NEMATODE PARASITES IN CEREALS: NEMATODE PARASITES IN CEREALS INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION NEMATODES ARE USUALLY Thread like Non-visible to naked eye Specific parasites on plants & roots It causes stunting Reducing yield Slide 3: TYPES OF NEMATODES INFECTING CEREALS 1.ROOT KNOT NEMATODE: 1.ROOT KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne incognita M.javanica M.arenaria M.halpa Slide 5: INFECTED ROOTS Slide 6: GALLS ON ROOTS IDENTIFICATION: IDENTIFICATION Microscopic round worms Obligate endo - parasites Widely distributed in nurseries Favours in upland or in well drained soil DAMAGES: DAMAGES PRODUCE GALLS ON ROOTS IT AFFECT WATER & NUTRIENT MOVEMENT IN PLANTS PROVIDE LOCATION FOR OTHER DISEASE PRODUCING ORGANISMS. IT CAUSES CHLOROSIS,WILTING,DELAY IN FLOWERING & REDUSE YIELD MANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT DEEP SUMMER PLOUGHING CROP ROTATION WITH NON HOST CROP USE OF RESISTANT VARIETIES SOIL SOLERISATION TREAT NURSERY BED WITH CARBOFURAN @ 0.3g ai/sq.m ROOT DIPPED IN SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDE HOT WATER TREATMENT 2.ROOT LESSION NEMATODE: 2.ROOT LESSION NEMATODE -Pratylenchus spp. Slide 11: INFECTED ROOTS IDENTIFICATION: IDENTIFICATION Damage is non-specific These are wide spreading It has wide host ranges like wheat,bajra,maize,rice,barlyetc DAMAGES: DAMAGES Yellowing and stunting of tops Loss of primary roots Severe pruning of roots,reduced size of blossom Produce lesions on roots Water soaked lesions on spots MANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Hot water treatment Growing target patula Summer ploughing Application of carbofuran/phorate @ 1-2 kg ai / ha 3.SPIRAL NEMATODE: 3.SPIRAL NEMATODE -Helicotylenchus multicinctus Slide 16: SPIRAL NEMATODE DAMAGES: DAMAGES Mild stunting & reduction in yield Small light to dark brown lessions MANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Application of carbofuran or phorate @ 1-2kg/ha may reduce the yield loss 4.RENIFORM NEMATODE: 4.RENIFORM NEMATODE -Rotylenchus reniformis Slide 20: RENIFORM NEMATODE IDENTIFICATION: IDENTIFICATION Kidney shaped Semi endo-parasites Female penetrates into the root Establish permanent feeding DAMAGES: DAMAGES Growing less vigorously than healthy ones Smaller root system Infected root appear dirty because of nematode egg sacks MANAGEMENTS: MANAGEMENTS Summer ploughing Clean cultivation Growing antagonistic / trap cropping (eg.marigold,asparagus,crotalaria) Soil solarisation Use resistant varieties Seed treatment with 1-3% carbofuran Application of non-edible neem cake 5.STUBBY ROOT NEMATODE: 5.STUBBY ROOT NEMATODE Trichodorus christei IDENTIFICATION: IDENTIFICATION Present mostly in sandy soil It is capable of vertical migration Small & can’t see with our naked eye Ecto parasites DAMAGES: DAMAGES Feed root tip and stop root growth Stubby root appearance Stunting,yellowing & slow growth Plants are finally killed MANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Apply 5 tonnes of FYM /ha Treatment with carbofuran Slide 28: INFECTED ROOTS 6.STUNT NEMATODE: 6.STUNT NEMATODE Tylenchorhynchus spp. Slide 30: INFECTED ROOTS IDENTIFICATION: IDENTIFICATION Ecto -parasites Medium sized nematode It prefer sandy soil All stages are parasitic Average feeding time 10 minutes DAMAGES: DAMAGES Root elongation Damaging root tissues Stubby root condition leading to stunting and reduced plant growth MANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Summer ploughing Soil solerization Fumigation Slide 34: DISEASES CAUSED BY NEMATODE MOLYA DISEASE IN WHEAT: MOLYA DISEASE IN WHEAT Heterodera avenae SYMPTOMS: It cause cyst in roots Stunted growth of plant Delay in emergence of ears Reduced leaf area Fewer leaves and roots SYMPTOMS Slide 37: INFECTED ROOTS MANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Use of resistant varieties Mixed cropping Soil fumigation with DBCP Spraying of Bavistin ROOT KNOT NEMATODE IN WHEAT: ROOT KNOT NEMATODE IN WHEAT Meloidogyne javaneca Slide 40: INFECTED ROOTS YELLOW ROT / TUNDU DISEASE: YELLOW ROT / TUNDU DISEASE - Anguina tritici Slide 42: INFECTED KERNALS IDENTIFICATION: IDENTIFICATION Otherwise known as bacterial spike blight & yellow slim blight Occurance:-Australia Punjab(India) Ecto -parasite Slide 44: NEMATODE SYMPTOMS: SYMPTOMS Wrinkling & twisting of central leaf Twisted head covered with honey dew like slim Ear cockle and tundu are two distinct phases MANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Washing & drying Ploughing in the month of may - june Proper drainage of water Growing resistant varieties like sharbathi,Sonara,Lerma roja,Kalyan sona Uproot and burned. Floatation of seed in brine solution 18kg salt in 110lit water to kill nematodes : Uproot and burned. Floatation of seed in brine solution 18kg salt in 110lit water to kill nematodes MAIZE CYST NEMATODE: MAIZE CYST NEMATODE Heterodera zeae Slide 49: INFECTED ROOTS Slide 50: Thank you Slide 51: By Sandeep . V BSC Agri.