BIO PESTICIDES

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BIO PESTICIDES : 

What are bio pesticides? All the living organisms, which are cultivated in the laboratory on large scale and are used and exploited experimentally for the control of harmful organisms are, called biopesticides. The examples include insects, virus bacteria, fungi, protozoan and nematodes. BIO PESTICIDES

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Plants, growing in the wild or in cultivation, face numerous threats from insects, bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as from other plants. Biopesticides are inert substances or living organisms that can help protect plants from such threats. Chemical pesticides can offer similar protection but, by contrast, are neither alive nor made by living organisms.

MAJOR CATEGORIES : 

Biopesticides fall into three major classes: Microbial pesticides may consist of the organisms themselves and/or the metabolites they produce. Microbial biopesticides are generally divided into 3 different subcategories of products: bacteria, fungi or viruses. MAJOR CATEGORIES

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Plant-incorporated protectants, (PIPs)have genetic material from other species incorporated into their genetic material (i.e. GM crops). Biochemical pesticides are naturally occurring substances that control pests by nontoxic mechanisms.

Natural Chemical Defenses : 

A variety of chemicals produced by plants help ensure that parasites, predators, plant feeders, and herbivores seldom increase in number sufficiently to destroy the plant populations they prey upon. Trees produce nearly 1,000 different chemical compounds that help them resist herbivores and parasites. Natural Chemical Defenses

LIVING ORGANISMS AS BIOPESTICIDES : 

Plant predators are themselves subject to attack by predators, parasites, and microbes, all of which can indirectly help protect a plant and therefore are also considered biopesticides. An oak tree may have about 100 species of insect herbivores feeding on it. In turn, there can be up to 1,000 species of predators, parasites, and microbes feeding on the herbivores. LIVING ORGANISMS AS BIOPESTICIDES

MODIFIED ORGANISMS AS BIOPESTICIDE : 

In 1980s, many crops have been genetically modified to produce biopesticides that will help protect them from insects and pathogens (including viruses). In 1998, 40 million hectares of engineered crops were planted throughout the world (though 74% of the modified cropland is in the United States). MODIFIED ORGANISMS AS BIOPESTICIDE

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Globally, 20 percent of this area has been planted with herbicide-tolerant crops, 8 percent with insect-resistant crops, and 0.3 percent with insect-and herbicide-resistant crops.

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According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), "biopesticides" are naturally occurring substances (biochemical pesticides) that control pests, microorganisms that control pests (microbial pesticides), and pesticidal substances produced by plants containing added genetic material, plant-incorporated protectants.

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Various naturally-occurring materials, including fungal or plant extracts, have been described as biopesticides. Products in this category have included: Chitin Chitosan Spinosad Insect pheromones and other semiochemicals

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Biopesticides are certain natural plant products that belong to the so-called secondary metabolites, which include thousands of minor secondary chemicals. alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics Biopesticides are derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. For example, canola oil and baking soda have pesticidal applications and are considered biopesticides

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