantly increase the uptake of potassium, magnesium, calcium and sulphur , thereby the soybean yield could be increased

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. Drylands are usually low in organic matter status due to rapid decomposition and lesser addition of crop residues. In such lands addition of organic manures or waste become necessary for increasing water holding capacity a nd to improve the fertility status Application of farmyard manure along with inorganic fertilizers increased the blackgram yield by 8.6 per cent over control (Rani Perumal et al., 1991). Three years field experimentation by Pawar et al. (2009), reveal that application of FYM at 5t/ha resulted in significantly higher chickpea grain yield over no FYM application

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Application of inorganic fertilizers along with farmyard manure significantly enhanced the uptake and availability of micronutrients. Phosphorus removal was affected by the rates of inorganic N addition but not the K removal ( Singh and Rajat De, 1987) . Considerable improvement in available status of soil can be observed due to application of farmyard manure. Mani et al. (2001) in a study on integrated nutrient management concluded that integrated package involving the recommended inorganic fertilizer with 5t farm yard manure ha-1 would be the best nutrient management practice for obtaining higher net returns.

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The term enriched farmyard manure implies to the well decomposed farmyard manure pre incubated with the recommended dose of phosphate fertilizers under anaerobic condition. Application of enriched farmyard manure increased the P availability in the soil which ultimately leads to increased solubilization of insoluble P fraction during humification and reduced P fixation in the soil due to the protective action of manure (Harisudan and Latha, 2007). Influence of enriched farmyard manure integration with inorganic fertilizer on yield and yield attributes of pulses The combined application of inorganic fertilizers and enriched farmyard manure (750 kg ha-1) with Azospirillum recorded the highest yield in the sole crop of blackgram with 8.1 per cent yield increase

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Combined application of micronutrient and macronutrients significantly increased the dry matter product hat combined application of macronutrient, combined application of macronutrient,Fe and Mo has significantly increased the protein content and yield of horseg Thiyagarajan (2001) stated that application of soil test based NPK along with micronutrient mixture has registered higher yield and it was comparable with the application of soil test based NPK alone.

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Effect of micronutrients and macronutrients application on soil fertility status and nutrient uptake of pulses Krishanasamy et al. (1985) reported that ZnSO4 resulted in the highest uptake NPK in cowpea and soil application of 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 was found to be significantly superior in increasing their uptake. Wankhade et al. (1996) reported that combined application of micronutrients had a deleterious effect on uptake of macronutrients.

Necessitates efforts:

N ecessitates efforts i) strengthening of Government run soil testing laboratories with modern equipments and trained human resources. ii) building confidence among the farmers towards these soil testing services, which largely lacks at present, and iii) creating mass awareness on emerging plant nutrient deficiencies and long term benefits of soil fertility maintenance and balanced fertilizer use.

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