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Premium member Presentation Transcript AUTOMATIC BRAKING SYSTEM: AUTOMATIC BRAKING SYSTEM PRESENTED BY: ASHISH KUMAR ANKUSH KUMAR DUSHYANT PARASAR SUBHAM PANDEYOBJECTIVE OF ABS: OBJECTIVE OF ABS The objective of this project is to design the automatic braking system in order to avoid accident. In the foreign country this system is used in the vehicle in night.BRAKE: BRAKE A brake is a device used either to bring to rest a body which is in motion or to hold a body in the state of rest or of uniform motion against the action of external force or couple.TYPES OF BRAKES: TYPES OF BRAKES Disc brake Drum brake Air brake Hydraulic brake Vaccum brake Electromagnetic brakeAUTOMATIC BRAKING SYSTEM: AUTOMATIC BRAKING SYSTEM In this system we use a sensor based technology in which when vehicle move on the road and any obstruct comes in front of vehicle then sensor senses the obstruction and immediate offer a braking systemWORKING PRINCIPLE: WORKING PRINCIPLE In this system we use one emitter and other receiver, emitter emits infrared light which fall on object and after reflecting comes on receiver. The signal from the receiver goes to the photodiode which amplified the signal. This photodiode is connected to the pin no. 2 of IC555. The IC 555 is connected to stepper motor which control the motion of stepper motor.LAYOUT OF ABS: LAYOUT OF ABSNEED OF BRAKING SYSTEM : NEED OF BRAKING SYSTEM It must stop the vehicle with in a smallest possible distance . It must strong enough to sustain sudden braking force. It must neither slip nor should cause any skid to the vehicle. It must operate with least effort by the driver. Braking lining should have longer life.COMPONENTS: COMPONENTS DC motor Diode Light emitting diode Photo transistor IC 555 Relay switchDC MOTOR: DC MOTOR A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity. DC motors were used to run machinery, often eliminating the need for a local steam engine or internal combustion engine. DC motors can operate directly from rechargeable batteries, providing the motive power for the first electric vehicles. Today DC motors are still found in applications as small as toys and disk drives, or in large sizes to operate steel rolling mills and paper machines. Modern DC motors are nearly always operated in conjunction with power electronic devices. IMAGES OF DC MOTOR: IMAGES OF DC MOTORDIODE: DIODE The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction , while blocking current in the opposite direction . This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used to convert alternating current to direct current. However, diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple on–off action.PHOTOTRANSISTOR: PHOTOTRANSISTOR Phototransistor are solid state light detector that possess internal gain. This makes them much more sensitive than photodiodes of comparably sized area . These devices can be used to provide either an analog or digital output signal. Although ordinary transistors exhibit the photosensitive effects if they are exposed to light, the structure of the phototransistor is specifically optimized for photo applications. The photo transistor has much larger base and collector areas than would be used for a normal transistor.BASICS OF THE IC 555: BASICS OF THE IC 555 The 555 timer IC was first introduced around 1971 by the signetics corporation as the SE 555 / NE 555 and was called “ the IC time machine” and was also the very first and also only commercial timer IC available. The past 10 year some manufactures stopped making these timer because of competition or other reasonLIGHT EMITTING DIODE: LIGHT EMITTING DIODE A LED is a semi conductor device that emits in coherent monochromatic light when electrically biased in forward direction When a junction diode is forward biased, energy is released at the junction due to recombination of electrons and holes. Such a junction diode is called a light emitting diode or LED.CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LED: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LED Long operating life time Low power consumption Minimum generation of heat Available in a wide range Low cost Easily meet the requirementRELAY: RELAY A relay is an electrically operated switch. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching.COST ESTIMATION: COST ESTIMATION PARTS APPROXIMATE DC motor (3) - Rs.1500.00 Diode - Rs. 5.00 LED(2) - Rs. 20.00 Phototransistor(2) - Rs. 20.00 IC 555 - Rs. 100.00 Relay switch(2) - Rs. 50.00 Wheel - Rs. 50.00 Ply board - Rs. 50.00 Resistance - Rs. 10.00 Gun - Rs. 50.00 Battery (6V ) - Rs. 500.00ADVANTAGES: ADVANTAGES Avoid road accident Safety of driver Stop the vehicle in shorten distance Prevent the damage of vehicle body Quickly sense the obstruction It acts instantaneously in case of emergency It operates with the least effort by the driver PRECAUTIONS: PRECAUTIONS Input supply should not exceed to more the 250 volts ac. to transformer. Capacitors should be of high voltage to protect the appliance. Soldering should not be dry at any point. Remember should be component polarity. Do not touch the primary windings of transformer.APPLICATIONS: APPLICATIONS Uses in bikes Uses in cars Uses in buses Uses in trucks Uses in trainsREFERENCES: REFERENCES www.wikipedia.com www.google.com www.optms.com www.galco.com You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.