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Premium member Presentation Transcript Poverty: Relative and Absolute poverty Indicators of poverty-its causes and measure : Poverty: Relative and Absolute poverty Indicators of poverty-its causes and measure PowerPoint Presentation: The biggest enemy of health in developing countries is POVERTY What is Poverty..??: What is Poverty..?? Poverty is hunger Poverty is lack of shelter Poverty is being sick and not able to see a doctor Poverty is not having an access to school and not knowing how to read Poverty is not having a job and fear for the future Poverty is losing a child to illness brought about by unclean water Poverty is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom Two Way of Poverty: Two Way of Poverty Relative Poverty Under relative poverty economic conditions of different regions or countries is compared. The per capita income and national income are two indicators of relative poverty. Absolute Poverty Absolute poverty refers to the measure of poverty keeping in view the per capita intake of calories and minimum level of consumption. Measurement of Poverty (Percentage of Poor): Measurement of Poverty (Percentage of Poor) Two basic ingredients in measuring poverty: (1)Poverty Line: definition of threshold income or consumption level (2)Data on size distribution of income or consumption (collected by a sample survey representative of the population) PowerPoint Presentation: Indian Poverty Line A minimum level of living necessary for physical and social development of a person. Estimated as: total consumption expenditure level that meets energy (calorie) need of an average person. PL comprises of both food and non-food components of consumption. PowerPoint Presentation: India’s economic structure has changed dramatically over last 5-6 decades; among the most dynamic economies recently. Benefits of growth not widely spread to various sections in society, reached only marginally to low income groups. Similar experience of other countries too. Question then arose: Can we guarantee to all at least a minimum level of living necessary for physical and social development of a person? PowerPoint Presentation: Why estimate poverty? Poverty estimates are vital input to design, monitor and implement appropriate anti-poverty policies. Analysis of poverty profiles by regions, socio-economic groups Determinants - factors affecting poverty Allocation of resources to different regions and to various poverty reduction programs Precise estimates of poverty neither easy nor universally acceptable. Yet, can act as a broad and reasonably policy guide. Percentage of people living below the poverty line: Percentage of people living below the poverty line Europe and Central Asia 3.5% Latin America and Caribbean 23.5% Sub-Saharan Africa 38.5% Middle East and North Africa 4.1% South Asia 43.1% PowerPoint Presentation: Relationship Between Calorie Intake and Per Capita Expenditure PowerPoint Presentation: Official PL in India Originally estimated for 1973-74: Rs 49 and 56 for rural and urban areas respectively. U pdated using an appropriate price index PowerPoint Presentation: Following a row about an affidavit from the planning commission to the supreme court of India, in which the official poverty line was set at 26 rupees per person per day in rural areas and 32 rupees in urban areas. How exactly are these numbers arrived at? The measure was developed in the early 1970s, when a group of experts decided the appropriate line would be set according to the average monthly consumption expenditure of households whose members consumed (per capita) 2,400 calories of food per day in rural India and 2,100 calories per day in urban India. PowerPoint Presentation: Causes of Poverty in India PowerPoint Presentation: Causes of Poverty Trade Countries lose out through unfair trade agreements, lack of technology and investment, and rapidly changing prices for their goods. Work and globalisation Better communications and transport have led to a “globalised” economy. Companies look for low-cost countries to invest in. This can mean that, though there are jobs, they are low-paid. PowerPoint Presentation: Causes of Poverty War or conflict When a country is at war (including civil war) basic services like education are disrupted. People leave their homes as refugees. Crops are destroyed. Debt Countries have to pay interest on their debts. This means they cannot afford to spend enough on basic services like health and education; nor on things like transport or communications that might attract investment . PowerPoint Presentation: Causes of Poverty Land If you have land you can grow your own food. But many people in the World have had their land taken over by large businesses, often to grow crops for export. Health Affordable or free health care is necessary for development. In poor countries the percentage of children who die under the age of five is much higher than in rich countries. PowerPoint Presentation: Causes of Poverty Food and education Affordable, secure food supplies are vital. Malnutrition causes severe health problems, and can also affect education. Without education it is difficult to escape from poverty. This becomes a vicious circle – people who live in poverty cannot afford to send their children to school. PowerPoint Presentation: Causes of Poverty Gender When we measure poverty we find differences between the level experienced by men or boys, and women or girls. Women may be disadvantaged through lack of access to education; in some countries they are not allowed to own or inherit land; they are less well paid than men. PowerPoint Presentation: “The amount of money the UK spends On chocolate each year could make Africa NOT live in poverty” You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.