Community health

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Community health :

Community health Narmada Valley International School

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Community Health The people and resources that provide health care to members of the community, as well as the community services that people need to meet their physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational needs. Happy Living…… 

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1. Disease Obesity Diabetes Cancer 2. Genetical Diseases 3. Modern Diseases Swine – Flu HIV- AIDS 4. Bio-Medical Interventions 5.Stem cell

OBESITY:

O BESITY   Symptoms Breathing disorders (e.g., sleep apnea , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. High blood pressure. Feeling very tired every day. Short breathing. Causes 1. Insufficient sleep, 2. Endocrine disruptors (environmental pollutants that interfere with lipid metabolism), 3. Decreased variability in ambient temperature.         4. Decreased rates of smoking, because smoking suppresses appetite, 5. Increased use of medications that can cause weight gain (e.g., atypical antipsychotics)   Simply stated: Obesity means having too much body fat. It is being too overweight and it is unhealthy. Some define it as being 20 percent over the ideal body weight for their stature . Technically speaking in the medical community: Obesity is a condition where there is excess body weight due to an abnormal accumulation of fat. Defined objectively as a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or more, obesity is associated with markedly increased health risks.

Preventions:

Preventions

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Obesity in Teenager’s

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Diabetes Diabetes is a condition where the body does not produce enough insulin (a hormone made in the pancreas that controls the blood glucose levels) to break down the sugar (glucose) in your blood . Causes 1.Any illness or diseases that damages the pancreas & affects its ability to produce insulin. 2 .Genetic suspectibility. 3 .Genetic defects in insulin processing or action. Symptoms Increase thirst , Frequent need to urinate, Fatigue ,blurred vision, Pain or tingling in the hands, feet & legs.

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Preventions 1.Should keep weight under control. 2.Physical activities should be done daily. 3.Eating a healthy diet. 4.Try to quit smoking & be away from alcohol .  

Cancer :

Cancer Any malignant growth or tumour caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system. Symptoms 1. The presence of an unusual lump in the body. 2. A change in bowel habits, such as unusual diarrhoea or constipation. 3. Skin changes such as an unexplained rash or unusual texture. 4. Difficulty in swallowing or continuing indigestion. Preventions 1. Avoiding the risk factors such as tobacco, obesity, Physical inactivity, and alcohol & air pollution. 2. Maintain a healthy weight and be physically active. 3. Protect yourself from the sun, eat a healthy diet. Cures 1. Aspirin reduces the risk of death from cancer about 7%. 2. Use of Tamoxifene or Raloxifene reduce the risk of breast cancer. 3. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine decreases the risk of cervical cancer. 4. Hepatitis B virus decreases the risk of liver cancer. Radiation therapy improve the symptoms of cancer

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Genetic Diseases Human genetic disease,  any of the diseases and disorders that are caused by mutations in one or more genes. Phenylketonuria Phenylketonuria ( PKU ) is an autosomal recessive metabolic genetic disorder characterized by a mutation in the gene for the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, rendering it non-functional .This enzyme is necessary to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine to the amino acid tyrosine.

Alkaptonuria :

Alkaptonuria Alkaptonuria ( black urine disease or alcaptonuria ) is a rare inherited genetic disorder of phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism. This is an autosomal recessive condition that is due to a defect in the enzyme homogentisate which participates in the degradation of tyrosine

Albinism:

Albinism Albinism is a skin disease which is caused due to complete loss of melanin (skin pigmentation which gives colour to skin- located in skin layer) from skin and even iris of the eye. It can be hereditary. The skin becomes pale and even pinkish because of the blood beneath the skin. The iris can also lose colour.

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MODERN DISEASES

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SWINE-FLU Swine influenza, also called pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu, is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses . Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs . Causes Influenza viruses infect the cells lining your nose, throat and lungs. The virus enters your body when you inhale contaminated droplets or transfer live virus from a contaminated surface to your eyes, nose or mouth.

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PREVENTIONS

HIV-AIDS:

HIV-AIDS AIDS AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is a syndrome (also a collection of symptoms / illnesses) caused by the most advanced stages of HIV -Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ infection. Causes Copulation / Coitus. Blood transfusion. Hypodermic needles Preventions Uses of condoms & febidum (Male & Female) To check the blood before donating or receiving. Avoid the use of hypodermic needles.

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Bio-Medical Interventions ‘ Biomedical’ is a very loose term that means different things to different people. In practice, most people use the term to refer to a group of interventions which are designed to stop, or at least reduce, the effect of biomedical problems – such as gastrointestinal abnormalities, immune dysfunctions, detoxification abnormalities, and/or nutritional deficiencies or imbalances.

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Biomedical HIV prevention interventions Male circumcision (MC) – meta analysis 65% effective. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) RCTs on HAART reported 60% to 80% reductions in new infections . Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) best evidence – reduce from 35% to 1% Condoms (Male and Female) best evidence 90% safe Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) limited evidence – 40% effective Microbicides and cervical barriers – some results 30% effective/no evidence HIV vaccine – promising evidence in Thailand

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The AIDS epidemic has taught us to be innovative and to invent, test and implement new interventions. We now have evidence of HIV prevention strategies that work!

However, despite our innovation, inventiveness and compelling evidence of effective strategies, the “killer virus” is still chasing :

However , despite our innovation, inventiveness and compelling evidence of effective strategies, the “killer virus” is still chasing

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STEM CELL Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide (through mitosis) and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to produce more stem cells.

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Stem Cells In Use In 1968, doctors performed the first successful bone marrow contains somatic stem cells that can produce all of the different cell types that make up our blood. It is transplanted routinely to treat a variety of blood and bone marrow diseases, blood cancers, and immune disorders. More recently, stem cells from blood stream (called peripheral blood stem cells) and umbilical cord stem cells have been used to treat some of the same blood-based diseases.

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Health is like money, we never have a true idea of its value until we lose it.

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