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Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Chapter : Chapter Packet and Circuit Switching Chapter Objectives : Chapter Objectives Explain the concept of packet switching Give sample application areas of packet switching Describe circuit switching Compare and contrast packet switching with circuit switching Chapter Modules : Chapter Modules Packet switching Packet switching applications Circuit switching applications Module : Module Packet Switching Packet Switching Preview : Packet Switching Preview Explain the concept of a path or a route taken by a packet Study the difference between static and dynamic paths? Relate appropriately the terms packet switching and circuit switching to the terms dynamic and static paths Explore the path taken by a packets in dynamic routing when a packet travels from its origin to its destination The Concept of Path in Communication : The Concept of Path in Communication A path is a route for data to travel between two nodes in a network Dynamic path In this case, the path often changes from packet to packet Example: Packet Switching Static path Path is initially established and it remains unchanged for the duration of the communication session Example: Circuit Switching Packet Switching Network : Packet Switching Network Los Angeles New York Packet 2 Packet 1 Miami Salient Points of Packet Switching : Salient Points of Packet Switching Path Each packet may take a different path to its destination Best path is heuristically determined at each node Packet switching Path may be switched among packets Hence, the term packet switching Key Words : Key Words Packet and circuit switching Dynamic and static paths End of Module : End of Module Module : Module Advantages and Disadvantages of Packet Switching Questions : Questions What are the major advantages and disadvantages of packet switching? Could the Internet be called a packet switching network? How does packet switching help in supporting multiple communication sessions? How does a web server support multiple access to its contents? Explain in terms of packets that travel from the web server to their various destinations. Questions (continued) : Questions (continued) What are the implications of packet switching to the transmission of audio and video in real time? How are the above problems addressed in streaming? Major Advantages : Major Advantages Better utilization of the network segments in terms of the usage of the network paths Ability to engage in multiple communication sessions Dynamic Assignment of Paths : Dynamic Assignment of Paths Los Angeles New York Miami Las Vegas Support for Multiple Communication Sessions : Support for Multiple Communication Sessions Los Angeles New York Miami Las Vegas Session 1 Session 2 Disadvantage or a Concern : Disadvantage or a Concern Packets may not arrive at their destination in the order in which they were originally transmitted The above possibility exists because of the different paths that are taken by the different packets Order of Arrival of Packets : Order of Arrival of Packets Los Angeles New York Packet 2 Packet 1 Miami Packet 2 may arrive earlier than Packet 1. Packet Assembly : Packet Assembly Packets are assembled to preserve the order of transmission Packets arriving earlier are held in a buffer The order of arrival is critical and in certain cases the order is time sensitive as well Transmission of Audio and Video in Packet Switching : Transmission of Audio and Video in Packet Switching Transmission of audio and video are time sensitive Timely arrival of packet is important The process that would ensure the orderly and timely arrival of data packets is known as streaming Streaming also compresses the data to minimize bandwidth requirements thus ensuring that the packets have adequate bandwidth to travel to the destination in the order in which they are supposed to arrive at the destination Buffering in Streaming : Buffering in Streaming Streamed audio or video is often buffered to ensure that the audio or video is played continuously Advantages And Disadvantages : Advantages And Disadvantages Advantages Efficient use of the network paths Engage in multiple sessions Disadvantages Additional hardware and software resources are required to assemble and route the packets If real-time continuity is stipulated then the data must be subjected to a process known as streaming Special Concerns : Special Concerns Audio and video transmission Streaming is used Voice Over IP (VoIP) is designed deploy telephony over the Internet Newer Advancements for Real Time Transmission of Information : Newer Advancements for Real Time Transmission of Information Faster Internet speed Better technology IPv6 Better streaming technologies Questions : Questions What are the major advantages and disadvantages of packet switching? Could the Internet be called as a packet switching network? How does packet switching help in supporting multiple communication sessions? How does a web server support multiple access to its contents? Explain in terms of packets that travel from the web server to their various destinations on the Internet. Questions (continued) : Questions (continued) What are the implications of packet switching to the transmission of audio and video in real time? Relate the above to Voice over IP transmission. How are the above problems addressed in streaming? End of Module : End of Module MODULE : MODULE Packet Switching Applications Questions : Questions Give a simple example of packet switching application Relate packet switching to multiple session applications on the Internet and give examples of multiple session applications Describe audio transmission challenges on packet-switched networks Questions (Continued) : Questions (Continued) List the packet switching technologies used in WANs Explain the emergence of the concept of fixed length packets or cells in packet switching networks Name a cell based transmission technology and state its applications Internet: An Application of Packet Switching : Internet: An Application of Packet Switching Los Angeles New York Packet N1 Packet M1 Miami Server in Los Angeles supports multiple access to the web over a packet switched connection. Internet Server Ramp Support for Multiple Sessions : Support for Multiple Sessions Los Angeles New York Packet 2 Packet 1 Miami Packets are displayed on different sessions on the screen. Houston Session LA Session HU Applications Using Multiple-Sessions : Applications Using Multiple-Sessions Sharing Collaboration Multiple access to an Internet server etc. Packet Delivery : Packet Delivery Sharing of Word document on Internet under Microsoft NetMeeting Packets from origin 1: N1, N2 Packets from Origin 2: M1, M2 SCREEN Audio Transmission Over Packet Switching Network : Audio Transmission Over Packet Switching Network Relatively high speeds are required on the network Data compression and other techniques are used to ensure continuity know as streaming Sample applications: Audio streaming on the Internet RealAudio is an example of a streaming software Usage of Packet Switching : Usage of Packet Switching Large computer networks with multiple routers WAN in general Internet in particular Packet Switching WAN Technologies : Packet Switching WAN Technologies Past and Present X.25 Packet Switching Present and Near Future Frame Relay Present and Future Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) ATM is also known as Cell Relay ATM : ATM Asynchronous Transmission Method (ATM) Based on fixed length packets Switches instead of routers are used to route the information on a network This is the emerging technology in WAN transmission (Include more information on ATM) Recollecting the Concept of Cell : Recollecting the Concept of Cell Packet varies in size Cell is of fixed length Data Data Questions : Questions Give a simple example of packet switching application Relate packet switching to multiple session applications on the Internet and give examples of multiple session applications Describe audio transmission challenges on packet-switched networks Questions (Continued) : Questions (Continued) List the packet switching technologies used in WANs Explain the emergence of the concept of fixed length packets or cells in packet switching networks Name a cell based transmission technology and state its applications End of Module : End of Module MODULE 5 : MODULE 5 Circuit Switching Questions : Questions Explain the concepts of circuit switching. How does it function? What are the advantages and disadvantages of circuit switching? Name some applications of circuit switching Compare circuit switching with packet switching Circuit Switching Network : Circuit Switching Network Los Angeles New York Circuit established and maintained for entire duration of communication. Established Circuit Switch Defining Characteristics of Circuit Switching : Defining Characteristics of Circuit Switching Establish (switch) a path (circuit) between two nodes of communication Maintain the circuit for the full duration of communication session Advantages of Circuit Switching : Advantages of Circuit Switching Continuity assured in the order of transmission Audio can be transmitted without streaming provided adequate bandwidth is available Otherwise streaming is necessary The overhead is low in switching a circuit Disadvantages of Circuit Switching : Disadvantages of Circuit Switching Inefficient use of the paths that are available within a network This may lead to circuit saturation Users can be locked out of the network Multiple sessions cannot easily be implemented although it is possible to have multiple sessions Circuit Saturation : Circuit Saturation Los Angeles New York Established Circuit Saturation point. Miami Areas of Applications : Areas of Applications Voice/Video communications Telephone network Both analog and digital telecommunication lines can be circuit switched ISDN More on ISDN : More on ISDN ISDN has two B channels and one D channel B channel is used for data and D channel is used for monitoring and control of the data transmission B channels are circuit switched and the D channels are packet switched Slide 52: Packet Switching Circuit Switching _______________________________________________ Efficient use of network Inefficient use High overhead Low overhead Computer data Audio and video Audio and video transmissions are, however, possible Multiple sessions possible Multiple sessions are easily implemented are possible, however it requires additional hardware and software Comparison Questions : Questions Explain the concepts of circuit switching. How does it function? What are the advantages and disadvantages of circuit switching? Name some applications of circuit switching Compare circuit switching with packet switching END OF MODULE : END OF MODULE You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.