The Adventure

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Presentation Transcript

Slide 1: 

WELCOME TO ENGLISH PROJECT WORK

By:- Jayant Vishnu Narlikar : 

By:- Jayant Vishnu Narlikar THE ADVENTURE

Slide 3: 

JAYANT VISHNU NARLIKAR

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BIOGRAPHY OF AUTHOR Birth place : Kolhapur, Maharashtra, Date: July-19-1938 Studies: "University Children's School" and "Banaras Hindu University" Higher Studies: (Mathematics & Astronomy) in Fitzwilliam House, Cambridge. In 1960, he is recruited as a "Research Student " on the recommendation of Professor Fred Hoyle Studies in Cambridge, U.K., from 1957 to 1972. He receives the " B.A. in 1960, the M.A. in 1964 and the "Ph.D. degrees" in 1963 In 1963, he is named "Fellow of King's College". In 1966 he becomes "Staff Member of the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy" in Cambridge University. Jayant V. Narlikar returns to India in 1972 as professor at the "Tata Institute of Fundamental Research" where he manages the Theoretical Group for Astrophysics. In 1976, the "Sc.D. (Cantab) Degree"  is granted him for "Distinguished Research".

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AUTHOR's ACHIEVEMENTS & PUBLICATIONS Current Issues in Cosmology, 2006 A Different Approach to Cosmology: From a Static Universe through the Big Bang towards Reality, 2005 Fred Hoyle's Universe, 2003 Scientific Edge: The Indian Scientist from Vedic to Modern Times, 2003 An Introduction to Cosmology, 2002 Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei: An Introduction, 1999 From Black Clouds to Black Holes, 1996 Seven Wonders of the Cosmos, 1995 Philosophy of Science: Perspectives from Natural and Social Sciences, 1992 Highlights in Gravitation and Cosmology, 1989 Violent Phenomena in the Universe, 1982 The Lighter Side of Gravity, 1982 Physics-Astronomy Frontier (co-author Sir Fred Hoyle), 1981 The Structure of the Universe, 1977 Creation of Matter and Anomalous Redshifts, 2002 Absorber Theory of Radiation in Expanding Universes, 2002 आकाशाशी जडले नाते (Akashashi Jadale Nate), (in Marathi)

Introduction To“The Adventure” : 

Introduction To“The Adventure” The story Adventure belongs to science fiction. Professor Gangadhar Pant Gaitonde finds himself in a strange world. No doubt he is in Pune, but the facts do not agree with history. He decides to go to Bombay and consult history books. Bombay is not what he expected to find it. East India Company is still ruling there. According to the history known to him, the East India Company was wound up just after the events of 1857. He goes to the library and finds the answer. The events took a different course after the battle of Panipat. The Marathas had won the battle, not lost it.

SIMPLIFIED PHASE OF “THE ADVENTURE” : 

SIMPLIFIED PHASE OF “THE ADVENTURE” Professor Gaitonde, a historian, is going to give a lecture on the implications of Catastrophe Theory in the Third Battle of Panipat. On the way his car collides with a truck and he goes into coma. But he experiences another world where history is different from how we know in the real world- in the Third Battle of Panipat, in reality, Afghans defeated Marathas killing their leader Viswas Rao. But in the parallel world, Marathas win the war as Viswas Rao escapes narrowly from the bullet. The victory of Marathas brings about diverse changes and reforms in the country. He gains consciousness and his friend Rajendra Deshpande rationalizes his strange experience on the basis of two scientific therories, viz. Catastrophe Theory and the lack of determinism in Quantum Theory.

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Professor Gaitonde is on his way to Bombay from Pune. It is the pre-independent Bombay where he finds Anglo-indians and Union Jack. He goes to a library and reads four volumes of history starting from the period of Asoka upto the Third Battle of Panipat. The fifth volume of the Book (Bhausahebanchi Bakhar) tells a different story where Marathas win the war against Afghans in the Third Battle of Panipat. After their victory India moved towards democracy. Absent mindedly, he tucks into his pocket a copy of the book. He reaches Azad Maidan where a lecture is going on. The absence of the chairman for the meeting makes it strange but the crowd doesn’t want one though the Professor protests. He gets on to the stage, snatches the mike and starts speaking. The crowd showers eggs and tomatoes on him and finally throws him out. He is lost in the crowd. This is where the Professor’s strange experience ends. Next we find him talking to his friend Rajendra in the real world.

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CATASTROPHE THEORY Catastrophe theory analyses degenerate critical points of the potential function — points where not just the first derivative, but one or more higher derivatives of the potential function are also zero. These are called the germs of the catastrophe geometries. The degeneracy of these critical points can be unfolded by expanding the potential function as a Taylor series in small perturbations of the parameters. When the degenerate points are not merely accidental, but are structurally stable, the degenerate points exist as organising centres for particular geometric structures of lower degeneracy, with critical features in the parameter space around them. If the potential function depends on two or fewer active variables, and four (resp. five) or fewer active parameters, then there are only seven (resp. eleven) generic structures for these bifurcation geometries, with corresponding standard forms into which the Taylor series around the catastrophe germs can be transformed by diffeomorphism (a smooth transformation whose inverse is also smooth).[citation needed] These seven fundamental types are now presented, with the names that Thom gave them.

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QUANTUM THEORY Quantum theory evolved as a new branch of theoretical physics during the first few decades of the 20th century in an endeavour to understand the fundamental properties of matter. It began with the study of the interactions of matter and radiation. Certain radiation effects could neither be explained by classical mechanics, nor by the theory of electromagnetism. In particular, physicists were puzzled by the nature of light. Peculiar lines in the spectrum of sunlight had been discovered earlier by Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826). These spectral lines were then systematically catalogued for various substances, yet nobody could explain why the spectral lines are there and why they would differ for each substance. It took about one hundred years, until a plausible explanation was supplied by quantum theory.

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BACKGROUNG OF BATTLE OF PANIPAT On January 24, 1556, Mughal ruler Humanyun died in Delhi and was succeeded by his son, Akbar at Kalanaur, who was only thirteen years old. On February 14, 1556, Akbar was enthroned as the Emperor. At the time of his accession to the throne, the Mughal rule was confined to Kabul, Kandahar, parts of Delhi and Punjab. Akbar was then campaigning in Kabul with his guardian, Bairam Khan. Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya or Hemu was a Hindu king in Delhi, who earlier was an adviser to Sher Shah Suri's son Islam Shah from 1545 to 1553 and had won 22 battles during 1553 to 1556 to quell the rebellion by Afghan rebels against Sur regime. At the time of Humayun's death in January 1556, Hemu had just quelled a rebellion in Bengal, killing the Bengal ruler Muhammad Shah in the war. He made his intentions of winning Delhi for himself known to his commanders. He then started a campaign, winning battles throughout northern India. When he attacked Agra, the commander of Akbar's forces in Agra, fled without fighting. A large area of Etawah, Kalpi, and Agra provinces came under Hemu's control. Hemu then moved towards Delhi and stationed his forces outside the city at Tughlaqabad. On October 6, 1556, his army encountered Mughal resistance. After a fierce fight Akbar's forces were ousted, and Tardi Beg, the commander of the Mughal forces,escaped, allowing Hemu to capture Delhi. Around 3,000 Mughals were killed[citation needed]. Hemu was crowned at Purana Qila on October 7, 1556, and established Hindu rule in North India, after 350 years of foreign rule, and was bestowed the title of Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya.

Slide 12: 

BATTLE OF PANIPAT

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ABOUT 3rd WORLD A fictional universe can be almost indistinguishable from the real world, except for the presence of the invented characters and events that characterize a work of fiction. It can also bear little or no resemblance to reality, with invented fundamental principles of space and time. The subject is most commonly addressed in reference to fictional universes that differ markedly from reality, such as those that introduce entire fictional cities, countries, or even planets, those that contradict commonly known facts about the world and its history, or those that feature fantasy or science fiction concepts such as magic or faster than light travel, and especially those in which the deliberate development of the setting is a substantial focus of the work.

MAIN POINTS : 

MAIN POINTS Professor Gaitonde or Gangadharpant emerged from Victoria Terminus station. He found himself facing an imposing building–East India House, Headquarters of the East India Company. He was shocked & surprised. The East India Company had been wound up after the uprising of 1857. Out of five books, four described history as we know it. Only in the fifth volume history had taken a different turn. It was written that the Marathas won the Battle of Panipat quite handsomely. Abdali was defeated & shased back back to Kabul. The East India Company gave up its expansionist programme. It offered aid & help to the Marathas. Gangadhar went through Bhausahebanchi Bakhar to look for the description of the battle. In the Azad Maidan a lecture was in progress. There was a table & a chair at the platform. The chair was unoccupied. Professor Gaitonde’s friend Rajendra Deshpande tried to rationalise his experience on the basis of the Catastrophe theory. He applied the theory to the battle of Panipat. Alternative world’s can exist at the same time but the observer can see only one of them at a time. Gangadharpant made another decision. He would never be seen presiding at another meeting. He became wiser after the Maidan’s experience.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS : 

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Why did Professor Gaitonde enter Forbes building and what was the outcome? What was so special about the fifth volume regarding history? How was the account of the Battle of Panipat in the fifth volume and the Bhausahebanchi Bakhar different from the common looks on history? Describe Professor’s bitter experience in the Azad Maidan? How was the catastrophe theory applied to the Battle of Panipat? Professor Gaitonde neither travelled to the past nor to the future but he was in the present experiencing a different world. Justify.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS : 

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS What specific plan did Professor Gaitonde have in mind when he set out for Bombay? What was his experience in the Town Hall library? How did Rajendra Deshpande try to rationalise Professor Gaitonde’s ‘fantastic’ or catastrophic experience?

Slide 17: 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Teacher’s kind guideness. Internet {Wikipedia.com}. Refreshers. Hornbill {NCERT Book}.

Slide 18: 

THANK YOU