ENGLISH GRAMMER

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ENGLISH GRAMMER

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NOUNS THE SENTENCE GENDER CONJUNCTION PREPOSITION VERB SUBJECT AND PREDICATE EXIT CREDITS

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THE NOUN- KINDS OF NOUN Words which are used as names of persons, animals, places or things are called Nouns, All naming words are nouns.

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EXAMPLES

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EXAMPLES HE HAS A GUN THE GIRL IS CRYING THE DOG IS BARKING

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THE MOBILE IS RINGING TEACHER IS TEACHING THE BOY IS STUDYING EXAMPLES THE GIRL IS SLEEPING The mobile is ringing

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KINDS OF NOUNS COMMON NOUN PROPER NOUN COLLECTIVE NOUN MATERIAL NOUN ABSTRACT NOUN

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COMMON NOUN THE TEACHER TEACHES HER PUPIL CAT FEARS DOGS THERE ARE THREE WINDOWS IN THESE ROOMS APPPLES AND MANGOES ARE FRUITS. The words teacher and pupils are the name of persons The words cat and dogs are the name of animals The words windows and rooms are names of places The words apples, mangoes and fruits are the name of the things. Words which are used as names of persons, animals, places or things are called nouns. All these nouns are common nouns

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PROPER NOUN A proper noun is the special name of a particular person or place. A proper noun always begins with a capital letter. Ashok lives in New Delhi (right) ashok lives in new delhi (wrong)

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COLLECTIVE NOUN When a noun stands for a collection of persons or things, considered as one complete whole, it is called a collective noun. The word army stands for a collection of soldiers The word crowd stands for a collection of people The word flock stands for a collection of sheep The word class stands for a collection of pupils

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MATERIAL NOUN Scissors are made of iron The table is made of wood Ornaments are made of silver and gold Cotton is grown in India The ball is made up of rubber . The nouns iron, wood ,silver, gold and cotton are the names of the material from which things can be made. They are, therefore, called material noun. A noun which stands for the matter or substance of which things are made is called a material noun.

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ABSTRACT NOUN John always speaks the truth. We can see the sun; we can touch a plate; but we cannot touch the truth as it denotes a thing which we can neither see nor touch. An abstract noun is the noun of something which we can neither see nor touch, but which we can only think of; as, hope, honesty, health, courage, pity, joy, pain, sleep, death.

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THE SENTENCE Little Jack Horner sat in corner A group of words like this, which makes complete sense, is called a sentence Kinds of sentence A sentence that makes a statement or assertion is called a declarative or assertive sentence. A sentence that asks a question is called an interrogative sentence. A sentence that expresses a command or an entreaty is called an imperative sentence. A sentence that expresses strong feeling is called an exclamatory sentence.

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GENDER The boy plays football. The chair is made up of wood. The girl sings well. The baby is asleep. The nouns boy is the name of a male. It is therefore, said to be of the masculine gender. The noun girl is the name of a female. it is therefore, said to be of the feminine gender. Things without life cannot be either male or female, hence the names of such things are said to be of the neuter gender, as house, thief, tree, chair, table, desk, ball. The noun baby may be used fo both a male baby and a female baby. It is ,therefore, said to be of the common gender

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MASCULINE FEMININE LION LIONESS PRINCE PRINCESS HUNTER HUNTRESS MASTER MASTRESS TIGER TIGRESS EMPEROR EMPRESS GOD GODDESS BOY GIRL COCK HEN DOG BITCH HORSE MARE MAN WOMEN

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THE CONJUNCTIONS John and Tom are friends. Ice is cold but fire is hot. You will not catch the train unless you walk fast. We shall not play the match if it rains We went to Kashmir and had a splendid time. You will see that the words like and, but, unless, if join one word to another or one sentence to another sentence. Such words are called conjunction A conjunction is a word for joining one word to another word or one sentence to another sentence.

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the preposition A preposition is a word which is placed before a noun or a pronoun to show the relation in which the person or thing denoted by the noun stands to something else Bali is with his brother He stands near the gate He is in the garden. His bicycle is by the tree.

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THE VERB Raman runs. Fish swim in the river. The girl dance. Fire burns. In sentence 1, the word runs says something about Raman . In sentence 2, the word swim says something about fish. In sentence 3, the word dance says something about the girl. In sentence 3, the word burns says something about fire. Words which say something are called verbs. All saying words are verbs.

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transitive verb A verb that requires an object to complete its sense is called a transitive verb. The cow eats grass. Tom shut the door. The tailor made shirts. Ashok struck Bali. Ashok write a letter. The dog bit the boy Note:- Words that are added to the verbs to complete their meanings are called objects.

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INTRANSITIVE VERB A verb that does not require an object, but makes good sense by itself is called an intransitive verb. Birds fly. The sun shines. The man laughed. The baby sleeps. Fire burns. The girl smiled. The sun sets in the west. The train started.

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SUBJECT AND PREDICATE Peter runs fast. Ashok is reading. Horses eat grass. Birds fly in the sky. India is a great country. In sentence 1, we say about Peter that he runs fast. In sentence 2, we say about Ashok that he is reading. In sentence 3, we say about horses that they eat grass. In sentence 4, we say about birds that they fly in the sky. In sentence 5, we say about India that It is a great country .

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In a sentence, the person or thing we speak about is called the subject. Peter runs fast. Ashok is reading. Horses eat grass. Birds fly in the sky. India is a great country. Here Peter, Ashok, horses, birds, &India are the subjects What is said about the subject is called the predicate. Here runs fast, is reading, eat grass, fly in the sky, is a great country are all predicates.

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Fill in the blanks with suitable collective nouns. Choose from the box. Library gang committee Army crew Our teacher has a whole ……….. of books. The ………… of soldiers marched into battle. A ………… of thieves entered the village at night. The ship had a ……… of a hundred sailors. A ………………. of five was appointed

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Fill in the blanks with suitable collective nouns. Choose from the box. Our teacher has a whole library of books. The army of soldiers marched into battle. A gang of thieves entered the village at night. The ship had a crew of a hundred sailors. A committee of five was appointed Library gang committee Army crew

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Fill in the blanks using the words given below Glass China Steel Rubber Wool Nylon Sugar Clay Windows are made of …………. Cups are usually made of ……….. Tractors are made of ………… Tyres are made of …………… Blankets are made of …………

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Glass China Steel Rubber Wool Nylon Sugar Clay Fill in the blanks using the words given below Windows are made of glass Cups are usually made of china Tractors are made of steel Tyres are made of rubber Blankets are made of wool

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Choose the correct answers from the brackets given below Library Crew Crowd Cattle army A place where books are kept ……… A large number of people together ……….. All the men working on a ship, boat etc……….. A large number of soldiers,organised for fighting….. Cows,oxen,bullocks all together………..

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Choose the correct answers from the brackets given below Library Crew Crowd Cattle army A place where books are kept l ibrary A large number of people together crowd All the men working on a ship, boat etc crew A large number of soldiers, organized for fighting army Cows, oxygen, bullocks all together cattle

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MADE BY DEEPAK SHARMA CLASS:- X B SCHOOL:- KGP SUBMITTED TO:- SURESH SIR,

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