Natural Gas

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This is my physics project

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What is natural gas?

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Natural gas was formed from the remains of plants and animals which lived on the Earth many millions of years ago. Over time the remains were covered by layers of sand, rock and ice. Heat and pressure eventually changed them into fossils.

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Natural gas is a gaseous form of these fossil remains, while coal is a solid form and oil is a liquid form. This natural gas is mainly used as a fuel that’s used to heat buildings, cook food, dry clothes, heat water, and even to help produce electricity. What For Natural Gas ?

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To reach natural gas we have to drill through layers of rock. Coal, oil and gas are hydrocarbons (compounds made up mostly of hydrogen and carbon). How Can We Get The Natural Gas

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How does natural gas get to town? 1 drilling rig 2 extraction unit to clean gas 3 compressor station to maintain pressure in the pipeline 4 facility where an odour (or smell) is added 5 town - factories, houses, hospitals and hotels etc

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How is natural gas used? power generation heating manufacturing cooling cooking barbecues water heating fuel for cars fuel for buses and trucks

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Why is natural gas better for the environment? Natural gas is a clean and efficient fuel. Natural gas can help reduce emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect, because it burns more cleanly than other fossil fuels. For example, when used to make electricity, natural gas only produces around half the greenhouse emissions of other fossil fuels.

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In What Form Do We Get The Natural Gas In fact, natural gas is really a mixture of gases that formed from the fossil remains of ancient plants and animals buried deep in the earth. The main ingredient in natural gas is methane. Methane is odorless and colorless. So, why does natural gas smell? The gas company adds a chemical called mercaptan , which gives natural funny sulfur-like or rotten egg odor. Natural gas gives off a lot of heat and light when it burns, but doesn’t produce smoke. That makes it a good fuel for use in the home. Today, more than half the homes are heated by natural gas. Natural gas is a popular fuel choice because it burns cleaner, hotter, and brighter than other fossil fuels like coal and oil. It’s also reliable. Because natural gas pipes are buried safely underground, you aren’t likely

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Where Is Natural Gas From? Natural gas began with tiny plants and animals that lived more than 200 million years ago—even before dinosaurs roamed the earth! Tiny water creatures and swamp plants died and were covered over by mud, sand, and silt. Over millions of years, heat and pressure inside the earth turned their decaying remains into fossils, and then into natural gas. Like other fossil fuels, natural gas is found deep underground. A rock formation called a gas trap allows the natural gas to form and collect. A trap contains three kinds of rock. The source rock is the fossilized rock that produces the natural gas. The reservoir rock is the porous rock that the natural gas seeps into as it rises. And the cap rock ,or seal, is the layer of very dense rock above the reservoir rock that keeps the gas from leaking to the surface.

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Imagine looking for buried treasure without a map. Now imagine that the treasure is also invisible. That’s the challenge geologist face when exploring for natural gas. Sometimes there are clues on the earth’s surface. An oil seep is a possible sign of natural gas below, since oil and gas are sometimes found together. Geologists also have sensitive machines that can “sniff” surface soil and air for small amounts of natural gas that may have leaked from below ground. But in order to get to the source of the natural gas, geologists need to find a gas trap —an underground rock formation that traps natural gas beneath it. The geologists start by mapping the surface of the ground. Then they use those maps to try to guess what the rocks below the surface look like. Searching For The Invisible

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Geologists also conduct seismic surveys . They send sound waves into the ground and measure how fast the waves bounce back. This tells them how hard and how thick the different rock layers are underground. The data is fed into a computer, which draws a picture of the rock layers. This picture is called a seismogram .So when geologists explore for natural gas, they aren’t really looking for the gas , because the gas is invisible. They’re looking for certain rock formations that might hold natural gas. Of course, the only way to be sure natural gas is down there is to drill a well.

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