Sources of farm power

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a presentation for B.Sc Agriculture subject Farm Machinery and Equipments

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Sources of farm power:

Sources of farm power By: A.Sri Dhanya DAG 01

Different sources of farm power are::

1.Human power 2.Animal power 3.Mechanical power (a) Tractors (b) Power tillers (c) Self propelled combines (d) Oil engines Diesel engine Petrol/Kerosene engine 4.Electric power 5.Renewable energy(Bio Gas+Solar+Wind )  Different sources of farm power are:

Human power::

Human power: Human power is an important source for operating small implements and tools. Stationary work like chaff cutting, lifting water, threshing, winnowing and many other such works are done by manual labour. On an average a man can develop maximum power of about 75 watts or 0.1hp for doing work. In some instances manual labor is still more efficient than machine.

Animal power::

Animal power: Land preparation, weed management, crop threshing and transport are undertaken using animal power. Oxen, buffalo, horses, mule, donkey and camel are used as animal power in agriculture for various purposes. They can generate about 750 watts or 1hp for doing farm work.   The advantages of using animals include: • Cheap to maintain • Multi purpose use for meat and milk, • Self-replacement and • Manure production   Disadvantage of using animals include: • Animals have limited daily working hours • Animals need feeding and protection against pests and disease. • Slow • High man/power ratio • Limited range of working conditions • Animals require training

Mechanical power::

Mechanical power: The third important source of farm power is mechanical power that is available through tractors and oil engines. The oil engine is a highly efficient device for converting fuel into useful work. The efficiency of diesel engine varies between 32 to 38 per cent where as that of petrol engine varies from 25 to 32 percent. Diesel engines of larger size are used on tractors. They are used for pumping water, flour mills, oil ghanis, cotton gins, chaff cutter, threshing, harvesting, poughing, tillage, bunds forming, winnowing, seeding , etc….

Electric power::

Electric power: Electrical power has become a very important source of power on farms. The largest use of electric power in the rural areas is for irrigation and domestic water supply. Use of electricity in dairy industry, cold storage, fruit processing and cattle feed grinding has tremendously increased. Its operation and maitenance needs less attention and care. It is clean quiet and smooth running. Electrical power is used for water pumping, dairy industry, cold storage, farm product processing, fruit industry, poultry industry, seed treatments etc…..

Renewable energy::

Renewable energy: Wind power: The availability of wind power for farm work is quote limited. Where the wind velocity is more than 32 km/hr, wind mills can be used forlifting water. A wind mill having 3.6 m diameter wheel mounted on 12.0 m tower is able to produce from 0.1 to 0.9 hp with the wind velocity varying from 6.4 to 37 kmph . The average capacity of a wind mill would be above 0.5 hp. Solar energy : sun is the biggest fusion reactor which radiates energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. To obtain solar radiation a dark surface is exposed to it so that radiation can be absorbed. Solar energy can be used for water heating, space heating, refrigeration, distillation, cooking and power generation.

Renewable energy::

Renewable energy: Geothermal energy: It is the energy coming out of the molten interior of the earth towards the surface. Because of non homogeneity in the earth’s crust there are numerous local hot spots just below the surface where the temperature is much higher than expected. A well drilled to these locations causes the wet or dry steam to emerge et the surface where its energy can be utilized either for generating electricity or for space heating.

Renewable energy::

Renewable energy: Energy from oceans: There are eight sources of energy to be obtained from sea: Ocean waves, ocean tides, ocean thermal energy conversion, ocean currents, ocean winds, salinity gradient, ocean geothermal and Bio sea weeds conversion. Tidal energy: Tides occurs by gravitational attraction between the earth and the moon. The tidal power is used to generate electrical energy by moving electrical generators. Wave energy: Ocean water is kept under constant motion by the waves which are seen at surface. The vertical rise and fall of successive waves is used to sctivate either a water operaed or air operated turbine.

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