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Researcher takes these data from magazines , newspaper government agencies , etc. Advantages of secondary data : Advantages of secondary data 1. secondary data collection cost is more cheaper rather than primary data. 2, secondary data are saving time and give cut in cost advantage. 3. secondary data can be more quickly obtained. 4. some secondary data sources is that they provide information that could not be obtained by the typical organization.. Disadvantage of secondary data : Disadvantage of secondary data 1. the data may be outdated. 2. most of the data are irrelevant 3. no surety of probability of finding data to suit the project 4. one of the main disadvantage of using secondary sources is that they not only frequently omit the explanation, but they may also make errors in copying data. Questionnaires : Questionnaires In this method a Questionnaire is sent to the persons concerned with a request to answer the question and return the questionnaire. A questionnaire consists of a number of question printed or typed in a definite order on a form or set of forms. The questionnaire is mailed to the respondent who is expected to fill the questionnaire on their own. Types of question. : Types of question. There are three type of questions Open question Multiple question Dichotomous Open question- ex- how many families occupy this home? it’s the example of open or free-answer questions. Respondents are free to answer in their own words and express any idea that they think pertinent. No alternatives are suggested. Slide 8: B) multiple question- questions of their type offer respondents a number of specific alternatives from which they are choose one or more, as the case may be. C) dichotomous questions the dichotomous question or two way question, is an extreme of the multiple- choice question. the idea is to offer only two choices yes or no, did or did not. Example- did you buy it or as it a gift? Question sequence : Question sequence A questionnaire has three major sections (1)Basic information (2) classification information and (3) identification information The sections are usually put in order shown. Question relating to the basic information from the body of the questionnaire. To help in analyzing this information, it is usually necessary to be able to classify respondents on such bases as age, sex, income, education, and nationality. Question on these points from the classification section. The identification section identifies all parties involved. This includes the name and address of the respondent and the names of such individuals as the interviewer, editor and tabulators. Slide 10: Opening questions must win respondent’s interest.- it is also important to make the first few questions particularly simple questions that everyone will be able to answer easily. This builds the confidence of respondents so they feel they can handle the project. Place qusetion apt to cause difficulty in the body of questionnaire- Consider influence of qusetions on succeeding questions Arrange question in logical order. Mail questionnaire a special problem. sampling : sampling The process of obtaining information from a subset (sample) of a larger group (population) The results for the sample are then used to make estimates of the larger group Faster and cheaper than asking the entire population Two keys 1. Selecting the right people Have to be selected scientifically so that they are representative of the population 2. Selecting the right number of the right people To minimize sampling errors I.e. choosing the wrong people by chance. Slide 12: SAMPLING Sample -- contacting a portion of the population (e.g., 10% or 25%) – best with a very large population (n) – easiest with a homogeneous population • Census -- the entire population – most useful is the population ("n") is small – or the cost of making an error is high Types of sampling : Types of sampling 1.Probability sampling - equal chance of being included in the sample (random) A) simple random sampling B) systematic sampling C) stratified sampling D) cluster sampling 2. Non-probability sampling - - unequal chance of being included in the sample (non-random) A) convenience sampling B) judgement sampling C) snowball sampling D)quota sampling Probability Sampling : Probability Sampling An objective procedure in which the probability of selection is nonzero and is known in advance for each population unit. It is also called random sampling. Ensures information is obtained from a representative sample of the population Sampling error can be computed Survey results can be projected to the population More expensive than non-probability samples. Simple Random Sampling (SRS) : Simple Random Sampling (SRS) • Population members are selected directly from the sampling frame • Equal probability of selection for every member (sample size/population size) • 400/10,000 = .04 • Use random number table or random number generator Systematic Sampling : Systematic Sampling • Order all units in the sampling frame based on some variable and number them from 1 to N • Choose a random starting place from 1 to N and then sample every k units after that Stratified Sampling : Stratified Sampling The chosen sample is forced to contain units from each of the segments, or strata, of the population – equalizing "important" variables • year in school, geographic area, product use, etc. • Steps: – Population is divided into mutually exclusive and exhaustive strata based on an appropriate population characteristic. (e.g. race, age, gender etc.) – Simple random samples are then drawn from each stratum. Cluster Sampling : Cluster Sampling • Clusters of population units are selected at random and then all or some randomly chosen units in the selected clusters are studied. • Steps: – Population is divided into mutually exclusive and exhaustive subgroups, or clusters. Ideally, each cluster adequately represents the population. – A simple random sample of a few clusters is selected. – All or some randomly chosen units in the selected clusters are studied. Non-Probability Sampling : Non-Probability Sampling ØSubjective procedure in which the probability of selection for some population units are zero or unknown before drawing the sample. information is obtained from a non-representative sample of the population ØSampling error can not be computed ØSurvey results cannot be projected to the population Types of Non-ProbabilitySampling (I) : Types of Non-ProbabilitySampling (I) • Convenience Sampling – A researcher's convenience forms the basis for selecting a sample. • people in my classes • Mall intercepts • People with some specific characteristic (e.g. bald) • Judgement Sampling – A researcher exerts some effort in selecting a sample that seems to be most appropriate for the study. Slide 21: Snowball Sampling – Selection of additional respondents is based on referrals from the initial respondents. • friends of friends – Used to sample from low incidence or rare populations. • Quota Sampling – The population is divided into cells on the basis of relevant control characteristics. – A quota of sample units is established for each cell. • 50 women, 50 men – A convenience sample is drawn for each cell until the quota is met. (similar to stratified sampling) Final states of survey – Editing – Coding – Tabulation : Final states of survey – Editing – Coding – Tabulation EDITING The process of checking and adjusting responses in the completed questionnaires for omissions, legibility, and consistency and readying them for coding and storage Types of Editing 1. Field Editing Preliminary editing by a field supervisor on the same day as the interview to catch technical omissions, check legibility of handwriting, and clarify responses that are logically or conceptually inconsistent. 2. In-house Editing Editing performed by a central office staff; often dome more rigorously than field editing Slide 23: Purpose of Editing For consistency between and among responses For completeness in responses– to reduce effects of item non-response To better utilize questions answered out of order To facilitate the coding process coding : coding ANALYSIS OF DATA Coding: this operation is usually done at this stage through which the categories of data are transformed into symbols that may be tabulated and counted. Editing: it is the procedure that improves the quality of the data for coding Tabulation: It is a part of the technical procedure wherein the classified data are put in the form of tables. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) The process of identifying and classifying each answer with a numerical score or other character symbol The numerical score or symbol is called a code, and serves as a rule for interpreting, classifying, and recording data Identifying responses with codes is necessary if data is to be processed by computer Slide 25: Coded data is often stored electronically in the form of a data matrix - a rectangular arrangement of the data into rows (representing cases) and columns (representing variables) The data matrix is organized into fields, records, and files: Field: A collection of characters that represents a single type of data Record: A collection of related fields, i.e., fields related to the same case (or respondent) File: A collection of related records, i.e. records related to the same sample Slide 26: AFTER CODING ….. Data Entry - The transfer of codes from questionnaires (or coding sheets) to a computer. Often accomplished in one of three ways: On-line direct data entry – e.g. as for CATI systems Optical scanning – for highly structured questionnaires Keyboarding – data entry via a computer keyboard; often requires verification Slide 27: Error Checking – Verifying the accuracy of data entry and checking for some kinds of obvious errors made during the data entry. Often accomplished through frequency analysis. Data Transformation – Converting some of the data from the format in which they were entered to a format most suitable for particular statistical analysis. Often accomplished through re-coding, to: reverse-score negative (or positive) statements into positive (or negative) statements; collapse the number of categories of a variable – Steps in tabulation – Analysis & Interpretation : – Steps in tabulation – Analysis & Interpretation WHAT IS A REPORT ? : WHAT IS A REPORT ? Assessment of a situation or results from data analysis precise, concise and succinct (to the point) tightly focused – Presentation of the survey Report : – Presentation of the survey Report Steps to Report Writing1 (1) Logical analysis of the subject matte: (2) Preparation of the final outline: (3) Preparation of the rough draft: (4) Rewriting and polishing of the rough draft: (5) Preparation of the final bibliography: (6) Writing the final draft: LAYOUT OF THE RESEARCH REPORT : LAYOUT OF THE RESEARCH REPORT (A) Preliminary pages, (B) The main text, and (C) The end matter. Let us deal with them separately. (A) Preliminary Pages In its preliminary pages the report should carry a title and date, followed by acknowledgements in the form of ‘Preface’ of ‘Foreword’. Then there should be a table of contents followed by list of tables and illustrations so that the decision-maker or anybody interested in reading the report can easily locate the required information in the report. Slide 33: (B) Main Text The main text provides the complete outline of the research report along with all details. The main text of the report should have the following sections: (i)Introduction; (ii)Statement of findings and recommendations; (iii)The results; (iv)The Implications drawn from the results; and (v)The summary. Slide 34: (C) End Matter At the end of the report, appendices should be enlisted in respect of all technical data such as questionnaires, sample information, mathematical derivations and the like ones. Bibliography of sources consulted should also be given. Index (an alphabetical listing of names, places and topics along with the numbers of the pages in a book of report on which they are mentioned or discussed) should invariably be given at the end of the report. The value of index lies in the fact that it works as a guide to the reader for the contents in the report. What do when writing a report? : What do when writing a report? 1. PREPARATION Background reading Clear statement of aims and hypothesis Establishing appropriate methodology Slide 36: 2. PLANNING Organization of data what kind of data ? where from ? how much ? how will it be analyzed ? how will it be presented ? Slide 37: 3.WRITING A. Set the structure B. Set an order for writing C. How to write an executive summary D. Make reading the report a pleasant task Slide 38: A. Set the structure which deals with deals with material logically e.g. Title page This should include a title which indicates the central theme of the report. Slide 39: Contents All sections of report listed in sequence with page references Executive summary The purpose of an executive summary is to provide the briefest possible statement of the subject matter of a longer document. It must cover all the essential points. It must be fully comprehensive when read independently of the full document. It is NOT a list of extracts, highlights or notes on the original Slide 40: The executive summary must : introduce the subject of the full report, its objectives, methods, findings, and/or recommendations help the reader to determine whether the report is of any interest Introduction : The introduction is where the reader is acquainted with the purpose of the report and guided through the structure of the report. This may therefore include the statement of aims and objectives unless these are dealt with in a separate section. Slide 41: Background to study : Background to the location of the study area and to the issue/problem. This could also include reference to the theoretical context of the study. Slide 42: Methodology: Sources of evidence used. Description of how evidence was collected and analyzed. Discussion of the limitations of the sources and methods of collection and analysis. Slide 43: Presentation of results : A complete description of the results presented in the form of words, tables, diagrams, graphs and maps. Slide 44: Analysis and discussion of results : The analysis of the results allows patterns or relationships to be identified. It may involve basic statistical description. This can be followed by an interpretation and explanation of the results. This is often the most difficult part to write as it requires creative thought and an ability to relate the results to general theory. Slide 45: Evaluation and conclusion : This section is a summary of all the major findings made at stages throughout the report. No new evidence should appear here. The conclusion considers the evidence presented in the main body, draws out the implications and brings it to one overall conclusion or an ordered series of final conclusions. Slide 46: Bibliography : All books and other sources used in the research should be listed giving details of author, date of publication, title of document and publisher. The list should be arranged in alphabetical order of authors Slide 47: B. Set an order for writing : The main body of the report should be tackled first. The introduction, appendices, contents page, title page and bibliography should be written when this has been completed. The executive summary should be written at the end. Slide 48: C. How to write an executive summary : i) read the whole document ii) isolate and summarize its central theme. iii) read each section to identify summarize the main findings or points iv) combine (ii) & (iii) into a set of major points because your aim is to convey the overall impression of the full document in as brief and as clear a way as possible Slide 49: D. Make the reading of the report an easy and pleasant task for the examiner : correct use of grammar, punctuation, spelling and vocabulary not using jargon, slang or colloquialisms writing in the third person and/or passive tense rather than using “I”, “We”, “You”, etc. writing clearly and coherently to communicate, not to perplex or impress e.g. by keeping sentences short and simple writing precisely and avoiding ambiguity Slide 50: BY- DHEERAJ BHARDWAJ Dated-Monday, 29 november 2010 Thanks.. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.