CONFLICT : CONFLICT A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to affect, something that the first party cares about. Traditional view of conflict : Traditional view of conflict The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided. Human relations view of conflict : Human relations view of conflict The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. Integrationist view of conflict : Integrationist view of conflict The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively. Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict : Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict Functional conflict: works toward the goals of an organization or group
Dysfunctional conflict: blocks an organization or group from reaching its goals
Task Conflict – content & goals of the work.
Relationship Conflict – interpersonal relationships.
Process Conflict – how work gets done. Slide 6: Functional conflict
“Constructive Conflict”--Mary Parker Follett (1925)
Increases information and ideas
Encourages innovative thinking
Unshackles different points of view
Reduces stagnation Slide 7: Dysfunctionally high conflict
Tension, anxiety, stress
Drives out low conflict tolerant people
Poor decisions because of withheld or distorted
Excessive management focus on the conflict Slide 8: Dysfunctionally low conflict
Few new ideas
Poor decisions from lack of innovation and information
Business as usual Levels and Types of Conflict : Levels and Types of Conflict Individual Group Organization Type of conflict Level of conflict Within and between organizations Within and between groups Within and between individuals Slide 10: Intraorganization conflict
Conflict that occurs within an organization
At interfaces of organization functions
Can occur along the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the organization
Vertical conflict: between managers and subordinates
Horizontal conflict: between departments and work groups Slide 11: Intragroup conflict
Conflict among members of a group
Early stages of group development
Ways of doing tasks or reaching group's goals
Intergroup conflict: between two or more groups Slide 12: Interpersonal conflict
Between two or more people
Differences in views about what should be done
Differences in orientation to work and time in different parts of an organization Slide 13: Intrapersonal conflict
Occurs within an individual
Threat to a person’s values
Feeling of unfair treatment
Multiple and contradictory sources of socialization Slide 14: Interorganization conflict
Between two or more organizations
Examples: suppliers and distributors, especially with the close links now possible The Effect of Conflict on Organization Performance : The Effect of Conflict on Organization Performance Figure 16.1 Desired Outcomes of Conflict : Desired Outcomes of Conflict Agreement: Strive for equitable and fair agreements that last.
Stronger relationships: Build bridges of goodwill and trust for the future.
Learning: Greater self-awareness and creative problem solving. Tips for Managers Whose Employees Are Having a Personality Conflict : Tips for Managers Whose Employees Are Having a Personality Conflict Follow company policies for diversity, anti-discrimination, etc.
Investigate and document conflict.
If appropriate, take corrective action (e.g., feedback).
If necessary, attempt informal dispute resolution.
Refer difficult conflicts to human resource specialists or hired counselors for formal resolution attempts and other interventions. How to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships and minimize Conflict : How to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships and minimize Conflict Behavior Rank
Be a good listener 1
Be sensitive to the needs of others 2
Be cooperative, rather than overly competitive 2
Advocate inclusive (participative) leadership 3
Compromise rather than dominate 4
Build rapport through conversations 5
Be compassionate and understanding 6
Avoid conflict by emphasizing harmony 7
Nurture others (develop and mentor) 8 Five Conflict-Handling Styles : Five Conflict-Handling Styles Sharing Accomodative Competitive Avoiding Collaborative High Low High Low Concern for Others Concern for Self Conflict Resolution : Conflict Resolution Confrontation and Problem-Solving
Constructive Handling of Criticism
Negotiating and Bargaining Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Techniques : Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Techniques Facilitation: Third party gets disputants to deal directly and constructively with each other.
Conciliation: Neutral third party acts as communication link between disputants.
Peer review: Impartial co-workers hear both sides and render decision that may or may not be binding.
Ombudsman: Respected and trusted member of the organization hears grievances confidentially.
Mediation: Trained third-party guides disputants toward their own solution.
Arbitration: Neutral third-party hears both sides in a court-like setting and renders a binding decision. Negotiating : Negotiating Distributive negotiation: Single issue; fixed-pie; win-lose.
Integrative negotiation: More than one issue; win-win. Negotiation: “A give-and-take decision-making process involving interdependent parties with different preferences.” An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation : An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation Clarify interests.
Design alternative deal packages.
Select a deal.
Perfect the deal. Styles of Conflict Management : Styles of Conflict Management Styles of Conflict Management : Styles of Conflict Management Summary : Summary Conflict management is the responsibility of all employees
Understanding your style can assist in working with others
All styles have their place, but collaboration is best for most work situations