Biofield Treated p-Chlorobenzophenone

Views:
 
     
 

Presentation Description

The study was accomplished in two groups i.e. control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

slide 1:

American Journal of Physical Chemistry 2015 46: 48-57 Published online November 9 2015 http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajpc doi: 10.11648/j.ajpc.20150406.12 ISSN: 2327-2430 Print ISSN: 2327-2449 Online Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Biofield Treated p-Chlorobenzophenone Mahendra Kumar Trivedi 1 Alice Branton 1 Dahryn Trivedi 1 Gopal Nayak 1 Khemraj Bairwa 2 Snehasis Jana 2 1 Trivedi Global Inc. Henderson NV USA 2 Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd. Bhopal Madhya Pradesh India Email address: publicationtrivedisrl.com S. Jana To cite this article: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi Alice Branton Dahryn Trivedi Gopal Nayak Khemraj Bairwa Snehasis Jana. Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Biofield Treated p-Chlorobenzophenone. American Journal of Physical Chemistry. Vol. 4 No. 6 2015 pp. 48-57. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpc.20150406.12 Abstract: p-Chlorobenzophenone p-CBP is the important chemical intermediate used for the synthesis of several pharmaceutical drugs like fenofibrate cetirizine alprazolam and benzodiazepine. The aim of this study was set to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-CBP. The study was accomplished in two groups i.e. control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently the control and treated samples of p-CBP were analyzed using X-ray diffraction XRD particle size analyzer surface area analyzer differential scanning calorimetry DSC thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis TGA-DTG Fourier transform infrared FT-IR and ultraviolet-visible UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD study exhibited the increase in average crystallite size 25.93 as well as the intensity of XRD peaks of treated p-CBP as compared to the control. The particle size analysis showed the reduction in particle size of fine particles ≤51.49 µm by 21.6 d 10 whereas increase in particle size of large particles ≥433.59 µm by 12.82 d 90 and 17.71 d 99 respectively after biofield treatment as compared to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited the surface area as 0.7005 m 2 /g in control and 0.7020 m 2 /g in treated sample of p-CBP. The DSC thermogram of treated p-CBP exhibited the slight decrease in melting temperature. However the latent heat of fusion was significantly altered 24.90 after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. TGA analysis showed the weight loss by 57.36 in control and 58.51 in treated sample. In addition the onset temperature of thermal degradation was also decreased by 6.32 after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control p- CBP. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic study did not show the alteration in the wavenumber and wavelength respectively in treated p-CBP as compared to the control. Altogether the XRD particle size and thermal analysis suggest that biofield energy treatment has significant impact on physical and thermal properties of treated p-CBP. Keywords: p-Chlorobenzophenone Biofield Treatment X-ray Diffraction Particle Size Analysis Differential Scanning Calorimetry Thermogravimetric Analysis 1. Introduction Benzophenones diphenyl ketones are the important compounds and refer to all types of substituted benzophenone. They are widely used in organic synthesis of several pharmaceutical drugs like anxiolytic hypnotic and antihistaminic. Benzophenone is also used as the starting material for dyes pesticides and natural products 1 2. It has rose-like odor therefore used in the preparation of synthetic perfumes. Benzophenones are used as a photoinitiator of UV-curing applications in inks optical fibers adhesive coatings and in printed circuit boards 3. Photoinitiators are compounds which break down into free radicals upon ultraviolet radiation exposure. The cosmetic grade benzophenone is used in sunscreen to reduce skin damage by blocking UV radiations i.e. UV-A 320-400 nm and UV-B 290-320 nm 4. Benzophenones are also known to be pharmacologically active and reported as DNA photosensitizers 5. Based on the importance of benzophenone as a chemical intermediate for organic synthesis of pharmaceutical drug. It is advantageous to find out the alternate approach that can enhance the

slide 2:

49 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Biofield Treated p-Chlorobenzophenone physicochemical and thermal properties of p- chlorobenzophenone p-CBP. Recently biofield energy treatment was reported to alter the physicochemical and thermal properties of several metals 6 7 and ceramics 8 9 and spectroscopic properties of various pharmaceutical drugs like chloramphenicol tetracycline paracetamol and piroxicam 10 11. The National Institute of Health/National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine NIH/NCCAM considered the biofield energy therapy therapy in subcategory of energy therapies putative energy fields 12 13. The biofield energy treatment has been used in healing process to reduce pain anxiety and to promote the overall health of human being 14 15. According to the Maxwell JC the every vibrant process in the human body has an electrical significance that generates magnetic field in the human 16. This electromagnetic field of the human body is known as the biofield and energy associated with this field is termed as the biofield energy 17 18. Prakash et al. reported that various scientific instruments such as Kirlian photography resonance field imaging RFI and polycontrast interference photography PIP can be extensively used to measure the biofield of human body 19. Thus the human has the ability to harness the energy from the environment or Universe and transmit this energy to any living or nonliving object on the Globe. The objects receive the energy and respond into useful way this process is termed as biofield treatment. Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield energy is known as The Trivedi Effect ® . Recently the biofield energy treatment has been evaluated in several fields like biotechnology 20 microbiology 21 22 material science 6-9 and agricultural science 23 24. Based on the published literature and outstanding impact of biofield energy treatment on various living and nonliving things the present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-CBP using various analytical techniques. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Study Design p-Chlorobenzophenone was procured from Sisco Research Laboratories India. The study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treatment. The control sample was remained as untreated and treatment sample was handed over in sealed pack to Mr. Trivedi for biofield energy treatment under laboratory conditions. Mr. Trivedi rendered the biofield energy treatment through his unique energy transmission process i.e. thought transmission to the treatment group without touching the sample. After the biofield treatment both the control and treated samples of p-CBP were analyzed using various analytical techniques like the X-ray diffractometry XRD particle size analyzer surface area analyzer differential scanning calorimetry DSC thermogravimetric analysis TGA Fourier transform infrared FT-IR and ultraviolet-visible UV-Vis spectroscopy. 2.2. XRD Study XRD analysis of p-CBP was carried out on Phillips Holland PW 1710 X-ray diffractometer with nickel filter and copper anode. X-ray wavelength used in XRD system was 1.54056 Å. The XRD diffractogram was obtained in the form of a chart of 2θ vs. intensity. The average crystallite size G and percent change in average crystallite size of p-CBP were calculated using the following equations 25. Average crystallite size G kλ/bCosθ 1 Percent change in average crystallite size G G t -G c /G c ×100 2 Where G c and G t are average crystallite size of control and treated powder samples respectively. 2.3. Particle size Analysis The particle size of control and treated p-CBP was determined using laser particle size analyzer Sympatec HELOS-BF with detection range of 0⋅1–875 µm. The particle size data were collected in the form of a chart of particle size vs. cumulative percentage. The particle sizes i.e. d 10 d 50 d 90 and d 99 size below which 10 50 90 and 99 particles are present respectively were computed from the particle size distribution curve. The percentage change in particle size was calculated with the help of following equation. change in particle sized × 100 3 Where d 10 Control and d 10 Treated are the particle size d 10 of control and treated samples respectively. Accordingly the percent changes in particle size i.e. d 50 d 90 and d 99 were calculated. 2.4. Surface Area Analysis Surface area of control and treated p-CBP was measured using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller BET surface area analyzer Smart SORB 90. Percent change in surface area was calculated using following equation: change in surface area × 100 4 Where S Control and S Treated are the surface area of control and treated samples respectively. 2.5. DSC Study The control and treated samples of p-CBP were studied using a Pyris-6 Perkin Elmer differential scanning calorimeter on a heating rate of 10ºC/min under air atmosphere with air flow rate of 5 mL/min. An empty pan

slide 3:

American Journal of Physical Chemistry 2015 46: 48-57 50 sealed with cover was used as a reference pan. The melting temperature T m and latent heat of fusion ∆H were obtained from the DSC curve. 2.6. TGA-DTG Analysis The effect of biofield energy treatment on thermal properties of control and treated p-CBP were studied using Mettler Toledo simultaneous TGA-DTG. The samples were heated up to 400ºC from room temperature at the heating rate of 5ºC/min under air atmosphere. The onset temperature at which thermal degradation starts and percent change in temperature at which maximum weight loss occurs in sample were acquired from DTG thermogram. 2.7. Spectroscopic Studies For the purpose of FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic characterization the treated sample was divided into two groups i.e. T1 and T2. Both treated groups were separately analyzed for their spectroscopic characteristics using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and data were compared with the respective spectrum of control p-CBP sample. 2.7.1 FT-IR Spectroscopic Characterization FT-IR spectra of control and treated samples of p-CBP were obtained from Shimadzu’s Fourier transform infrared spectrometer Japan with the frequency range of 4000-500 cm -1 . The analysis was accomplished to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment at atomic level like force constant dipole moment and bond strength in chemical structure 26. 2.7.2. UV-Vis Spectroscopic Analysis UV spectra of control and treated samples of p-CBP were acquired from Shimadzu UV-2400 PC series spectrophotometer. Quartz cell with 1 cm and a slit width of 2.0 nm were used for analysis. The study was carried out at wavelength in the region of 200-400 nm. The UV spectra were analyzed to find out the effect of biofield energy treatment on the energy gap of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital HOMO– LUMO gap 26. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. XRD Analysis Fig. 1. XRD diffractograms of p-chlorobenzophenone.

slide 4:

51 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Biofield Treated p-Chlorobenzophenone XRD diffractograms of control and treated p-CBP are shown in Fig. 1. The control p-CBP exhibited the XRD peaks at 2θ equal to 15.25º 17.47º 19.04º 21.82º 23.72º 24.08º 28.41º and 29.27º. However the XRD diffractogram of treated p-CBP showed the XRD peaks at 2θ equal to 15.22º 17.48º 19.04º 21.76º 23.66º 24.03º 29.21º and 31.27º with increased intensity of XRD peaks as compared to the control. The sharp peaks in XRD diffractogram of both control and treated samples suggest the crystalline nature of p-CBP. The increase in intensity of XRD peaks in treated sample may be attributed to enhanced crystallinity as compared to the control. It is assumed that treated p-CBP molecules absorbed biofield energy that may lead to formation of long-range symmetrical crystalline pattern as compared to the control sample. The average crystallite size was calculated using Scherrer formula and the results are shown in Fig. 2. The average crystallite size of control p-CBP was found as 83.18 nm that was increased to 104.75 nm in treated sample. The result showed about 25.93 increase in average crystallite size in treated sample as compared to the control. Fig. 2. Crystallite size of control and treated p-chlorobenzophenone. The role of temperature on average crystallite size is well reported in the literature which indicates that increase in temperature reduces the thermodynamically driven force. This leads to decrease in nuclear densities and thus increase in average crystallite size 27 28. Moreover Gaber et al. described that elevation in processing temperature causes to decrease in dislocation density and increase in number of unit cell which finally increased the average crystallite size 29. Based on these it is assumed that biofield energy treatment may provide the energy to p-CBP that causes decrease in dislocation density and increase in average crystallite size. 3.2. Particle Size Analysis The particle size was determined in four groups i.e. d 10 d 50 d 90 and d 99 size below which 10 50 90 and 99 particles are present respectively and result are presented in Fig. 3. The particle size result showed d 10 d 50 d 90 and d 99 as 51.49 160.15 433.59 and 588.07 µm respectively in control sample which were converted to 40.37 157.66 489.16 692.19 µm respectively after biofield treatment. The results suggest that d 10 and d 50 particle sizes were decreased by 21.60 and 1.55 in treated p-CBP as compared to the control. Fig. 3. Particle size analysis of control and treated p-chlorobenzophenone. On the contrary the d 90 and d 99 were found to increase up to 12.82 and 17.71 in treated p-CBP respectively with respect to the control. The reduction of d 10 and increase of d 90 could be possible if fracturing and agglomeration took place simultaneously in treated p-CBP. Recently our group reported the effect of biofield energy treatment on the particle size of manganese oxide 8. It was described that finer particles get agglomerated after biofield energy treatment and lead to increase the percent of larger particle size. Thus it is assumed that the energy probably transferred through biofield treatment might induce fracturing and agglomeration process in treated p-CBP which resulted into alteration in particle sizes. Altogether the result exhibited the alteration in the particle size of p- CBP after biofield treatment. 3.3. Surface Area Analysis Fig. 4. Surface area analysis of control and treated p-chlorobenzophenone. The surface areas of control and treated samples of p- CBP were determined using BET surface area analyzer and data are presented in Fig. 4. The control sample showed a surface area of 0.7005 m 2 /g however the treated sample showed a surface area of 0.7020 m 2 /g. The result showed a slight increase in surface area 0.21 in the treated p-CBP as compared to the control. The increase in surface area

slide 5:

American Journal of Physical Chemistry 2015 46: 48-57 52 might be correlated to particle size reduction in fine particle region due to high internal strain produced by biofield energy treatment 30. The increase in surface area may lead to increase in solubility and reactivity of p-CBP as compared to the control. 3.4. DSC Analysis DSC analysis was performed to determine the melting temperature and latent heat of fusion ∆H of control and treated p-CBP. In solid substance an ample amount of interaction force exists in atomic bonds that hold the atoms at their positions. The energy required to overcome the interaction force of phase change i.e. solid into liquid is known as latent heat of fusion. DSC thermogram Fig. 5 of p-CBP showed the melting temperature at 77.57ºC in control and 76.82ºC in treated sample Table 1. Fig. 5. DSC thermograms of control and treated p-chlorobenzophenone. Table 1. Thermal analysis of control and treated samples of p- chlorobenzophenone. Parameter Control Treated Latent heat of fusion J/g 113.92 85.55 Melting point ºC 77.57 76.82 Onset temperature ºC 190 178 End-set temperature ºC 230.5 238 T max ºC 207.51 206.33 T max: temperature at maximum weight loss occurs The result showed about 0.97 decrease in melting temperature in treated sample of p-CBP as compared to the control. The melting temperature of control p-CBP was well supported by literature data 31. DSC thermogram exhibited the ∆H of 113.92 J/g in control sample and 85.55 J/g in treated sample of p-CBP. The result showed 24.90 decrease in ∆H of treated sample as compared to the control. It is presumed that biofield energy treatment probably supplied the energy to treated sample that is stored in the form of potential energy. Therefore it required less energy during phase change due to the high-energy state of biofield treated samples. Previously our group has reported that biofield energy treatment altered the value of ∆H in lead and tin powders 6. Therefore it is assumed that biofield energy treatment might change the intermolecular interaction of treated p-CBP that may lead to decrease the ∆H.

slide 6:

53 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Biofield Treated p-Chlorobenzophenone 3.5. TGA-DTG Analysis The TGA and DTG thermogram of control and treated samples of p-CBP are shown in Fig. 6 and data are reported in Table 1. TGA thermogram of control p-CBP showed the onset temperature around 190.0°C while the end-set temperature was observed at 230.5°C with 57.36 weight loss. However the treated p-CBP started losing weight around 178°C and the end-set was observed at 238°C with 58.52 weight loss Fig. 6. The result showed the decrease in onset temperature by 6.32 and increase in end-set temperature by 3.25 in treated sample of p-CBP as compared to the control. The DTG thermogram exhibited the maximum thermal decomposition temperature T max at 207.51°C in control sample and at 206.33°C in treated sample of p-CBP. The result revealed about 0.57 decrease in T max of treated sample with respect to the control. The decrease in T max of treated sample might be correlated with increase in vaporization or volatilization of treated p- CBP after biofield treatment. It might be due to alteration in internal energy through biofield energy treatment that results into earlier vaporization as compared to the control. Fig. 6. TGA-DTG thermograms of control and p-chlorobenzophenone. 3.6. FT-IR Spectroscopic Analysis FT-IR spectra of control and treated samples of p-CBP Fig. 7 were interpreted based on the theoretically predicted wavenumber. The chemical structure of p-CBP showed mainly CO CC C-C C-H groups vibrational peaks. The aromatic C-H stretching peak was assigned at 3063 cm -1 in all three samples i.e. control and treated T1 and T2. Likewise the aromatic C-H in-plane deformations were attributed to peaks 1089-1145 cm -1 in control and 1089-1147 cm -1 in treated T1 and T2 samples. The C-H out of plane deformations were observed at frequency region of 729-844

slide 7:

American Journal of Physical Chemistry 2015 46: 48-57 54 cm -1 in all three samples control T1 and T2. The vibrational peak of ketone CO groups generally appears around 1715 cm -1 32. However in p-CBP it was appeared at 1651 cm -1 in control and T2 samples whereas in T1 sample it appeared at 1649 cm -1 . This decreased wavenumber of CO stretching in all three samples was observed due to extended resonance effect that lower the force constant and thus wavenumber of CO group stretching. The aromatic CC stretchings were attributed to vibrational peaks observed at 1400-1585 cm -1 in control and 1400-1583 cm -1 in treated samples T1 and T2. Similarly the C-C stretching peak was appeared at 1284 cm -1 in control and T2 samples and at 1282 cm -1 in T1 sample of p-CBP. Fig. 7. FT-IR spectra of control and treated T1 and T2 p-chlorobenzophenone. Overall the FT-IR result suggests that the biofield energy treatment did not exhibit the alteration in the wavenumber of any bond in treated p-CBP as compared to the control.

slide 8:

55 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Biofield Treated p-Chlorobenzophenone 3.7. UV-Vis Spectroscopy The UV spectra of control and treated p-CBP are shown in Fig. 8. UV spectrum of control p-CBP exhibited the absorbance maxima λ max at 205.0 and 257.6 nm. A similar pattern of λ max was observed in both the treated samples T1 and T2 i.e. at 205.0 and 257.8 nm in T1 and 203.5 and 257.5 nm in T2. Overall the UV spectral analysis suggests that biofield energy treatment may not cause any significant alterations in the λ max of treated p-CBP samples with respect to the control. Altogether the UV and FT-IR results suggest that structural properties of treated p-CBP remained same as control. Fig. 8. UV spectra of control and treated T1 and T2 p-chlorobenzophenone. 4. Conclusion In summary the XRD diffractogram of biofield treated p- CBP exhibited the increase in intensity of the XRD peaks as well as the average crystallite size 25.93 as compared to the control. The particle size analysis suggests the decrease in particle size of fine particles d 10 and increase in particle size of the large particles d 90 and d 99 with respect to the control sample. The surface area analysis showed the slight increase in the surface area of the treated p-CBP with respect to the control. The thermal analysis DSC TGA/DTG showed a slight decrease in melting temperature and T max . However the ∆H was significantly changed by 24.9 in treated sample as compared to the control. The spectroscopic analysis FT- IR and UV-Vis suggest that biofield energy treatment did not affect the structural properties of treated sample as compared to the control. Altogether it is concluded that the biofield energy treatment has the impact on physicochemical and thermal properties of treated p-CBP with respect to the control. Based on this it is assumed that biofield treated p-CBP could be more useful as chemical intermediate for organic synthesis of various pharmaceutical drugs.

slide 9:

American Journal of Physical Chemistry 2015 46: 48-57 56 Abbreviations p-CBP: para-Chlorobenzophenone NIH: National Institute of Health NCCAM: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine XRD: X-ray diffraction DSC: Differential scanning calorimetry TGA: Thermogravimetric analysis DTA: Differential thermal analysis DTG: Derivative thermogravimetric analysis FT-IR: Fourier transform infrared UV-Vis: Ultraviolet-visible Acknowledgement The authors would like to acknowledge the Trivedi Science Trivedi Master Wellness and Trivedi Testimonials for their steady support during the work. Authors would also like to thanks the whole team of MGV pharmacy college Nashik for providing the instrumental facility. References 1 Bezwada RS 2008 Chemistry of benzophenones. INDOFINE Chemical Company Hillsborough NJ USA. http://indofinechemical.com/resources/white- papers/Chemistry_of_Benzophenones44WHD97.pdf. 2 Thakur VK 2014 Lignocellulosic polymer composites: Processing characterization and properties. John Wiley Sons MA USA. 3 Thenmozhi R Claude A 2012 Rapid crystal growth of benzophenone by low temperature solution growth and its characterization. Archives Appl Sci Res 4: 898-905. 4 Latha MS Martis J Shobha V Sham Shinde R Bangera S et al. 2013 Sunscreening agents: A review. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 6: 16-26. 5 Cuquerella MC Lhiaubet-Vallet V Cadet J Miranda MA 2012 Benzophenone photosensitized DNA damage. Acc Chem Res 45: 1558-1570. 6 Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of bio field treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of silicon tin and lead powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125. 7 Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RMR 2015 Effect of biofield treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of aluminium powders. Ind Eng Manage 4: 151. 8 Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM Latiyal O 2015 Evaluation of biofield treatment on physical atomic and structural characteristics of manganese II III oxide. J Material Sci Eng 4: 177. 9 Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM Latiyal O 2015 Studies of the atomic and crystalline characteristics of ceramic oxide nano powders after biofield treatment. Ind Eng Manage 4: 161. 10 Trivedi MK Patil S Shettigar H Bairwa K Jana S 2015 Spectroscopic characterization of chloramphenicol and tetracycline: An impact of biofield. Pharm Anal Acta 6: 395. 11 Trivedi MK Patil S Shettigar H Bairwa K Jana S 2015 Effect of biofield treatment on spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam. Chem Sci J 6: 98. 12 Koithan M 2009 Introducing complementary and alternative therapies. J Nurse Pract 5: 18-20. 13 Hok J Tishelman C Ploner A Forss A Falkenberg T 2008 Mapping patterns of complementary and alternative medicine use in cancer: an explorative cross-sectional study of individuals with reported positive "exceptional" experiences. BMC Complement Altern Med 8: 48. 14 Aldridge D 1991 Spirituality healing and medicine. Br J Gen Pract 41: 425-427. 15 Cahil M 1998 Nurses handbook of complementary and alternative therapies. Springhouse PA: Springhouse Corporation. 16 Maxwell JC 1865 A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field. Phil Trans R Soc Lond 155: 459-512. 17 Rubik B 2002 The biofield hypothesis: Its biophysical basis and role in medicine. J Altern Complement Med 8: 703-717. 18 Rivera-Ruiz M Cajavilca C Varon J 2008 Einthovens String Galvanometer: The first electrocardiograph. Tex Heart Inst J 35: 174-178. 19 Prakash S Chowdhury AR Gupta A 2015 Monitoring the human health by measuring the biofield "aura": An overview. IJAER 10: 27637-27641. 20 Nayak G Altekar N 2015 Effect of biofield treatment on plant growth and adaptation. J Environ Health Sci 1: 1-9. 21 Trivedi MK Bhardwaj Y Patil S Shettigar H Bulbule A 2009 Impact of an external energy on Enterococcus faecalis ATCC-51299 in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions-an experimental study. J Accord Integr Med 5: 119-130. 22 Trivedi MK Patil S Shettigar H Mondal SC Jana S 2015 Evaluation of biofield modality on viral load of Hepatitis B and C viruses. J Antivir Antiretrovir 7: 83-88. 23 Shinde V Sances F Patil S Spence A 2012 Impact of biofield treatment on growth and yield of lettuce and tomato. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6: 100-105. 24 Sances F Flora E Patil S Spence A Shinde V 2013 Impact of biofield treatment on ginseng and organic blueberry yield. Agrivita J Agric Sci 35. 25 Patterson AL 1939 The Scherrer formula for X-ray particle size determination. Phys Rev 56: 978-982. 26 Pavia DL Lampman GM Kriz GS 2001 Introduction to spectroscopy. 3rdedn Thomson Learning Singapore. 27 Rashidi AM Amadeh A 2009 The effect of saccharin addition and bath temperature on the grain size of nanocrystalline nickel coatings. Surf Coat Technol 204: 353-358. 28 Gusain D Srivastava V Singh VK Sharma YC 2014 Crystallite size and phase transition demeanor of ceramic steel. Mater Chem Phys 145: 320-326.

slide 10:

57 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Biofield Treated p-Chlorobenzophenone 29 Gaber A Abdel-Rahim MA Abdel-Latief AY Abdel-Salam MN 2014 Influence of calcination temperature on the structure and porosity of nanocrystalline SnO 2 synthesized by a conventional precipitation method. Int J Electrochem Sci 9: 81- 95. 30 Trivedi MK Nayak G Tallapragada RM Patil S Latiyal O et al. 2015 Effect of biofield treatment on structural and morphological properties of silicon carbide. J Powder Metall Min 4: 132. 31 Dewan A Kakati DK 2007 Regeneration of carbonyl compounds from their oximes using CeIV based phase- transfer oxidants. Indian J Chem Technol 14: 635-637. 32 Smith BC 1998 Infrared Spectral Interpretation: A systematic approach. CRC Press.

authorStream Live Help