William james

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William James:

William James RAKSHA N RAJ (34189) ADITYA MITTAL(34183) PICCOLO MOMIN(34184) NIHAL SATAM(34196) MITALEE RAJGADKAR

William James (1842-1910):

William James (1842-1910) 1865: joined expedition to Brazil. Returned to U.S. because of severe sea-sickness. 1865: to Europe where he visited Helmholtz’s lab, met Wundt. 1873 – 1874: taught anatomy & physiology, at Harvard 1875 – began teaching Physiological Psychology, at Harvard 1879 – first lectures in Philosophy, at Harvard

William James (1842-1910) :

William James (1842-1910) Presented much of the foundation of functional psychology, but he did not develop his ideas to the point of an independent “school” of study. He endorsed some aspects of functionalism, he should not be classified as a functionalist. Commonly considered the father of American psychology. Was 25 years older than Titchener , died at the peak of Titchener’s career, but his ideas became more influential than Titchener’s .

William James (1842-1910):

William James (1842-1910) 1884: helped found American Society for Psychical Research (evidence of his radical empiricism) 1885: Appointed Professor of Philosophy at Harvard 1890: Established the psychological laboratory at Dane Hall, Harvard, one of the first such labs in America

Principles of Psychology (1890):

Principles of Psychology (1890) William James’s major publication, Principles of Psychology provided a solid foundation of modern psychology in America. * “the empirical correlation of the various sorts of thought or feeling with definite conditions of the brain” Attempting to cover every aspect of psychology, James took 12 years to write it, and it was 1,393 pages long (published as two volumes).

PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGY Volume-I:

PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGY Volume-I FUNCTIONS OF THE BRAIN THE STREAM OF THOUGHT INTEREST AND ATTENTION James & Jimmy

THE SELF:

THE SELF KNOWN AND KNOWER ME AND I “Whenever two people meet, there are really six people present. There is each man as he sees himself, each man as the other person sees him, and each man as he really is .” -William James

Mind-body debate:

Mind-body debate Principles of Psychology generally supports a dualist, interactionist approach to human nature. Dualism – rejecting the nature of materialism, dualism is based on separated mind and body. Interactionism – the mind can influence the body, and the body can influence the mind. James presents separate “mind phenomena” and “brain phenomena,” and proposes ways in which they interact.

Free will:

Free will Consistent with materialism and evolution, James believed that science opposed the existence of free will. In turn, he proposed free will to be beyond the realm of science. His depression ended while reading about free will. He doubted free will was an illusion if he could voluntarily believe in free will. “Voluntary belief” also influenced his approach to science. The nature of free will (in the mind) is reflected in voluntary behavior. “Ideas of action” can lead to action, or can be held back consciously. To control our voluntary behavior, we must control the ideas of behavior.

Emotions:

Emotions Previous theories of emotion Classic theory: S - E - R First, perceive object (Stimulus) Second, experience emotion (Emotion) Third, respond to it (Response) * James: (a) Emotion is not an obstacle to finding truth. (b) Everyone uses emotion in reasoning – either fear of error or hope of discovering important truths through faith.

SENSATION:

SENSATION Sensation differs from Perception only in the extreme simplicity of its object or content. Its function is that of mere acquaintance with a fact. Perception's function is knowledge about a fact; and this knowledge admits of numberless degrees of complication.

SENSATION:

SENSATION Both sensations and perception differ from 'thoughts' ( in the narrower sense of the word ) in the fact that nerve-currents coming in from the periphery are involved in their production. In perception these nerve-currents arouse voluminous associative or reproductive processes in the cortex; but when sensation occurs alone, or with a minimum of perception, the accompanying reproductive processes are at a minimum too.

THE LAW OF CONTRAST:

THE LAW OF CONTRAST In general the colour and brightness of one object always apparently affect the colour and brightness of any other object seen simultaneously with it or immediately after. A visual image is modified not only by other sensations just previously experienced, but also by all those experiences simultaneously with it, and especially by such as proceed from contiguous portions of the retina. This is the phenomenon of simultaneous contrast .

THE PERCEPTION OF 'THINGS:

THE PERCEPTION OF 'THINGS ‘ Every perception is an acquired perception." Perception may then be defined as that process by which the mind supplements a sense-impression by an accompaniment or escort of revived sensations, the whole aggregate of actual and revived sensations being solidified or 'integrated' into the form of a percept, that is, an apparently immediate apprehension or cognition of an object now present in a particular locality or region of space

THEORIES ABOUT HYPNOTIC STATE:

THEORIES ABOUT HYPNOTIC STATE The intimate nature of the hypnotic condition , when once induced, can hardly be said to be understood. Three main theories are 1. Animal magnetism; 2.Neurosis 3.Suggestion. According to the animal-magnetism theory there is a direct passage of force from the operator to the subject, whereby the latter becomes the former's puppet.

THEORIES ABOUT HYPNOTIC STATE:

THEORIES ABOUT HYPNOTIC STATE According to the neurosis-theory , a patient If subject to this sort of hypnotism hear a sudden loud noise, or look at a bright light unexpectedly, falls into the cataleptic trance. limbs and body offer no resistance to movements communicated, retain permanently the attitudes impressed. The eyes are staring, insensibility to pain, etc. The theory of Suggestion denies that there is any special hypnotic state worthy of the name of trance or neurosis. All the symptoms above, are results of that mental susceptibility which we all to some degree possess, of yielding assent to outward suggestion.

SYMPTOMS OF THE TRANCE:

SYMPTOMS OF THE TRANCE A mnesia : In the earlier stages of hypnotism the patient remembers what has happened, but with successive sittings he sinks into a deeper condition, which is commonly followed by complete loss of memory. Suggestibility . The patient believes everything which his hypnotizer tells him, and does everything which the latter commands. Even results over which the will has normally no control, such as sneezing, secretion, reddening and growing pale, alterations of temperature and heart-beat, menstruation, action of the bowels, etc., may take place in consequence of the operator's firm assertions during the hypnotic trance. Hallucinations of all the senses and delusions of every conceivable kind can be easily suggested to good subjects.

4 methods of JAMES’ PSYCHOLOGY:

4 methods of JAMES’ PSYCHOLOGY

ANALYSIS:

ANALYSIS

INTROSPECTION:

INTROSPECTION

PowerPoint Presentation:

EXPERIMENT COMPARISION

Religious Experiences and Mysticism:

Religious Experiences and Mysticism

What is Religion?:

What is Religion?

Religious Emotions:

Religious Emotions

Reality of the Unseen:

Reality of the Unseen

Mysticism :

Mysticism Mystical Experiences Ineffability Noetic Quality Transiency Passivity

PowerPoint Presentation:

Part of William James's lecture of 1896 titled "The Will to Believe" Evidentialism P ragmatism No fundamental difference between practical and theoretical reason, nor facts and values. Both facts and values have cognitive content J ustification of a belief depends solely on the evidence for it Defends, in certain cases, the adoption of a belief without prior evidence of its truth

PowerPoint Presentation:

Existence as a fact is a pure consequence of the precursive faith in one another of those immediately concerned: A government, an army, a commercial system, a ship, a college, an athletic team, all exist on this condition, without which not only is nothing achieved, By adopting Evidentialism we can throw the chance of gaining truth away Poorly dressed interview candidate L ess talented? Lack of ethics? No Proof – until you are willing try him out P ercusive faith – Carry out your own duty with a trust that the other members will simultaneously do theirs TEAM BUILDING INCULCATING AUTONOMY

PowerPoint Presentation:

“…cases, where a fact cannot come at all unless a preliminary faith exists” Religion- Belief in God which forms basis of morality & ethics many a times requires faith to precede acknowledgement of a GOD’s existence “ beliefs that by existing make themselves true” Many Candidates are recruited even if they are not a perfect match to the JD with a faith that they will develop the gaps they currently have, and in cases the faith has been replayed “beliefs whose evidence becomes available only after they are believed” Lack of “will to belief” may cost one to bypass on numerous opportunities

PowerPoint Presentation:

Free Will In The Will to Believe , James simply asserted that his will was free from evidentalism Determinism – ones decision is affected by prevalent factors , no free will Indeterminism – ones decision are taken on free will, caused by chance James was the first thinker to articulate a two-stage decision process James’ two-stage model effectively separates chance (the indeterministic free element) from choice (an arguably determinate decision that follows causally from one’s character, values, and especially feelings and desires at the moment of decision)

PowerPoint Presentation:

A rguments for and against a given course seem to settle themselves in the mind and to end by leaving a clear balance in favor of one alternative In this easy transition from doubt to assurance we owe nothing to our will. We have, however, a perfect sense of being free, without any force. W e hit upon a conception which lets us apply some principle of action which is a fixed and stable part of our Ego , our state of doubt is at an end." R easonable type Creativity- Beyond Reason 5 Types of Decision Determinism InDeterminism

PowerPoint Presentation:

Theory of emotion William James' bear Why do we run away if we notice that we are in danger? Because we are afraid of what will happen if we don't - INCORRECT James's proposal B lood pressure rises, heart rate increases, pupils dilate, palms sweat, muscles contract Type of Emotion =

PowerPoint Presentation:

Each emotion its unique quality- Fear feels different from anger or love because it has a different physiological signature Anger Fear Love Physiological signatures used in reading body language and establishing behaviours in various assessments /assignments. A job of a secret agent/spy may require such skill sets Normal interviews may require to read candidates body language

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