Urban IPM 3 day training equip

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Application Equipment: 

Application Equipment Douglass E. Stevenson, Ph.D. Extension Associate Texas Cooperative Extension



To Enhance Safety and Benefits and to Get the Most From Any Sprayer:: 

To Enhance Safety and Benefits and to Get the Most From Any Sprayer: Select the right equipment. Set it up correctly. Use proper operation procedures. Perform proper maintenance.

Reference Materials: 

Reference Materials The pesticide label Spray equipment Extension guidelines

All Sprayers Should Be:: 

All Sprayers Should Be: Durable Convenient to fill Convenient to operate Easy to clean

Three Basic Functions of a Sprayer:: 

Three Basic Functions of a Sprayer: Distribution Metering Storage and transport

Types of Spray Equipment: 

Types of Spray Equipment Hand sprayer Knapsack (LOK) Battery powered


Low pressure hydraulic High pressure ULV Chemigation or injection

Three Functions of a Nozzle: 

Three Functions of a Nozzle Metering Atomization Pattern dispersal

Flow Rate is Dependent On:: 

Flow Rate is Dependent On: Nozzle size Pressure Fluid Characteristics


Components Tank - mostly plastic, size varies Pump - various Filter - 50 or 100 mesh Nozzles - flat fan, cone, flood Regulator - regulate pressure


Tanks Fiberglass Stainless steel Galvanized steel Aluminum Polyethylene

Pumps Must Provide: 

Pumps Must Provide Gallons per minute (GPM) required by all nozzles Tank agitation (6% of tank volume) Twenty percent (20%) reserve for wear

Backpack or Hand: 

Backpack or Hand Pumping action from moving a flexible diaphragm Fairly resistant, moderately priced

Roller Pump: 

Roller Pump Widely used Cheap, effective, and flexible Rolling action of rollers force liquid through outlet

Gear Pump: 

Gear Pump Used on early sprayers Wear easily Cannot be repaired

Centrifugal Pump: 

Centrifugal Pump Good for abrasive materials Not self-priming High capacity

Piston Pump: 

Piston Pump Positive displacement Low output Expensive Good for WP


Nozzles Flat fan - herbicides Cone - insecticide, fungicide Floods - herbicide, fertilizer Sizes - 01, 02, 03 or 3, 5, 10 Angles (fan) - 80, 110

Nozzle Materials: 

Nozzle Materials Ceramic Hardened stainless steel Stainless steel Nylon Brass

Nozzles: Wear vs Cost: 

Nozzles: Wear vs Cost

Flat fan: 

Flat fan Broadcast Tapered edges Must overlap

Even flat fan: 

Even flat fan Rectangular pattern Banding Ex: 8002E

More Flat Fans: 

More Flat Fans Flat fan - extended range Twin flat fan - good for dense foliage Flooding flat fan


Cones Circular pattern Smaller particles Good foliage penetration

Flood nozzles: 

Flood nozzles Fertilizer and herbicide Large droplet


Multi-pattern Hand-held Select pattern by turning nozzle body


Strainers Tank opening (16-20 mesh) In-line (20-50 mesh) Nozzle screen (none - 100 mesh)


Hoses Correct size Flexible (non-collapsible if suction hose) Durable Resistant (sunlight, oil, chemicals, abrasion, twisting) Sufficient Pressure Rating

ULV or Mist Blowers: 

ULV or Mist Blowers Use a fan or whirling disc Low volume Save time and labor Calibration critical Concentrated pesticide


Spreaders Drop spreader Uniform pattern Low drift


Spreaders Centrifugal or rotary spreader Wider swath Non-uniform pattern



Why Minimize Drift?: 

Why Minimize Drift? To Avoid: Spotty pest control Wasted chemicals Off-target damage Environmental impact Public concerns Problems in populated areas

Factors that Affect Droplet Size: 

Factors that Affect Droplet Size Spray pressure Spray angle Nozzle type Orifice size

To enlarge droplet size:: 

To enlarge droplet size: Operate at lower end of recommended pressure range Use nozzles with larger orifice Use special nozzles to reduce the portion of small droplets

Environmental Conditions: 

Environmental Conditions Best conditions occur early or late in day: wind more likely in 3-to-10 mph range temperature is lower relative humidity is higher WARNING: watch for inversions


Maintenance Cleaning: hoses, nozzles, pumps, tanks, and hoppers Clean with water and/or detergent Use soft brush on nozzles

Cleaning agents: 

Cleaning agents Insecticides/fungicides - powder detergent - agitate, flush and rinse Hormone herbicides (salt or amine) - ammonia or washing soda- agitate, flush, let stand overnight, flush and rinse Other herbicides - powder detergent - agitate, flush and rinse

Suggested Calibration Tools: 

Suggested Calibration Tools Measuring tape(s) - 100 ft tape and yardstick A watch capable of measuring seconds - stopwatch works best Measuring container marked in ounces - one quart works for most applications

Ground Speed: 

Ground Speed Linear relationship Doubling speed cuts rate in half Cutting speed in half doubles rate

To Increase Rate:: 

To Increase Rate: Slow down Use larger nozzle Increase pressure Decrease nozzle spacing

To Decrease Rate:: 

To Decrease Rate: Speed up Use smaller nozzle Decrease pressure Increase nozzle spacing

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