ADFE--P-2[]=Terminology Used in MSDS-(102)

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Terminology Used in MSDS : 

Terminology Used in MSDS By A.K. Gupta

Synonym : 

Synonym Synonyms are alternative names for the same chemical. For example: Methanol and methyl hydrate are synonyms for methyl alcohol Dimethyl ketone is synonym for acetone. Synonyms may help in locating additional information on a chemical. 2

U.N. Number : 

U.N. Number UN number stands for United Nations substance identification number. The UN number is a four-digit number assigned to a potentially hazardous material (such as Petrol, UN 1203) or class of materials (such as corrosive liquids, UN 1760). These numbers are used by firefighters and other emergency response personnel for identification of materials during transportation emergencies. UN (United Nations) numbers are internationally recognized. 3

CAS No.: Chemical Abstracts Service (Registry) Number : 

CAS No.: Chemical Abstracts Service (Registry) Number CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical elements, compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. They are also referred to as CAS numbers, CAS RNs or CAS #s. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), a division of the American Chemical Society, assigns these identifiers to every chemical that has been described in the literature. The intention is to make database searches more convenient, as chemicals often have many names. Almost all molecule databases today allow searching by CAS number. 4 (Contd.)

CAS No. (Contd.) : 

CAS No. (Contd.) As of 15th March 2010, there were 52,429,231 organic and inorganic substances in the CAS registry. Around 50,000 new numbers are added each week. CAS also maintains and sells a database of these chemicals, known as the CAS Registry. 5 (Contd.)

CAS No. (Contd.) : 

A CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) Registry Number is a unique identifier that tells you, for example, that acetone and dimethyl ketone are actually the same substance. 6 CAS No. (Contd.)

Hazchem Code or EAC[Emergency Action Code] : 

Hazchem Code or EAC[Emergency Action Code] The HAZCHEM Code provides advisory information to the emergency services personnel to enable them to take the appropriate action to combat the incident. It enables us to know at once what action is needed in case of a – spillage or leakage of a hazardous material, or fire involving such material. It is primarily meant for the fire-fighters and rescuers. 7 (Contd.)

Hazchem Code or EAC[Emergency Action Code] : 

Hazchem Code or EAC[Emergency Action Code] 8 The Hazchem Code (EAC) uses one of the numerals 1, 2, 3, or 4, followed by one or two English alphabets, which signify– what fire-extinguishing agent should be used; whether the spillage should be contained or diluted with plenty of water; whether the substance is violently reactive what PPE should be used; and whether evacuation of the surrounding area should be carried out. (Contd.)

Emergency Action Code (EAC) or Hazchem Code : 

9 Emergency Action Code (EAC) or Hazchem Code (Contd.)

Emergency Action Code (EAC) orHazchem Code : 

10 Emergency Action Code (EAC) orHazchem Code (Contd.)

Emergency Action Code (EAC) or Hazchem Code : 

Emergency Action Code (EAC) or Hazchem Code Some examples: Benzene [UN 1114] : 3WE Petrol [UN 1203] : 3 Kerosene [UN 1223] : 3 EO [UN 1040] : 2PE LPG [UN 1075] : 3WE 11 Y E Y

Vapour Pressure : 

Vapour Pressure Vapour pressure is a measure of the tendency of a material to form a vapour. The higher the vapour pressure, the higher the potential vapour concentration. In general, a material with a high vapour pressure is more likely to be an inhalation or fire hazard than a similar material with a lower vapour pressure. 12 (Contd.)

Vapour Pressure : 

Vapour Pressure Vapour Pressure: The process of evaporation in a closed container will proceed until there are as many molecules returning to the liquid as there are escaping. At this point the vapour is said to be saturated, and the pressure of that vapour (usually expressed in mmHg) is called the saturated vapour pressure. 13 (Contd.)

Vapour Pressure : 

Vapour Pressure Vapour pressure (or equilibrium vapour pressure) is the pressure of a vapour in thermodynamic equillibrium with its condensed phase in a closed system. Reid Vapour Pressure: Vapour pressure generated by a substance (in psi) at 100oF 14

Boiling Point : 

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid. 15 Boiling Point A liquid in a vacuum environment has a lower boiling point than when the liquid is at atmospheric pressure. A liquid in a high pressure environment has a higher boiling point than when the liquid is at atmospheric pressure. In other words, the boiling point of liquids varies with and depends upon the surrounding environmental pressure.

Boiling Range : 

Boiling Range It may also be defined as the temperature range of a laboratory distillation of an oil from start until evaporation is complete. 16 It is the range between initial and final boiling temperatures of a multi-component solvent.

M.P. / F.P. : 

M.P. / F.P. Melting Point: The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid at standard atmospheric pressure. Freezing Point: When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point. 17

Vapour Density : 

Vapour Density Vapour density is the density of a vapour, expressed as the mass of a given volume of the vapour divided by the mass of an equal volume of a reference gas (such as hydrogen or air) at the same temperature and pressure. Vapour Density = mass of n molecules of gas or vapour/ mass of n molecules of hydrogen In MSDS, the vapour density is expressed in relation to air. It is expressed as “Vapour Density (Air=1)” Example: Vapour density of Ethylene Oxide (Air =1) = 1.52 (It means that EO vapour is 1.52 times heavier than air.) 18

Specific Gravity : 

Specific Gravity Specific gravity is the ratio of density of a substance compared to the density of fresh water at 4°C (39° F). At this temperature the density of water is at its greatest value and equal 1 g/mL. Since specific gravity is a ratio, so it has no units. An object will float in water if its density is less than the density of water and sink if its density is greater that that of water. Similarly, an object with specific gravity less than 1 will float and those with a specific gravity greater than one will sink. 19 (Contd.)

Specific Gravity : 

Specific Gravity Specific gravity values for a few common substances are: Gold (Au) = 19.3 Mercury (Hg) = 13.6 Water = 1.0 Benzene = 0.8786 Alcohol = 0.7893 Note that since water has a density of 1 g/cm3, the specific gravity is the same as the density of the material measured in g/cm3. Remember: Sp. Gr. has no units. 20

Flash Point : 

Flash Point The flash point of a volatile liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air. At the flash point, the vapour may cease to burn when the source of ignition is removed. Flash points of substances are measured according to standard test methods. Closed Cup (cc) method Open Cup (oc) method 21

Apparatus for determining the flash point : 

Apparatus for determining the flash point 22

Fire Point : 

Fire Point The fire point, a higher temperature than the flash point, is defined as the temperature at which the vapour continues to burn after being ignited. Neither the flash point nor the fire point is related to the temperature of the ignition source or of the burning liquid, which are much higher. 23

Flammability Limits : 

Flammability Limits Vapour/air mixtures are flammable only over a limited range of vapour concentrations. This range is defined by the lower and upper flammability limits. 24 (Contd.)

Flammability Limits : 

Flammability Limits Flammability limits, also called flammable limits, or explosive limits, give the proportion of a combustible gas in a mixture with air, between which limits this mixture is flammable. The lower flammability limit (LFL) or lower explosive limit (LEL) describes the leanest mixture that is still flammable, i.e., the mixture with the smallest fraction of combustible gas. The upper flammability limit (UFL) or upper explosive limit (UEL) is the richest flammable mixture. Increasing the fraction of inert gases in a mixture raises the LFL and decreases UFL. Dusts also have upper and lower explosion limits. 25 (Contd.)

Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) : 

Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) LFL (LEL): The lowest concentration (percentage) of a gas or vapour in air, capable of producing a flash of fire in presence of an ignition source (arc, flame, heat). Concentrations lower than LEL are "too lean" to burn. For example, Methane gas has an LEL of 5.1%v (at 20 oC), meaning 5.1 of the total volume of the air consists of methane. If the atmosphere has less that 5.1% methane, a fire or explosion cannot occur even if a source of ignition is present. Each combustible gas has its own LEL concentration. 26 (Contd.)

Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) : 

Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) UFL (UEL): Highest concentration (percentage) of a gas or a vapor in air capable of producing a flash of fire in presence of an ignition source (arc, flame, heat). Concentrations higher than UEL are "too rich" to burn. 27

Example for flammable limits : 

Example for flammable limits 28 Temperature

TDG Flammability : 

TDG Flammability TDG stands for Transport of Dangerous Goods. The transportation of potentially hazardous materials is regulated under the Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989 and also under the IMDG Code and the IATA Code. Regulations set out criteria for the classification of materials as dangerous goods and state how these materials must be packaged and shipped. 29 (Contd.) IMDG Code = International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code IATA Code = International Air Transport Association Code

TDG Flammability Classification : 

TDG Flammability Classification TDG flammability classifications are:       2.1      Flammable gas 3       Flammable liquid 4.1     Flammable solid 4.2     Spontaneously combustible material 4.3     Material which gives off a flammable gas on contact with water. 30

Solubility : 

Solubility Solubility is the ability of a material to dissolve in water or another liquid. Solubility may be expressed as a ratio or may be described using words such as insoluble, very soluble or miscible. Often, on a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), the "Solubility" section describes solubility in water, since water is the single most important industrial solvent. Solubility information is useful for planning spill clean-up and fire fighting procedures. 31

pH : 

pH The pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of a material when dissolved in water. It is expressed on a scale from 0 to 14. pH is the symbol relating the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration to that of a given standard solution. A pH of 7 is neutral. Numbers increasing from 7 to 14 indicate greater alkalinity. Numbers decreasing from 7 to 0 indicate greater acidity. 32

pH : 

pH Roughly, pH can be divided into the following ranges: pH 0 - 2 Strongly acidic pH 3 - 5 Weakly acidic pH 6 - 8 Almost neutral (pH 7 is neutral) pH 9 - 11 Weakly basic pH 12 - 14 Strongly basic 33

Polymerisation : 

Polymerisation A polymer is a natural or man-made material formed by combining units, called monomers, into long chains. Polymerization is the process of forming a polymer by combining large numbers of chemical units or monomers into long chains. Polymerization can be used to make some useful materials. 34 (Contd.)

Hazardous Polymerisation : 

Hazardous Polymerisation Uncontrolled polymerization can be extremely hazardous. Some polymerization processes can release considerable heat, can generate enough pressure to burst a container or can be explosive. Some chemicals can polymerize on their own without warning. Others can polymerize upon contact with water, air or other common chemicals. Inhibitors are normally added to products to reduce or eliminate the possibility of uncontrolled polymerization. 35

Oxidising Agent / Oxidising Material : 

Oxidising Agent / Oxidising Material An oxidising agent or material gives up oxygen easily or can readily oxidise other materials. Examples of oxidising agents are oxygen, chlorine and peroxide compounds. These chemicals will support a fire and are highly reactive. Oxidising agents are under the U.N. Hazard Class 5.1. 36

Autoignition Temperature : 

Autoignition Temperature The autoignition temperature (or kindling point) of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. This temperature is required to supply the activation energy needed for combustion. 37

Autoignition Temperature : 

Autoignition Temperature The temperature at which a chemical will ignite decreases as the pressure increases or oxygen concentration increases. Autoignition temperatures of liquid chemicals are typically measured using a 500 mL flask placed in a temperature-controlled oven in accordance with the procedure described in ASTM E659. 38

Pyrophoric Material : 

Pyrophoric Material Pyrophoric chemicals are defined in the U.S. OSHA Hazcom Standard as chemicals which will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130 oF (54.4 oC) or below. Some examples of pyrophoric materials: Copper acetylide Iron sulphide Alkyl aluminium Alkyl zinc Organolithium 39

Chemical Stability : 

Chemical Stability Stability is the ability of a material to remain chemically unchanged under certain physical conditions. The term means that the chemical in question will not decompose in a hazardous manner under the conditions of temperature, pressure, and mechanical shock that are normally encountered during storage and transportation. 40 (Contd.)

Chemical Stability : 

Chemical Stability An unstable material may decompose, burn, explode or polymerize, under normal environmental conditions. Any unstable material requires special handling and storage precautions. 41

Chemical Reactivity : 

Chemical Reactivity This is usually limited to hazardous reactions with fuels and with common materials of construction (MOC) such as metals, wood, plastics, glass, and cement. The nature of hazard, such as severe corrosion or formation of a flammable gas is described. 42

Organic Peroxides : 

Organic Peroxides Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (R-O–O-R'). If the R' is hydrogen, the compound is called an organic hydroperoxide. Peresters have general structure RC(O)OOR. The -O–O- bond easily breaks and forms free radicals of the form RO– . Thus, organic peroxides are useful as initiators for some types of polymerisation, such as the epoxy resins used in glass-reinforced plastics (GRP). Benzoyl peroxide, lauroyl peroxide (LPO) and MEKP are commonly used for this purpose. 43 (Contd.)

Organic Peroxides (Contd.) : 

Organic Peroxides (Contd.) An organic peroxide is any carbon-containing compound having two oxygen atoms joined together (-O–O-). This chemical group is called a "peroxy" group. Organic peroxides belong to U.N. Hazard Class 5.2. Organic peroxides can be severe fire and explosion hazards. Organic peroxides are available as solids (usually fine powders), liquids or pastes. 44 (Contd.)

Organic Peroxides (Contd.) : 

Organic Peroxides (Contd.) The main hazard related to organic peroxides are their fire and explosion hazards. Organic peroxides may also be toxic or corrosive. Depending on the material, route of exposure (inhalation, eye or skin contact, or swallowing) and dose or amount of exposure, they could harm the body. Corrosive organic peroxides can also attack and destroy metals. 45

Organic Peroxides (Contd.) : 

Organic Peroxides (Contd.) Most undiluted organic peroxides can catch fire easily and burn very intensely and rapidly. This is because they combine both fuel (carbon) and oxygen in the same compound. Some organic peroxides are dangerously reactive. They can decompose very rapidly or explosively if they are exposed to only slight heat, friction, mechanical shock or contamination with incompatible materials. 46

Organic Peroxides (Contd.) : 

Organic Peroxides (Contd.) Organic peroxides can also be strong oxidizing agents. Combustible materials contaminated with most organic peroxides can catch fire very easily and burn very intensely (i.e., deflagrate). 47 == == ==

Chemical Incompatibility : 

Chemical Incompatibility Incompatible chemicals are those substances that should not be stored near each other because any contact between them would cause a dangerous chemical reaction leading to a explosion, fire, or formation of hazardous new substances. For example: Kerosene ignites spontaneously when it comes in contact with dimethyl hydrazine, A contact between iron and sulphuric acid produces highly flammable hydrogen gas. 48 (Contd.)

Chemical Incompatibility : 

Chemical Incompatibility Any individual chemical or mixture of chemicals can have one or more hazards associated with it. There are three main pairs of hazards that must be segregated from each other: Acids must be separated from bases (alkalis); Oxidizers must be separated from flammables; and Water-reactives must be separated from water and everything else containing easily extracted protons such as alcohols, acids (organic and inorganic), amines, etc. 49 (Contd.)

Chemical Incompatibility : 

Chemical Incompatibility Knowledge of chemical compatibility is important for the selection of appropriate materials for processing, storage, packaging, transportation, and utilizing the chemical-based products. It includes the selection of materials which are non-contaminating toward high-purity chemicals, including corrosive liquids, organics, and solvents. 50 (Contd.)

Chemical Incompatibility : 

Chemical Incompatibility Improper storage and disposal of incompatible chemicals has led to a number of accidents. Always properly identify and segregate your chemicals and wastes to avoid the accidental mixing of incompatibles. For example, do not store acids and bases (alkalis) near by or in the same cabinet. 51 (Contd.)

Chemical Incompatibility : 

Chemical Incompatibility Even everyday domestic chemicals have incompatibilities. For example, the container of household bleach has a warning not to mix bleach and ammonia. When mixed, these substances generate the toxic gases chloramine (NH2Cl) and hydrazine (N2H4), which could cause serious injuries or death! 52

ppm : 

ppm The abbreviation ppm stands for parts per million. It is a common unit for expressing very low concentrations of gases or vapours in air (by volume) or impurity in a liquid (by weight). For example, 1 ppm of benzene means that 1 unit (volume) of the benzene vapour is present for every 1 million units of air. 53

Magnitude of ppm : 

Magnitude of ppm One ppm is the same as: 1 minute in 2 years; or 1 cm in 10 km; or 1 inch in about 16 miles; or 1 paisa in Rs. 10,000; or 1 cent in $10,000.00. 54

Toxicology : 

Toxicology Toxicology Is the study of the effects of poisons. Environmental toxicologists study the effects of pollutants on organisms, populations, ecosystems, and the biosphere. 55

Toxicology : 

Toxicology Poisonous substances are produced by plants, animals, or bacteria. Phytotoxins Zootoxins Bacteriotoxins Toxicant: The specific poisonous chemical. Xenobiotic: Man-made substance and/or produced by but not normally found in the body.

Toxicology Terms : 

Toxicology Terms Toxicity: The adverse effects that a chemical may produce. Dose: The amount of a chemical that gains access to the body. Exposure: Contact providing opportunity of obtaining a poisonous dose. Hazard: The likelihood that the toxicity will be expressed. 57 Hazard and Exposure

Hazard and Risk : 

Hazard and Risk Risk = Exposure to a hazard 58

Slide 59: 

Threshold Effects for Dose Agent A Agent B Dose Response “NOEL”(No Observable Effect Level) Dose-ResponseRelationships

Fundamental Rules of Toxicology : 

Fundamental Rules of Toxicology Exposure must first occur for the chemical to present a risk. Magnitude of risk is proportional to both the potency of the chemical and the extent of exposure. “The dose makes the poison” – Amount of chemical at the target site determines toxicity. 60

Exposure Concepts : 

Exposure Concepts Different toxic responses may arise from different: Routes of exposure. Frequencies of exposure. Duration of exposure (acute vs. chronic). 61

Routes of Environmental Exposure : 

62 Routes of Environmental Exposure Inhalation (air) Ingestion (water and food) Absorption (through skin/eyes) Injection (bite, puncture, or cut) 1 2 3 4

Duration & Frequency of Exposure : 

Duration & Frequency of Exposure Duration and frequency are also important components of exposure and contribute to dose. Acute exposure: Less than 24 hours; usually entails a single exposure Repeated exposures are classified as: Sub-acute – repeated for up to 30 days Sub-chronic – repeated for 30-90 days Chronic – repeated for over 90 days 63

Exposure Concepts : 

Exposure Concepts 64 Exposure to chemicals may come from many sources: Environmental Occupational Therapeutic Dietary Accidental Deliberate

Types of Toxic Effects : 

Types of Toxic Effects Death – arsenic, cyanide Carcinogenesis – benzene, asbestos Organ Damage – ozone, lead Mutagenesis – UV light Teratogenesis – Thalidomide Benzene

PEL : 

PEL PEL stands for Permissible Exposure Limit. PELs are legal limits in the United States set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 66

TLV : 

TLV TLV stands for Threshold Limit Value. It is the occupational exposure limit established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). TLV is a registered trademark of ACGIH. TLVs are adopted by some governments as their legal limits. 67 (Contd.)

TLV-TWA[Threshold Limit Value – Time-Weighted Average] : 

TLV-TWA[Threshold Limit Value – Time-Weighted Average] It is the time-weighted average concentration of an air-borne contaminant for normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour work-week, to which workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without any adverse effect on health TLV-TWA values are published by ACGIH every year. Unit: ppm (by vol.) or mg/m3 68 (Contd.)

Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) : 

Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) It is a 15-minute time-weighted average exposure which should not be exceeded at any time during a workday even if the 8-hour TWA is within the threshold limit value. Certain conditions apply: Exposure at STEL not to exceed 15 minutes Not repeated more than 4 times in a day At least 1-hour interval between two successive exposures at STEL. 69 (Contd.)

STEL (Contd.) : 

STEL (Contd.) STEL = Short-Term Exposure Limit STELs are recommended only where toxic effects have been reported from high short-term exposures in either humans or animals. 70 (Contd.)

TLV – Ceiling : 

TLV – Ceiling TLV-C is the concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure. Example: TLV-C for MEG [107-21-1] aerosol = C 100 mg/m3 (It is expressed as C 100 mg/m3.) TLV-C for hydrogen cyanide [74-90-8] = C 4.7 ppm TLV-C for hydrogen fluoride [7664-39-3] = C 3 ppm 71 (Contd.)

Skin Notation : 

Skin Notation Exposure by cutaneous route, including mucous membrane and eyes. Skin notation is expressed as shown in the following example: Cyanides as CN = 5mg/ m3 (skin) Hydrazine = 0.01 ppm (skin) 72 (Contd.)

TLV-TWA for Mixtures : 

TLV-TWA for Mixtures When two or more air-borne hazardous substances act upon the same organ system, the combined effect is usually additive. Where, C1 is concentration of the substance 1, C2 that of substance 2 and so on, whereas T1, T2, etc. represent the corresponding TLV-TWA. [The value of the sum should not exceed 1.] 73

Sensitization : 

Sensitization Sensitization is the development, over time, of an allergic reaction to a chemical. The chemical may cause a mild response on the first few exposures but, as the allergy develops, the response becomes worse with subsequent exposures. Eventually, even short exposures to low concentrations can cause a very severe reaction. 74 (Contd.)

Sensitization (Contd.) : 

Sensitization (Contd.) There are two different types of occupational sensitization: skin and respiratory. Typical symptoms of skin sensitivity are swelling, redness, itching, pain, and blistering. Sensitization of the respiratory system may result in symptoms similar to a severe asthmatic attack. These symptoms include wheezing, difficulty in breathing, chest tightness, coughing and shortness of breath. 75

Odour Threshold : 

Odour Threshold The odour threshold is the lowest concentration of a substance in air that is detectable by smell by an average healthy person. Odour threshold of perception: It is the lowest airborne concentration of a substance, which humans can just detect, but cannot identify it distinctly. Odour threshold of recognition: It is the minimum concentration of an air-borne substance which an average healthy person can distinctly identify the substance form its odour. 76 (Contd.)

Odour Threshold : 

Odour Threshold The odour threshold should only be regarded as an estimate. This is because odour thresholds are commonly determined under controlled laboratory conditions using people trained in odour recognition. Odour thresholds cannot yet be accurately determined. In the workplace, the ability to detect the odour of a chemical varies from person to person and depends on conditions such as the presence of other odorous materials. 77

Odour Threshold : 

Odour Threshold Odour cannot be used as a warning of unsafe conditions since: workers may become used to the smell (adaptation), or the chemical may numb the sense of smell (a process called olfactory fatigue). However, if the odour threshold for a chemical is well below its exposure limit, odour can be used to warn of a problem with your respirator. 78

Odour Threshold : 

Odour Threshold Odour threshold limit value is not very reliable as human sensitivity varies. Some chemicals cannot be smelled at toxic concentrations. An odour can be masked by other odours. Olfactory fatigue can occur and person may not be able to detect the odour. 79

TLV-TWA – Odour TLV – IDLH : 

TLV-TWA – Odour TLV – IDLH 80

LD50[Lethal Dose – Fifty] : 

LD50[Lethal Dose – Fifty] LD50 (orl, rat): That oral dose which will kill 50% of the experimental adult animals of the same species, both male and female, within 14 days. LD50 (skn, rat): That dose, which on continuous contact for 24 hours with bare skin of the experimental adult animals, both male and female, will kill 50% of them within 14 days. 81 (Contd.)

LD50 of Formulations : 

LD50 of Formulations The LD50 values for formulations can be calculated as follows: Unit: mg/kg (of body-weight) 82 Formulation LD50 = LD50 of A.I. Conc. of A.I. (%w)

LC50 (Inhalation, Acute) : 

LC50 (Inhalation, Acute) LC50 (ihl, rat): That concentration of vapour, mist or dust in air, which on continuous inhalation by experimental adult healthy animals, both male and female, for one hour will kill 50% of them within 14 days. Note: In case of mist or dust, more than 90% of respirable particles must be less than or equal to 10 microns. [1 micron = 1/1000 mm] 83

LCLo[Lethal Concentration – Low] : 

LCLo[Lethal Concentration – Low] LCLo: The lowest concentration of a substance in air (other than LC50), which is reported to have killed humans or animals in a given duration of time. 24 hours: Acute >24 hours: Sub-acute / Chronic 84

LDLo[Lethal Dose – Low] : 

LDLo[Lethal Dose – Low] LDLo: The lowest oral dose of a substance which is reported to have killed experimental adult animals, both male and female, in a given duration of time. 24 hours: Acute >24 hours: Sub-acute / Chronic 85

Median Tolerance Limit (TLm) : 

Median Tolerance Limit (TLm) It is a measure of aquatic toxicity. It is also termed as EC50 (“Effective Concentration – Fifty”) It is the concentration of a toxic substance in water which will cause abnormal behaviour, including death in approx. 50% of the fish of a given species, in a given time duration, in a given type of water (fresh water/sea water). Unit: ppm (by wt.) or mg/l. 86 (Contd.)

Median Tolerance Limit (TLm) : 

Median Tolerance Limit (TLm) The value of TLm (or EC50) is expressed as: MIBC: 370ppm/24h/brain shrimp/TLm/fresh water Toluene: 1,180 mg/l/96h/sunfish/TLm/fresh water 87


IDLH IDLH stands for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health It is the maximum air-borne concentration of an acutely toxic substance to which a healthy male worker can be exposed for 30 minutes and escape without suffering any irreversible health-effects or escape-impairing symptoms. Examples: IDLH value for Chlorine = 25 ppm IDLH value for Ammonia = 500 ppm 88 (Contd.)


IDLH IDLH is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations. 89 (Contd.)


IDLH In USA, the OSHA regulation [1910.134(b)] defines IDLH as "an atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere." 90 (Contd.)


IDLH IDLH values are often used to guide the selection of breathing apparatus that are made available to workers or firefighters in specific situations. The NIOSH definition does not include oxygen deficiency (below 19.5%v), although air-supplying breathing apparatus is required in that situation. Examples include high altitudes and unventilated confined spaces. 91 (Contd.)


IDLH The OSHA definition is broad enough to include oxygen-deficient circumstances in the absence of "air-borne contaminants," as well as many other chemical, thermal, or pneumatic hazards to life or health (e.g., pure helium, super-cooled or super-heated air, etc.). OSHA also uses the broader term "impair", rather than "prevent", with respect to the ability to escape. 92 == == ==

NFPA “Hazard Diamond” : 

NFPA “Hazard Diamond” NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S.-based National Fire protection Association (NFPA). It has developed the “hazard diamond" for hazardous chemicals and is used by emergency personnel to quickly and easily identify the risks posed by nearby hazardous materials. This is necessary to help determine what, if any, speciality equipment should be used, procedures followed, or precautions taken during the first moments of an emergency response. 93 (Contd.)

NFPA “Hazard Diamond” : 

NFPA “Hazard Diamond” The NFPA diamond is designed to give general hazard information for chemicals. Red : Fire Hazard 0 – Will not burn 1 – Must be preheated for ignition; flashpoint above 200°F (93°C) 2 – Must be moderately heated for ignition, flashpoint above 100°F (38°C) 3 – Ignition may occur under most ambient conditions, flashpoint below 100°F (38°C) 4 – Extremely flammable and will readily disperse through air under standard conditions, flashpoint below 73°F (23°C) 94 (Contd.)

NFPA “Hazard Diamond” : 

NFPA “Hazard Diamond” Blue: Health Hazard 0 – Hazard no greater than ordinary material 1 – May cause irritation; minimal residual injury 2 – Intense or prolonged exposure may cause incapacitation; residual injury may occur if not treated 3 – Exposure could cause serious injury even if treated 4 – Exposure may cause death 95 (Contd.)

NFPA “Hazard Diamond” : 

Yellow: Reactivity Hazard 0 – Stable 1 – May become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures, may be mildly water reactive 2 – Unstable; may undergo violent decomposition, but will not detonate. May form explosive mixtures with water 3 – Detonates with strong ignition source 4 – Readily detonates NFPA “Hazard Diamond” 96 (Contd.)

NFPA “Hazard Diamond” : 

White: Special Hazard OX Strong Oxidizer Water Reactive NFPA “Hazard Diamond” 97 (Contd.)

NFPA “Hazard Diamond” : 

NFPA “Hazard Diamond” 98

Ecotoxicity : 

Ecotoxicity Ecotoxicity is the subject of study in the field of ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology is the study of how chemicals affect the environment and the organisms living in it. 99 (Contd.)

Ecotoxicity : 

Ecotoxicity Scientists who study the environment tell us that all organisms are connected in the web of life. Therefore, if a chemical affects some of the organisms, other organisms in the ecosystem may suffer since all organisms depend on one another. 100

Ecotoxicity : 

Ecotoxicity The goal of ecotoxicity is to understand the concentration of chemicals at which organisms in the environment will be affected. This concentration should be avoided in order to protect the environment. 101 * * * * *

Slide 102: 

Thank you for your attention 102

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