Organisational Behaviour

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Organisational Behaviour

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR – an Overview Prof. Jairaj Kochavara August ‘ 08

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR - Course Content- 100 marks   1.        Introduction to O.B.: Origin, Nature and Scope of Organizational Behaviour and its relevance to Organizational Effectiveness and contemporary issues   2.        Personality: Meaning and determinants of Personality; process of Personality formation; Personality Types;Assessment of Personality Traits for increasing Self-Awareness   3.        Perception: Attitude and Value, Perceptual Processes, Effect of perception on Individual decision-making, Attitude and Behaviour. Sources of Value, Effect of Values on Attitudes and Behaviour,Effects of Perception, Attitude and Values on Work Performance

4.    Motivation Concepts: Motives, Theories of Motivation and their applications for behavioural Change  5. Group Behaviour : Work groups, formal and informal groups and stages of & Group Dynamics group development: Concepts of Group Dynamics, group conflicts and group decision-making. Team Effectiveness: High Performing Teams, Team Roles, Cross-functional and self-directed Teams  6. Organizational Design: Structure, size, technology, environment of Organizations: Organizational Roles: concept of Roles; role dynamics, role Conflicts and stress and organizational conflicts : 

4.    Motivation Concepts: Motives, Theories of Motivation and their applications for behavioural Change  5. Group Behaviour : Work groups, formal and informal groups and stages of & Group Dynamics group development: Concepts of Group Dynamics, group conflicts and group decision-making. Team Effectiveness: High Performing Teams, Team Roles, Cross-functional and self-directed Teams  6. Organizational Design: Structure, size, technology, environment of Organizations: Organizational Roles: concept of Roles; role dynamics, role Conflicts and stress and organizational conflicts

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7.    7. Leadership: Concepts and skills of Leadership; Leadership and Managerial roles, Leadership styles and effectiveness; contemporary issues of leadership. Power and Politics; sources and uses of Power; politics at workplace; tactics and strategies Reference Texts   1.        Understanding Organizational Behaviour- Udai Pareek 2.        Organizational Behaviour- Stephen Robbins 3.        Organizational Behaviour- Fred Luthans 4.        Organizational Behaviour- Newstrom 5.      Organizational Behaviour- Uma Sekaran

Organisational Behaviour : 

Organisational Behaviour Definition-O.B. is a systematic study of the actions and reactions of individuals,groups and subsystems PEOPLE-consist of individual employees, dyads, groups and teams who have to get the work done as well as those outside the organization like customers and government officials

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Organisational Behaviour JOBS AND TASKS- JOB- is the sum total of an individual’s assignment at the workplace TASKS-are the various activities that need to be performed to get the job done. TECHNOLOGY-is the mechanism through which the raw input is converted into finished products STRUCTURE-refers to how the workplace in terms of job positions is 7 PROCESS- is the way things get done

Organisational Behaviour Job Requirements, Group, Behaviour and Outcomes : 

Organisational Behaviour Job Requirements, Group, Behaviour and Outcomes

Difference between Work Groups and Teams : 

Difference between Work Groups and Teams

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Managers and their Internal and External Environments EE PEOPLE Individuals Dyads Groups STRUCTURE Roles Position Hierarchy TECHNOLOGY Machines & other Mechanisms MANAGERS & Managerial Processes External Environment External Environment Internal Environment Internal Environment JOBS Tasks Activities Market Cultural Govt. Techno- logical Social Political Economic Labour Market

Types of GroupsFormal- hierarchicalInformal-interest groups or cliques-horizontal, vertical or randomVirtual Groups- facilitated through I. T.(a) Information Sharing(b) Decision Making(c ) Solving Complex ProblemsPsychological Group-’we’ feeling, sensitivity, affinity, understanding of individual strengths and personalities, sense of belonging and loyaltyOther types of Groups1. (a)Interacting- assembly-line(b) Co-acting- work independently(c ) Counter-acting- union/ management2. (a)Open-Matrix(b) Closed- Fixed Roles3. (a)Membership- belongsReferent-Would like to belong4. (a)In and Out groups- Gang Wars, rivalry, competition,politics : 

Types of GroupsFormal- hierarchicalInformal-interest groups or cliques-horizontal, vertical or randomVirtual Groups- facilitated through I. T.(a) Information Sharing(b) Decision Making(c ) Solving Complex ProblemsPsychological Group-’we’ feeling, sensitivity, affinity, understanding of individual strengths and personalities, sense of belonging and loyaltyOther types of Groups1. (a)Interacting- assembly-line(b) Co-acting- work independently(c ) Counter-acting- union/ management2. (a)Open-Matrix(b) Closed- Fixed Roles3. (a)Membership- belongsReferent-Would like to belong4. (a)In and Out groups- Gang Wars, rivalry, competition,politics

Virtual Organization : 

Virtual Organization Japan Manufacturing Brazil Raw Materials India I.T. Support USA Marketing Singapore Core Group 5exes.& 5 staff Rs.100 Cr. Turnover Possible through I.T. Linkages

Organizational Behaviour- GROUPSystem- an orderly group of logically related facts, principles, beliefs etcan orderly method, plan or procedureA group or arrangement of parts, facts, phenomena that relate to or interact with each other in such a way as to form a wholeDefinition of Organizational Behaviour‘ O. B is an interdisciplinary behavioural science studying phenomena and dynamics( processes) of organizations and their various human units.Stages of Small Group DevelopmentFORMINGSTORMINGNORMINGPERFORMINGADJOURNING : 

Organizational Behaviour- GROUPSystem- an orderly group of logically related facts, principles, beliefs etcan orderly method, plan or procedureA group or arrangement of parts, facts, phenomena that relate to or interact with each other in such a way as to form a wholeDefinition of Organizational Behaviour‘ O. B is an interdisciplinary behavioural science studying phenomena and dynamics( processes) of organizations and their various human units.Stages of Small Group DevelopmentFORMINGSTORMINGNORMINGPERFORMINGADJOURNING

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Stages in Group Development- Summary K Storming Forming Performing Norming Knowledge Is Hidden Knowledge Creation Synergies Collaborates Knowledge Hoarding Knowledge Sharing Trust Unknown Distrust

As per BELBIN-1981 As per Margerison&McCann- 1990 Chairman/ Coordinator 1. Creator-initiates creative ideas Shaper 2. Promoter-champions ideas after they are initiated Plant 3. Assessor- offers insightful analysis of options Monitor/ Evaluator 4. Organizer- provides structure Company Worker 5. Producer-provides direction and follow-through Resource Investigator 6. Controller-examines details and enforces rules Team Worker 7. Maintainer-fights external battles Completor/Finisher 8. Advisor-encourages the search for more information 9. Linker-coordinates & integrates DIFFERENT ROLES PLAYED BY GROUP MEMBERS

Leadership Role & Functions : 

Leadership Role & Functions Team Needs Individual Needs Task Needs Achieving the Task Developing the Individual Building and Maintaining the Team

Model of Team-Building : 

Model of Team-Building Stage Theme Task Outcome Relationship Outcome One Awareness Commitment Acceptance Two Conflict Clarification Belonging Three Cooperation Involvement Support Four Productivity Achievement Pride Five Separation Recognition Satisfaction n.b. The above is similar to the stages of forming,storming,norming performing and adjourning. Effective teams take time to build in an organization and comprise three steps viz. Team Development Team Roles Team Effectiveness

Differences between Work Groups and Teams : 

Differences between Work Groups and Teams S. No. Aspect Work Groups Teams 1. Roles& Respon. Set of behaviours Understands roles 2. Identity No identity Norms & values 3. Cohesion ‘me’ feeling ‘we” feeling 4 Communication self-centered member-centered 5. Flexibility rigid flexible 6. Morale Maybe Enthusiasm/pride 7. Idea generation Old ways New/creative ways

Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams : 

Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams Work Groups Work Teams Share information Goal Collective Performance Neutral(s.t.negative) Synergy Positive Individual Accountability Individual and mutual Random and varied Skills Complementary

TYPES OF TEAMS : 

TYPES OF TEAMS techno Problem-solving Self-managed Cross-functional Virtual

Characteristics of Effective Work Teams : 

Characteristics of Effective Work Teams Commitment and inspiring goals Role Clarity Self- disclosure (incl.confrontation) Openness to feedback Competence Creativity with constructive confrontation Collaboration /Support/Trust Congruence between individual and group goals Supportive leadership Management of power Team Functioning a)Cohesion- amongst team members b)Confrontation-solving problems c)Collaboration-working together Team Empowerment a)Clarity of Roles b)Autonomy c)Resources provn. d)Accountable-goals

TEAM EFFECTIVENESS MODEL : 

TEAM EFFECTIVENESS MODEL Context Work Design -Adequate resources -Autonomy -Leadership and structure -Skill variety -Climate of trust -Task identity -Performance evaluation & -Task significance reward systems TEAM EFFECTIVENESS Composition Process -Abilities of members -Common purpose -Personality -Specific goals -Allocating roles -Team efficacy -Diversity -Conflict levels -Size of teams -Social loafing -Member flexibility

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Basic Definitions connected with O.B. Organization: An organization has four essential elements (a) Group of people (b) Interacting with each other (c )In a structured manner (d) Towards a common objective Management: Implies getting things done through and with people Manager: He is the dynamic, life-giving element in every organization. And it is the quality and performance of its managers which is the only effective advantage an enterprise in a competitive economy can have and particularly in a business enterprise.

Basic Definitions (contd..) : 

Basic Definitions (contd..) Three elements stand out in a manager- competence, integrity and performance Who is a manager? The CEO or the middle manager or the supervisor? A manager’s decision-making,action and behaviour are all geared towards ‘Economic Performance’.The objective of a business enterprise could be Survival, Profit and /or Growth ? Peter Drucker feels otherwise-’creating a customer’.

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Basic Definitions connected with O.B. The Manager has the following responsibilities: Managing Managers Managing Worker and Work Managing a Business Managing Time A Manager has to manage Resources- 5 Ms- Money, Materials, Machines, Methods and Man. One of these resources is different from the others. Which one and why? What about Time as a resource? A manager also performs the following functions: Planning, Organizing.Staffing, Directing and Controlling or Leading,Planning,Organizing and Controlling Planning –determines what results the organization will achieve Organizing- specifies how it will achieve the results Controlling –determines whether the results will be achieved Leading- through planning, organizing and controlling managers exercise leadership

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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR To provide an understanding of what goes on at the workplace. Four aspects need to be explained viz. Definition, goals,forces and O.B.’s major characteristics O.B. is the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people- as individuals and as members of groups –act within organizations.It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively. O.B. provides managers with the tools to: (a) to understand the behaviour of individuals (b) to understand the complexities of inter-personal relations (c )to examine the dynamics of relationships within small groups –both formal teams and informal groups (d) organizations can be viewed as whole systems that have interorganizational relationships

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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR GOALS:Most sciences share four goals-to describe, understand,predict and control some phenomena. O.B. has the following goals 1.Describe, systematically, how people behave under a variety of circumstances 2.Understand why people behave as they do. 3.Predicting future employee behaviour 4.Control at least partially, and develop some human activity at work Managers can utilize the tool of O.B.to influence human behaviour.skill development, team effort and productivity FORCES: There are a wide array of issues and trends that affect the nature of organizations today. They can be classified under four areas PEOPLE, STRUCTURE, TECHNOLOGY and the ENVIRONMENT

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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Key forces affecting Organizational Behavior People Individuals Groups Environment Government Competition Societal pressure Organizational Behavior Technology Machinery Computer hardware&software Structure Jobs Relationships

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O. B. Definitions O.B. is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals , groups and structures have on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness. O.B. can be defined as the systematic study of the actions and reactions of individuals, groups and sub-systems. O.B. is the study and understanding of individual and group behaviour, patterns of structure in order to to help improve organizational performance and effectiveness. O.B. is one of the most complex and perhaps least understood academic elements of modern general management, but since it concerns the behaviour of people within organizations it is also one of the most central- its concern with individual and group patterns of behaviour makes it an essential element in dealing with the complex behavioural issues thrown up in the modern business world. O.B. is an inter-disciplinary behaviour science studying phenomena and dynamics(processes) of organizations and their various units.

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Bases of Organizational Behaviour 1.Psychology: The science or study of individual human behaviour 2. Sociology: The study of group human behaviour 3. Social Psychology:Studies influences of people on one another 4. Anthropology:Study of the human race, and culture 5. Political Science:Behaviour of individuals in political env.

Toward an OB Discipline : 

Toward an OB Discipline

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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Personality affects workplace behaviour. Persons need to be placed in jobs which match their SKILLS, ABILITIES and TEMPERAMENT or PERSONALITY. Personality is that dynamic organization within the individual, of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment. Besides a study of personality is helpful in ensuring effective job performance. Personality of an individual represents personal characteristics and traits which can lead to consistent patterns of behaviour. ‘Personality’ comes from the Latin word per sona which means to speak through- the role a person is playing in public. A comprehensive definition of Personality is given by Salvatore Maddi-’Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour( thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be understood as a sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment.’

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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR From the above definition the following points arise: Describes all behaviour at all times Some behaviours are common while others are unique Thus managing people becomes all the more challenging Personality is stable and has continuity in time But an individual’s personality can undergo change in time SELF CONCEPT Self concept is when people try to understand themselves because personality would essentially mean: How people affect others How they understand and see others What is the pattern of their inner and outer measurable traits What is the person-situation interaction Self is very relevant to the concepts of self efficacy and self-esteem Self Esteem is based on one’s perceived competence and self image Self Efficacy is concerned with how well a person can cope with situations as they arise. In other words, self esteem is a generalized trait whereas self-efficacy is situation specific.

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THEORIES ON PERSONALITY 1. Type Theories 2. Trait Factor Theory 3. Psychoanalytic Theory 4. Socio-psychological Theory 5. Self Theory

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PERSONALITY Cattell is also credited with having developed the 16 PF test which is used to assess personality. At first personality and behaviour were identified by 5000 words from the dictionary which was then reduced to 200 words and finally to 16 factors. Cattell’s 16PF Profile- FACTOR DESCRIPTORS A-Warmth Reserved/ Outgoing B-Reasoning Less Intelligent/ More Intelligent C-Emotional Stability Affected by feelings/ Emotionally stable E- Dominance Humble/ Assertive F-Liveliness Sober/Happy-go-lucky G-Rule Consciousness Expedient/Conscientious H-Social Boldness Shy/ Venturesome I-Sensitivity Tough-minded/Tender-minded L-Vigilance Trusting/ Suspicious M-Abstractedness Practical/ Imaginative N-Privateness Straightforwardness/ Shrewd O-Apprehension Self-Assured/ Apprehensive Q1-Openness to Change Conservative/ Experimenting Q2-Self-Reliance Group-dependent/ Self-sufficient Q3-Perfectionism Self-confident/ Self-control Q4-Tension Relaxed/ Tense

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There are 5 Super Traits which are- Extroversion( sociable, assertive ) Emotionality ( anxious, insecure) Agreeableness ( conforming, helpful to others) Conscientiousness ( persistent, organized ) Intellect ( curious, open to experience )

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Confrontation Compromise Arbitration Negotiation Resignation Appease-ment Withdrawal Diffusion APPROACH AVOIDANCE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AVOIDANCE Resignation Appeasement Fatalistic Concessions with Ignore hope of resolution Withdrawal Diffusion (a)No opportunity (a) Time to fight (b) Good sense (b)Physical separation (c ) Buffer (c )Define boundaries (d) Actually withdraw APPROACH Confrontation- win-lose trap e.g. Strike and Lockout Arbitration- third party intervention e.g. award or formula Compromise- give and take e.g. adjustment Negotiation- bargaining e.g. demands and Counter-demands and reaching a settlement