лекция 1. введение в искусственный интеллект

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Введение в искусственный интеллект

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Introduction to AI:

1 Introduction to AI Required textbook: S. Russell and P. Norvig. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. 3 rd edition, Prentice Hall, 2010

What is AI?:

2 AI is the reproduction of human reasoning and intelligent behavior by computational methods Intelligent behavior Humans Computer What is AI? an attempt of

What is AI? (R&N):

3 Act like humans Act rationally Think like humans Think rationally What is AI? (R&N) Discipline that systematizes and automates reasoning processes to create machines that:

Slide 4:

4 The goal of AI is to create computer systems that perform tasks regarded as requiring intelligence when done by humans  AI Methodology: Take a task at which people are better, e.g.: Prove a theorem Play chess Plan a surgical operation Diagnose a disease Navigate in a building and build a computer system that does it automatically But do we want to duplicate human imperfections? Act like humans Act rationally Think like humans Think rationally

Slide 5:

5 Here, how the computer performs tasks does matter The reasoning steps are important  Ability to create and manipulate symbolic knowledge (definitions, concepts, theorems, …) What is the impact of hardware on low-level reasoning, e.g., to go from signals to symbols? Act like humans Act rationally Think like humans Think rationally

Slide 6:

6 Now, the goal is to build agents that always make the “best” decision given what is available (knowledge, time, resources) “Best” means maximizing the expected value of a utility function  Connections to economics and control theory What is the impact of self-consciousness, emotions, desires, love for music, fear of dying, etc ... on human intelligence? Act like humans Act rationally Think like humans Think rationally

Can Machines Act/Think Intelligently?:

7 Can Machines Act/Think Intelligently? “If there were machines which bore a resemblance to our bodies and imitated our actions as closely as possible for all practical purposes, we should still have two very certain means of recognizing that they were not real men. The first is that they could never use words, or put together signs, as we do in order to declare our thoughts to others… Secondly, even though some machines might do some things as well as we do them, or perhaps even better, they would inevitably fail in others, which would reveal that they are acting not from understanding, …” Discourse on the Method, by Descartes (1598-1650)

Can Machines Act/Think Intelligently?:

8 Turing Test: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/turing-test/ Test proposed by Alan Turing in 1950 The computer is asked questions by a human interrogator. It passes the test if the interrogator cannot tell whether the responses come from a person Required capabilities: natural language processing, knowledge representation, automated reasoning, learning,... No physical interaction Chinese Room (J. Searle) Can Machines Act/Think Intelligently?

An Application of the Turing Test:

9 An Application of the Turing Test CAPTCHA: Completely Automatic Public Turing tests to tell Computers and Humans Apart E.g.: Display visually distorted words Ask user to recognize these words Example of application: have only humans open email accounts

Can Machines Act/Think Intelligently?:

10 Can Machines Act/Think Intelligently? Yes , if intelligence is narrowly defined as information processing AI has made impressive achievements showing that tasks initially assumed to require intelligence can be automated But each success of AI seems to push further the limits of what we consider “intelligence”

Some Achievements:

11 Some Achievements Computers have won over world champions in several games, including Checkers, Othello, and Chess, but still do not do well in Go AI techniques are used in many systems: formal calculus, video games, route planning, logistics planning, pharmaceutical drug design, medical diagnosis, hardware and software trouble-shooting, speech recognition, traffic monitoring, facial recognition, medical image analysis, part inspection, etc... Stanford’s robotic car, Stanley, autonomously traversed 132 miles of desert Some industries (automobile, electronics) are highly robotized, while other robots perform brain and heart surgery, are rolling on Mars, fly autonomously, …, but home robots still remain a thing of the future

Can Machines Act/Think Intelligently?:

12 Can Machines Act/Think Intelligently? Yes, if intelligence is narrowly defined as information processing AI has made impressive achievements showing that tasks initially assumed to require intelligence can be automated Maybe yes, maybe not , if intelligence is not separated from the rest of “being human”

Some Big Open Questions:

13 Some Big Open Questions AI (especially, the “rational agent” approach) assumes that intelligent behaviors are only based on information processing? Is this a valid assumption? If yes, can the human brain machinery solve problems that are inherently intractable for computers? In a human being, where is the interface between “intelligence” and the rest of “human nature”, e.g.: How does intelligence relate to emotions felt? What does it mean for a human to “feel” that he/she understands something? Is this interface critical to intelligence? Can there exist a general theory of intelligence independent of human beings? What is the role of the human body?

Some Big Open Questions:

14 Some Big Open Questions AI (especially, the “rational agent” approach) assumes that intelligent behaviors are based on information processing? Is this a valid assumption? If yes, can the human brain machinery solve problems that are inherently intractable for computers? In a human being, where is the interface between “intelligence” and the rest of “human nature”, e.g.: How does intelligence relate to emotions felt? What does it mean for a human to “feel” that he/she understands something? Is this interface critical to intelligence? Can there exist a general theory of intelligence independent of human beings? What is the role of the human body? In the movie I, Robot , the most impressive feature of the robots is not their ability to solve complex problems, but how they blend human-like reasoning with other key aspects of human beings (especially, self-consciousness, fear of dying, distinction between right and wrong)

Slide 15:

15 AI contributes to building an information processing model of human beings, just as Biochemistry contributes to building a model of human beings based on bio-molecular interactions Both try to explain how a human being operates Both also explore ways to avoid human imperfections (in Biochemistry, by engineering new proteins and drug molecules; in AI, by designing rational reasoning methods) Both try to produce new useful technologies Neither explains (yet?) the true meaning of being human

Main Areas of AI:

16 Main Areas of AI Knowledge representation (including formal logic) Search, especially heuristic search (puzzles, games) Planning Reasoning under uncertainty, including probabilistic reasoning Learning Agent architectures Robotics and perception Natural language processing Search Knowledge rep. Planning Reasoning Learning Agent Robotics Perception Natural language ... Expert Systems Constraint satisfaction

Bits of History:

17 Bits of History 1956: The name “Artificial Intelligence” is coined 60’s: Search and games, formal logic and theorem proving 70’s: Robotics, perception, knowledge representation, expert systems 80’s: More expert systems, AI becomes an industry 90’s: Rational agents, probabilistic reasoning, machine learning 00’s : Systems integrating many AI methods, machine learning, reasoning under uncertainty, robotics again

Slide 18:

18 228 221 121 222 227 Reasoning Methods in AI Rational Agency and Intelligent Interaction 224M Multi-Agent Systems 224N Natural Language Processing + Speech Recognition and Synthesis 224S 224U 223A 223B Intro. to Robotics + Experimental Robotics Intro. to Computer Vision 225A 225B 227B General Game Playing 226 Statistical Techniques in Robotics 229 Machine Learning Structured Probabilistic Models 157 Logic & Automated Reasoning

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