MS.NET - Framework

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Everything about Microsoft.NET Framework by Sandeep Soni

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.NET Enterprise Vision ERP Billing Customer Service Sales Users Any device Any place Any time XML Web Services Integrate business applications and processes Back Office Heterogeneous application and server infrastructure Scheduling Authentication Notification

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Category of Programmers System Programmers – One who programs directly for a given hardware eg: Device Drivers or extremely low level o/p services. Application Programmers – One who programs applications used by people for their requirements – eg: Calculator Calendar MS- Office like packages Accounting Packages etc… .NET is for Application programming and not for System programming.

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Platform is an environment for developing and executing application. Framework is ready to use collection of Classes and Interfaces used for developing a particular type of application. Definitions

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What is a Platform Assembly Code Operating System H/W C/ C++ Applications MS.NET Framework JRE MS.NET Applications JAVA Applications

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MS.Net is a Framework built on open internet protocols standards with tools and services that meld computing and communication in new ways It’s an environment for developing and running software applications featuring ease of development of web based services rich standard runtime services available to components written in variety of programming languages provides inter language inter machine inoperability What is .NET

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Framework Components  MS.NET Framework Runtime  Used for both Development and Production of .NET applications  MS.NET Framework SDK  Mostly used only for Development of .NET application  Visual Studio.NET  IDE and RAD Tool for Developing .NET applications  Not needed on Production machine  Common environment for multiple languages like VB.NET C VC++  Can be used any type of MS.NET Application  Can be used also for non .net based applications like PHP pages. For this we need a plug-in to be installed over Studio.

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.Net Framework in Context

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 Version 1.0 in Year 2002  Version 1.1 in Year 2003  Version 2.0 in Year 2005  Version 3.0 in Year 2006  Version 3.5 in Year 2007  Version 4.0 in Year 2010  Version 4.5 in Year 2012  All versions can be installed side by side on same machine. MS.NET Framework Versions

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 1.0 is a standalone version  1.1 is also a standalone version  2.0 is also a standalone version  3.0 is installed over 2.0  3.5 is installed over 3.0  4.0 is also standalone versions.  When .NET 4.5 is installed it effectively replaces .NET 4.0 on the machine Versions Dependency

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 Doesnt support Forward or Backward compatibility.  The version used on development machine and production machine must be same.  If 1.1 has been used for development and on the production machine even if 2.0 is installed and if 1.1 is not then the application will not work. Version Compatibility

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 Application Services  Framework / Base Class Library  Provides the core functionality: ASP.NET Web Services ADO.NET Windows Forms IO XML etc.  Common Language Runtime  Garbage collection  Language integration  Multiple versioning support no more DLL hell  Integrated security The Core of .NET Framework

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MS.NET Framework Stack Operating System Common Language Runtime .NET Framework Base Class Library ADO .NET and XML ASP .NET Web Forms Web Services Mobile Internet Toolkit Windows Forms C++ C VB Perl J …

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 Console Based Applications e.g. Compiler  Windows GUI Application using WinForms  GUI Rich Windows Application WPF  Windows Services  ASP .NET Web Applications ASPX / MVC  SOA using WCF  Mobile / Smart Device Applications TYPES OF MS.NET APPLICATION

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Understanding Base Class Libraries BCL or Framework Class Libraries FCL

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The .NET base class library is a collection of object- oriented types and interfaces that provide object models and services for many of the complex programming tasks we routinely face during application development Base Class Library

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 Language Independent.  Completely Object Oriented.  Most of the types presented by the .NET base class library are fully extensible allowing you to build types that incorporate your own functionality  Packaged with .NET Framework in the form of DLL files.  Well optimized for performance Base Class Library – Advantages

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 Data types conversions formatting  Collections: ArrayList Hashtable etc.  Globalization: Cultures sorting etc.  I/O: Binary and text streams files etc.  Networking: HTTP TCP/IP sockets etc.  Reflection: Metadata and IL emit  Security: Permissions cryptography  Text: Encodings regular expressions Base Class Library includes

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 A namespace is a logical collection of classes and other types with unique name.  The structure of the namespace is like a tree where all the related classes are like leaves  All BCL begin with the namespace “System”. What is Namespace

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Base Class Library Namespaces System Threading Text ServiceProcess Security Resources Reflection Net IO Globalization Diagnostics Configuration Collections Runtime Serialization Remoting InteropServices

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Understanding MSIL and PE

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 Languages provided by Microsoft  C++ C J VB.NET Jscript.NET F  Third-parties languages  Perl Python Pascal APL COBOL Eiffel Haskell ML Oberon Scheme Smalltalk… .NET Languages

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Code Compilation and Execution Compilation Before installation or the first time each method is called Execution JIT Compiler Native Code MSIL Code Metadata Source Code Language Compiler Also called Assembly .EXE or .DLL file

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 Is a Microsoft Win32 compatible format file for .Net applications which contains the MSIL code and Metadata in binary form.  It has the extension .EXE or .DLL  PE is based on all Win32 platforms compatible COFF Common Object File Format specification. PE – Portable Executable

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It stands for Microsoft Intermediate Language. MSIL instructions are platform independent instructions. MSIL is an intermediate instruction set which is independent of processor and hardware. MSIL

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.assembly MyAssembly .class MyApp .method static void Main .entrypoint ldstr Hello IL" call void System.Console::WriteLine"Hello" ret Example of MSIL Code

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 Metadata describes every type and member defined in your code in a language-neutral manner  Metadata stores the following information:  Description of the assembly  Name Version Culture Public Key  Exported Types  Other Assemblies that this assembly is dependent upon  Description of types.  Name Visibility base class and interface implemented  Members – Fields Properties Methods events and nested types  Attributes: Additional descriptive elements that modify types and members Metadata

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Language Source Code Portable Executable MSIL - Binary Format MSIL Text Format Language Compiler ILDASM.EXE ILASM.EXE Reverse Engineering Compiler Assembler

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Street DOG and Pet DOG What is the Difference between

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 Code that targets the CLR is referred to as managed code  All managed code has the features of the CLR  Object-oriented  Type-safe  Cross-language integration  Cross language exception handling  Managed code is represented in special Intermediate Language IL Managed Code

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 High Performance Applications  Vastly simplified development.  Seamless integration of the code written in various languages.  Evidence-based security with code identity.  Assembly-based deployment that eliminates DLL Hell.  Side-by-side versioning of reusable components.  Code reuse through implementation inheritance.  Automatic object lifetime management.  Self describing objects. CLR Advantages

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 Code Execution  Common Type System CTS  Automatic Memory Management  JIT Compiler  Garbage Collector  Security Manager  Class Loader  Interoperate with COM Components and DLLs Components in CLR

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 The common Type System defines how types are declared used and managed in the runtime and is also an important part of the runtimes support for cross-language integration type safety and high performance applications.  Supported Types  Classes  Structures  Enumerations  Interfaces  Delegates Common Type System

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 The CLR manages memory for managed code  All allocations of objects and buffers made from a Managed Heap  Unused objects and buffers are cleaned up automatically through Garbage Collection  Some of the worst bugs in software development are not possible with managed code  Memory Leakages  Dangling Pointers  Reading of uninitialized variables  Pointerless environment Automatic Memory Management

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 CLR compiles IL in just-in-time JIT manner – each function is compiled just before execution. Also the JIT code stays in memory for subsequent calls  NGen.EXE Native Generator is used for compiling all the MSIL code in PE file into Native code. This is done before the code is executed or during the deployment of PE on target machine. This way even the first time execution of code is fast as it doesn’t need any more runtime compilation JIT Compiler

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 Mono Project  Open Source C compiler CLR and Framework Class Library  Runs on various platforms and hardware:  Linux Unix FreeBSD Windows – JIT-compiler for x86  s390 SPARC PowerPC – interpreter for these hardware architectures  Supports also:  ADO.NET and XML  Windows Forms not fully  ASP .NET  Web Services .NET Framework on Linux

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Thank You

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