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Premium member Presentation Transcript ETHICS AND DECISION MAKING : ETHICS AND DECISION MAKING Presented by- DHEERAJ BHARDWAJ MASMS, JAIPUR Slide 2: ETHICS deals with certain standards of human conduct and behavior. “ETHICS deals with right actions of individuals.” -PETER F.DRUCKER Classification of ETHICS : Classification of ETHICS Descriptive Ethics Easiest to understand. Involves how people behave and what sorts of moral standards they claim to follow. Analytic Ethics Difficult to understand. Involves the assumptions people make when engaging in normative ethics-existence of god, nature of reality, usefulness of ethical propositions etc. Slide 4: Normative Ethics Involves creating or evaluating moral standards in an attempt to figure out what people should do or whether their current moral behavior is reasonable. Slide 5: Normative Ethical System Deontological Ethical System Teleological Ethical System Virtue Ethics Deontic or action based (What should I do?) (What sort of person Should I be?) Slide 6: Deontology and ethics Characterized primarily by a focus upon adherence to independent moral rules or duties. Teleology and ethics Characterized primarily by a focus on the consequences which any action might have. Virtue ethics Characterized primarily by a focus on helping people develop good character traits. Ethical Decision Making : Ethical Decision Making When in a decision making process ethical judgement is applied to it, it is called Ethical Decision Making Factors influencing decision making are: The decision is likely to have significant effects on others. The decision is likely to be characterized by choice, in that alternative courses of action are open. The decision is perceived as ethically relevant by one or more parties. Stages in Ethical Decision Making : Stages in Ethical Decision Making Recognize Moral issue Make moral judgement Establish moral intent Engage in Moral behavior Influences on Ethical Decision Making : Influences on Ethical Decision Making Individual factors These are the unique factors of an individual actually making relevant decision, acquired either by birth or by experience and socialization. Situational factors Features that influence whether an individual will make an ethical or an unethical decision, include issue related factors and context related factors. Individual Factors : Individual Factors FACTORS Age and gender Nation and cultural characteristics Influence on ethical decision making Very mix evidence leading to unclear associations with ethical decision making. Appear to have a significant effect on ethical beliefs, as well as views of what is deemed an acceptable approach to certain business issues. Individual Factors : Individual Factors Education and employment PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS: Cognitive moral development Locus of control Somewhat unclear, although some clear differences in ethical decision making between those with different educational and professional experience seem to be present. Small but significant effect on ethical decision making. At most a limited effect on decision making, but can be important in predicting the apportioning of blame. Individual Factors : Individual Factors Personal values Personal integrity Moral imagination Significant influence- some empirical evidence citing positive relationship. Significant influence likely, but lack of inclusion in models and empirical tests. A new issue for inclusion with considerable explanatory potential. Slide 13: Situational Factors Issue Related Factors Context Related Factors Issue Related Factors : Issue Related Factors Moral Intensity Moral Farming Reasonably new factor but evidence such as significant effect on ethical decision making. Fairly limited evidence but existing studies show strong influence on some aspects of the ethical decision making process, most notably moral awareness. Context Related Factors : Context Related Factors Rewards Authority Strong evidence of relationship between rewards/punishments and ethical behavior, although other stages in ethical decision making have been less investigated. Good general support for a significant influence from immediate superior and top management on ethical decision making of subordinates. Context Related Factors : Context Related Factors Bureaucracy Work roles Significant influence on ethical decision making well documented but actually exposed to only limited empirical research. Hence, specific consequences for ethical decision making remain contested. Some influence likely but lack of empirical evidence to date. Context Related Factors : Context Related Factors Organizational culture National context Strong overall influence, although implications of relationship between culture and ethical decision making remain contested. Limited empirical investigation but some shifts in influence likely. Slide 18: Thank you You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.