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Psychology From A Christian Worldview Infancy and Childhood Physical Development : Physical Development E.Q. “How do the brain and motor skills develop during infancy and childhood?” In the womb neural cells develop one-quarter million per minute. When born you have most of the brain cells you will ever have. Ages 3 to 6 most rapid growth is in the frontal lobes (rational planning). Association areas linked with thinking, memory, and language are the last to develop. Severe deprivation and abuse can retard development. Maturation sets the basic course of development and experience adjusts it. Motor Development : Motor Development The sequence of physical (motor) development is universal. Babies roll over, sit unsupported, creep on all fours, and then walk; these developmental milestones are the same around the world. Blind children do too. Genes play a major role in motor development. Identical twins typically begin sitting up and walking on nearly the same day. Terms: Maturation is the biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. The rapidly developing cerebellum creates our readiness to learn walking around age 1. Experience before that time has limited effect. Maturation and Infant Memory : Maturation and Infant Memory Can you recall your first day of preschool or your third birthday party? Earliest memories seldom predate our third birthdays. Babies only 3 months old can learn to move a mobile by kicking it and can retain that learning for a month. What the conscious mind does not know and cannot express in words, the nervous system somehow remembers. Skin perspiration and preschool classmates. Terms - Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. Assimilation: interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas. Terms to Know : Terms to Know Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. By adulthood we have built countless schemas, ranging from cats and dogs to our concept of love. Assimilation: interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas. Accommodation: adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. Cognitive Development : E.Q. “How did Jean Piaget view the development of a child’s mind, and what are the current researcher’s views?” Jean Piaget (1896-1980) His interest began in 1920. Developing questions for intelligence tests. Errors made by children were very similar. Proposed that a child’s mind develops through a series of stages. The driving force between our intellectual progression is our unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences. Core idea: “Children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings.” Cognitive Development Cognitive Development : Scale Errors: 18 to 30 month-old children Cognitive Development Impossible Objects : Impossible Objects Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development : Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Piaget’s Object Permanence : Piaget’s Object Permanence Video: Lucille – Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage Baby Math: numerically impossible outcome Piaget’s Cognitive Development : Infants are smarter than Piaget appreciated. Before reaching the concrete operational stage, children have trouble with conservation. Conservation: the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and numbers remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. Piaget’s Cognitive Development Piaget’s Cognitive Development : Theory of the mind: people’s ideas about their own and other’s mental states – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and behaviors these might predict. Between 3 to 4 years old, children come to realize that others may hold false beliefs. (Band-Aids example) Children with autism have an impaired ability to infer other’s states of mind. Autism: a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of other’s states of mind. Symptoms of Autism The Face of Autism Hoop Dreams Piaget’s Cognitive Development Social Development : E.Q. “How do the bonds of attachment form between caregivers and infants?” Stranger Anxiety: A newly emerging ability to evaluate people as unfamiliar and possibly threatening helps protect babies 8 months and older. Children have schemas for familiar faces; when they cannot assimilate the new face into these remembered schema, they become distressed. At 12 months, many infants cling tightly to a parent when they are frightened or expect separation. Social Development Origins of Attachment : The attachment bond is a powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their parents/caregivers. Contact is one key to attachment. Body Contact: 1950s psychologists Harry and Margret Harlow Researchers soon learned that other qualities – rocking, warmth, and feeding made the cloth mother even more appealing. More on Harlow Familiarity is another key to attachment. Attachments based on familiarity form during a critical period. Critical period: an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. Origins of Attachment Familiarity cont. : Familiarity cont. For some animals attachment happens with the first moving object they see. This rigid attachment process is called imprinting. (Christian Moullec example) Once formed this attachment is difficult to reverse. Children do not imprint. Children do become attached to what they’ve known. Mere exposure fosters fondness Familiarity is a safety signal. Familiarity breeds contentment. Attachment Differences : Attachment Differences What accounts for children’s attachment differences? Is attachment style the result of parenting or is it influenced genetically? A father’s love and acceptance have been comparable to a mother’s love in predicting offspring’s health and well-being. Anxiety over separation from parents peaks at around 13 months, then gradually declines. Erik Erikson (1902 -1994) – Developmental psychologist “Out of the conflict between trust and mistrust, the infant develops hope, which is the earliest form of what gradually becomes faith in adults.” Attachment and Erik Erikson : Securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust. Basic trust: a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers. Basic trust is attributed to early parenting. Infants blessed with sensitive, loving caregivers form a lifelong attitude of trust rather than fear. Affects our adult styles of romantic love: secure, trusting attachment, anxious attachment, or avoidance of attachment. Early attachments form the foundation for our adult relationships. “What is learned in the cradle, lasts to the grave.” ~ French proverb Attachment and Erik Erikson Deprivation of Attachment : Individuals are often withdrawn, freighted, even speechless. If institutionalized more than 8 months, individuals often bear lasting emotional scars. Harlow’s Monkeys: females often were neglectful, abusive, and even murderous. The unloved often become the unloving. Most abusive parents – and many condemned murders report having been neglected or battered as children. Most abused children do not later become violent criminals or abusive parents. Most children growing up under adversity are resilient and become normal adults. 30% of those abused do become abusers – four times the U.S. national rate of child abuse. Deprivation of Attachment Deprivation of Attachment cont. : Extreme childhood trauma can leave footprints on the brain. Show changes in the brain chemical serotonin which calms aggressive impulses. “Stress can set off a ripple of hormonal changes that permanently wire a child’s brain to cope with a malevolent world.” ~ Martin Teicher (2002) Children terrorized by abuse or war suffer other lasting wounds = nightmares, depression, teens years troubled with substance abuse, binge eating, or aggression. Child sexual abuse, if severe and prolonged, increases the risk for health problems, psychological disorders, substance abuse, and criminality. Deprivation of Attachment cont. Child-Rearing Practices : The most heavily researched aspect of parenting = how and to what extent do parents seek to control their children. Researchers have identified three parenting styles: Authoritarian: parents impose rules and expect obedience. Permissive: parents submit to their children’s desires, make few demands, and use little punishment. Authoritative: parents are both demanding and responsive. They exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them but also by explaining the reasons and encourage open discussion and allowing exceptions when making rules. Child-Rearing Practices Child-Rearing Practices cont. : Children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence usually have warm, concerned, authoritative parents. Children with authoritarian parents tend to have less social skill and self-esteem. Children with permissive parents tend to be more aggressive and immature. This association is correlational not causal. All advice reflects the advice-giver’s values. Child-Rearing Practices cont. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.