acids, bases and salts

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ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

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ACIDS Sour in taste Produce H+ (hydrogen ions) Turns blue litmus red Acids + metals salt + hydrogen gas Conduct electricity are corrosive (acid rain) Acid + base salt + water (neutralization) pH less than 7

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HCl - hydrochloric- stomach acid H 2 SO 4 - sulfuric acid - car batteries HNO 3 - nitric acid - explosives HC 2 H 3 O 2 - acetic acid - vinegar H 2 CO 3 -carbonic acid - sodas H 3 PO 4 - phosphoric acid - flavorings Common Acids

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Examples of acids: Vinegar Lemon Juice Soft Drink Battery Acid Stomach Acid Apple Juice Black Tea Acids

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Weak v/s Strong Bases Weak Bases: ammonia; potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate Strong Bases: sodium hydroxide; sodium phosphate; barium hydroxide; calcium hydroxide

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BASES Bitter to taste Soapy to touch Water soluble bases are called alkalies All alkalies are bases but all bases are not alkalies Turns red litmus blue, phenolphthalein pink and methyl orange yellow Base + acid salt + water pH greater than 7

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NaOH - sodium hydroxide (LYE) soaps, drain cleaner Mg (OH) 2 - magnesium hydroxide-antacids Al(OH) 3 -aluminum hydroxide-antacids, deodorants NH 4 OH-ammonium hydroxide- “ammonia” Common bases

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Examples of bases: Detergent Baking Soda Drain Cleaner Ammonia Soaps (hand, dish) Antacid bases

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Weak Bases: ammonia; potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate Strong Bases: sodium hydroxide; sodium phosphate; barium hydroxide; calcium hydroxide Weak vs. Strong Bases

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These are items that are neither acids or bases. Neutral items will turn blue and red litmus paper green. The main example of a neutral item is: Pure Water NEUTRAL

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Indicator Acid color Neutral color Base color Phenolphthalein Colorless Faint pink Dark pink Bromthymol blue Yellow Green Blue Litmus Red ----- Blue Reactions with indicators

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Red litmus paper Blue litmus paper pH Red Cabbage Juice DETERMINING ACIDS & BASES

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RED & BLUE LITMUS PAPER Robert Boyle discovered litmus paper certain plant extracts, such as litmus, can be used to distinguish acids from bases. blue and red litmus paper turn red when dipped in an acid red and blue litmus paper turn blue when exposed to a base

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pH - pH is the measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. The pH scale ranges from 1 to 14 1 through 6 being acidic 7 is considered neutral 8 through 14 being basic the negative logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration of an aqueous solution; used to express acidity.

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RED CABBAGE JUICE red cabbage can be used as an acid/base indicator after boiling the red cabbage, pour a small amount of the juice into a small sample of a substance your checking the juice will turn blue if the substance is a base the juice will turn red if the substance is an acid

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A salt is a neutral substance produced from the reaction of an acid and a base. Composed of the negative ion of an acid and the positive ion of a base. One of the products of a Neutralization Reaction Examples: KCl, MgSO 4 , Na 3 PO 4 What is a SALT?

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Neutralization Reaction A neutralization reaction is the reaction of an acid with a base to produce salt and water. Example H 2 SO4 + NaOH  NaHSO 4 + H 2 O

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Digestion and pH Digestion-process by which foods are broken down into simpler substances. Mechanical digestion-physical process in which food is torn apart (mouth) Chemical digestion- chemical reactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules. (stomach and small intestines)

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pH in the Digestive System Mouth-pH around 7. Saliva contains amylase, an enzyme which begins to break carbohydrates into sugars. Stomach- pH around 2. Proteins are broken down into amino acids by the enzyme pepsin. Small intestine-pH around 8. Most digestion ends. Small molecules move to bloodstream toward cells that use them

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SUMMARY ACID - A class of compounds whose water solutions taste sour, turn blue litmus to red, and react with bases to form salts. BASE - A class of compounds that taste bitter, feel slippery in water solution, turn red litmus to blue, and react with acids to form salts. NEUTRAL - These are items that are neither acids or bases. There are 4 main ways to determine if a substance is and acid or a base. They are: Red litmus paper, Blue litmus paper, pH, and Red Cabbage Juice.

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THANK YOU Made by- S.Aruna Devi Class- 10th C