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“Functional Foods” are foods or dietary components that may provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods includes processed food or foods fortified with health-promoting additives, like “vitamin –enriched” products . . DEFINITION

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Fermented foods with live cultures are considered as functional foods with PROBIOTIC beneficts. Examples include fruits ,vegetables, whole grains fortified or enhanced foods and beverages and some dietary supplements.


Functional foods are regulated by the united states food and drug administration (FDA) under the authority of two laws. Federal food , drug , and cosmetic act (FD&C) of 1938 provides for the regulation of all foods and food additives. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 amended the FD&C Act to cover dietary supplements and ingredients of dietary supplements. REGULATIONS RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL FOODS

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Functional foods are of two types: (i) Structure and function claims , which describe effects on normal functioning of the body , but not claims that the food can treat , diagnose , prevent , or cure a disease [claims such as “promotes regularity”, “helps maintain CARDIOVASCULAR health”, and “supports the IMMUNE SYSTEM . (ii) Disease-risk reduction claims, which imply a relationship between dietary components and a disease or health condition.

Why we need functional foods? : 

Trends in population demographics and socio-economic changes is due to the functional foods with health benefits. It increases the life expectancy, resulting in an increase in the no of elderly and it improved quality of life , as increasing costs of health care, have stimulated governments, researchers , Why we need functional foods?

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health professionals and the food industry to see changes can be managed more effectively. Functional foods have the potential to improve health and well-being, reduce the major diseases such as CARDIOVASCULAR diseases (CVD) cancer and osteoporosis. It will make a positive contribution to health and well-being.



















List of functional foods : 

Based on the cancer process , a list of functional foods affects the type of cancer. Whole grain, spinach, salad, peanut, orange, asparagus or brussel sprouts affect gene protection for pancreatic cancer. Vitamin D in seafood, 10 min in bathing suit without sunscreen and supplements affects proliferation or growth of breast cancer. Tea especially green tea affects angiogenesis and proliferation of List of functional foods

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ovarian cancer and many other cancers. Tea can be a little hard for the first timer especially if you are a sugar bug. You can use an unglazed clay pot which soften the sour taste. Cabbage family vegetables , actually kill colon cancer and other cancers like a chemotheraphy without the adverse effects. Tumeric and ginger affect inflammation and apoptosis from bladder cancer, gastrointestinal cancer and ovarian canc


Functional foods are foods that claim to improve well being or health. The health claim may be implicit{“rich in vitamin C”}, or vague {“strengthens the body’s defence system”},but invariably the products are huge and growing. Many functional foods contain added vitamins, minerals and other essential nutrients indeed promote health: FOLIC ACID reduces the risk of neutral tube defects , table salt with potassium reduces blood pressure and polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce the risk of heart disease. HEALTH CLAIMS

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But other claims are more dubious-for example , that zinc lozenges protect against colds or that drinks rich in vitamin c protect against cardiovascular disease. Functional foods ,au also contain non-nutritive ingredients . Examples of effective non-nutritive ingredients are sugar alcohols in chewing gum , which reduce risk of dental caries; plant stanols and sterols which lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol .


Functional foods comprises some bacterial strains and products of plant and animal origin containing physiologically active compound probiotics, prebiotics and antioxidants . These substances can be obtained by biotechnological methods and by extraction by plant or animal tissues. PROBIOTICS: Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to be healthy for the host organism. Lactic acid bacteria(LAB) and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics; but certain yeasts and bacilli may also be helpful. Probiotics are commonly consumed as part of fermented foods with specially added active live cultures; such as yoghurt, soy yoghurt. ADDITIONAL TERMS

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The physiological effects related to probiotic bacteria include the reduction of gut PH, production of some digestive enzymes and vitamins, production if antibacterial substances, e.g; organic acids, bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide etc.

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PREBIOTICS: A prebiotic is a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes , both in the or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-being and health. Galactooligosaccharides is an animal-derived substance manufactured by extracting milk sugars from dairy products and using enzymes to break them down.

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Most active food ingredients are of plant origin and belong to the large set of so-called PHYTOCHEMICALS. Phytochemicals are divided into carotenoids and flavonoids. some bioactive compounds are also drived from animal sources,such as omega-3 fatty acids from fish.. NUTRITION RELATED DISEASES AND RELEVANT FUNCTIONAL FOODS

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ATHEROSCLEROSIS & CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE In the united kingdom more than one third of deaths are due to CVD mainly by stroke. It is due to the deposition of cholesterol within artery walls. so that blood clot and it leads to infarction. A high level of LDL (bad cholesterol) increases the risk of infarction with high levels of HDL (good cholesterol) can provide protection against infarction. In addition to cholesterol, the intake of saturated fatty acid is also relevant to it increases LDL levels.

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PHYTOSTEROLS One of the most promising functional ingredients with regard to the reduction of LDL cholesterol levels are phytosterols. Once cholesterol consumed, as in the form of eggs and phytosterol consumed. For instance, as a fat spread will both try to be absorbed by the body at the same time. This will reduce the uptake of cholesterol and in the long term decrease LDL cholesterol levels. However, a considerable no. of patients with LDL cholesterol levels do not respond to phytosterol treatment probably because of high rate of emdogenous cholesterol production.

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OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS Further substances which are known to reduce the risk of CVD are omega-3 fatty acids, ingredients which occur in cold water sea fish. Early in the 2oth century, it was suggested that dietary fat was necessary both as a carrier for fat soluble nutrients and as a provider of energy. It is essential for human called ”essential fatty acids”. .

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It is not only relevant for CVD. They are also considered vital for brain development and functioning and have beneficial effects on some cancers. Researches also showed that the ratio between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake seems to be an important determinant of anti-inflammatory responses. A compound that the body derives from omega-6 fatty acids is thought to be pro-inflammatory. Whilst compounds derived from omega-3 fatty acids are considered to be anti-inflammatory

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CANCER The world cancer research fund and American institute for cancer research examined the relation between nutrition and cancer incidence in a large study and on a global scale. And it was suggested that approximately 30% of cancer cases world-wide could be prevented by changing dietary habits. Functional foods do not aim directly at cancer as an end point but at surrogate endpoints. Several possibilities that are currently include: Alterations in the characteristic of tissues Cellular phenomena Infection and inflammation Bioactive substances in blood and tissue.

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Carcinogenesis develops through several phases, those of cancer initiation, promotion and progression. How these processes are affected by dietary factors is still under intense investigation. Nutrition and diet have an effect on the development of colonic and rectal carcinomas. The main application of functional foods in cancer prevention could focus on the activity of particular enzymes. In the initiation phase of carcinogenesis, toxifying and detoxifying enzymes are important. If a food ingredient was capable of either decreasing or increasing detoxifying enzymes, the compound might reduce the risk to develop cancer.

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In the promotion phase, a compound inhibiting cell multiplication might slow down tumour growth,whilst a compound inducing apoptosis(programmed cell death) could eliminate cancer cells. In the progession phase, the invasion of organs by cancer cells i.e.metastasis, would have to be targeted. In the initiation phase, the progression phase is also associated with a particular enzyme.MMP(matrix metalloproteinase) is also involved in the ageing process by degrading collagen and thereby causing wrinkles.

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DIETARY FIBRE In the 1930s, W.Arbuthnot Lane recommended to include “roughage” in one’s diet in order to promate regular bowel movements, which he thought would reduce the incidence of colon disease. Dietary fibre hypothesis could be explained by their intake of fibre. The hypothesis was that fibre accelerated the speed by which food was passed through the colon, thereby reducing the exposure time for potential carcinogens. On the other hand, it was shown that the consumption of dietary fibre leads to the production of short-chain fatty

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acids, particularly so called “butyric acid”. This butyric acid is considered a beneficial and essential nutritent for the cells lining the colon with potential protective effects against cancer. It from vegetables and fruits have been shown to have antioxidative properties which would also protect the colonic environment from carcinogenic compounds CAROTENOIDS Carotenoids are pigments that give vegetables and fruits their bright colour. The three types of carotenoids are beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene.

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Beta-carotene is found in carrots, kale and apricots; lutein in green leafy vegetables, such as spinach and lycopene mostly in tomatoes. But also in water-melon and pink grapefruit. All carotenoids have the potential to act as anti-oxidants, i.e. to protect cells from radicals. Free radicals are generated in the body during the oxidative metabolism and in the presence of converting nutrients(sugars, amino and fatty acids resp.) into energy. Sometimes O2 is also toxic because of its potential to unleash free radicals. Free radicals are unstable,

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highly reactive molecules with unpaired electrons. These molecules try to capture electrons from stable molecules to gain stability. Oxidation through free radicals is associated with reduced capabilities to fight serious illness such as cancer or Atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have the ability to neutralise free radicals by donating an electron without loosing their own stability. Diet which is rich in naturally occur in carotenoids can protect against lung cancer. Lycopene, particularly with regard to its potential protection against and even treatment of prostate cancer. It

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Conclude that frequent consumption of tomato products is associated with lowering the risk of prostate cancer. FLAVONOIDS Flavonoids are very large group of approximately 5,000 different chemical compounds. Foods that are a particularly rich source of flavonoids are grapes, berries, cherries, onions, apples and green tea. Blue berries is the richest source of antioxidants. Another interesting fruit for scientist are grapes, in their natural form and wine, as so called “french paradox”.

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This paradox refers to the low incidence of coronary heart disease and have a high consumption of saturated fats and high cholesterol levels. It has been suggested that the ability of flavonoids in wine to inhibit oxidation could be the mechanism responsible for explaining the paradox.

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Thank You! Any questions?

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