DISEASES AND NEMATODE

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NEMATODE PARASITES IN CEREALS:

NEMATODE PARASITES IN CEREALS

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION NEMATODES ARE USUALLY Thread like Non-visible to naked eye Specific parasites on plants & roots It causes stunting Reducing yield

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TYPES OF NEMATODES INFECTING CEREALS

1.ROOT KNOT NEMATODE:

1.ROOT KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne incognita M.javanica M.arenaria M.halpa

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INFECTED ROOTS

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GALLS ON ROOTS

IDENTIFICATION:

IDENTIFICATION Microscopic round worms Obligate endo - parasites Widely distributed in nurseries Favours in upland or in well drained soil

DAMAGES:

DAMAGES PRODUCE GALLS ON ROOTS IT AFFECT WATER & NUTRIENT MOVEMENT IN PLANTS PROVIDE LOCATION FOR OTHER DISEASE PRODUCING ORGANISMS. IT CAUSES CHLOROSIS,WILTING,DELAY IN FLOWERING & REDUSE YIELD

MANAGEMENT:

MANAGEMENT DEEP SUMMER PLOUGHING CROP ROTATION WITH NON HOST CROP USE OF RESISTANT VARIETIES SOIL SOLERISATION TREAT NURSERY BED WITH CARBOFURAN @ 0.3g ai/sq.m ROOT DIPPED IN SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDE HOT WATER TREATMENT

2.ROOT LESSION NEMATODE:

2.ROOT LESSION NEMATODE -Pratylenchus spp.

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INFECTED ROOTS

IDENTIFICATION:

IDENTIFICATION Damage is non-specific These are wide spreading It has wide host ranges like wheat,bajra,maize,rice,barlyetc

DAMAGES:

DAMAGES Yellowing and stunting of tops Loss of primary roots Severe pruning of roots,reduced size of blossom Produce lesions on roots Water soaked lesions on spots

MANAGEMENT:

MANAGEMENT Hot water treatment Growing target patula Summer ploughing Application of carbofuran/phorate @ 1-2 kg ai / ha

3.SPIRAL NEMATODE:

3.SPIRAL NEMATODE -Helicotylenchus multicinctus

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SPIRAL NEMATODE

DAMAGES:

DAMAGES Mild stunting & reduction in yield Small light to dark brown lessions

MANAGEMENT:

MANAGEMENT Application of carbofuran or phorate @ 1-2kg/ha may reduce the yield loss

4.RENIFORM NEMATODE:

4.RENIFORM NEMATODE -Rotylenchus reniformis

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RENIFORM NEMATODE

IDENTIFICATION:

IDENTIFICATION Kidney shaped Semi endo-parasites Female penetrates into the root Establish permanent feeding

DAMAGES:

DAMAGES Growing less vigorously than healthy ones Smaller root system Infected root appear dirty because of nematode egg sacks

MANAGEMENTS:

MANAGEMENTS Summer ploughing Clean cultivation Growing antagonistic / trap cropping (eg.marigold,asparagus,crotalaria) Soil solarisation Use resistant varieties Seed treatment with 1-3% carbofuran Application of non-edible neem cake

5.STUBBY ROOT NEMATODE:

5.STUBBY ROOT NEMATODE Trichodorus christei

IDENTIFICATION:

IDENTIFICATION Present mostly in sandy soil It is capable of vertical migration Small & can’t see with our naked eye Ecto parasites

DAMAGES:

DAMAGES Feed root tip and stop root growth Stubby root appearance Stunting,yellowing & slow growth Plants are finally killed

MANAGEMENT:

MANAGEMENT Apply 5 tonnes of FYM /ha Treatment with carbofuran

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INFECTED ROOTS

6.STUNT NEMATODE:

6.STUNT NEMATODE Tylenchorhynchus spp.

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INFECTED ROOTS

IDENTIFICATION:

IDENTIFICATION Ecto -parasites Medium sized nematode It prefer sandy soil All stages are parasitic Average feeding time 10 minutes

DAMAGES:

DAMAGES Root elongation Damaging root tissues Stubby root condition leading to stunting and reduced plant growth

MANAGEMENT:

MANAGEMENT Summer ploughing Soil solerization Fumigation

Slide 34:

DISEASES CAUSED BY NEMATODE

MOLYA DISEASE IN WHEAT:

MOLYA DISEASE IN WHEAT Heterodera avenae

SYMPTOMS:

It cause cyst in roots Stunted growth of plant Delay in emergence of ears Reduced leaf area Fewer leaves and roots SYMPTOMS

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INFECTED ROOTS

MANAGEMENT:

MANAGEMENT Use of resistant varieties Mixed cropping Soil fumigation with DBCP Spraying of Bavistin

ROOT KNOT NEMATODE IN WHEAT:

ROOT KNOT NEMATODE IN WHEAT Meloidogyne javaneca

Slide 40:

INFECTED ROOTS

YELLOW ROT / TUNDU DISEASE:

YELLOW ROT / TUNDU DISEASE - Anguina tritici

Slide 42:

INFECTED KERNALS

IDENTIFICATION:

IDENTIFICATION Otherwise known as bacterial spike blight & yellow slim blight Occurance:-Australia Punjab(India) Ecto -parasite

Slide 44:

NEMATODE

SYMPTOMS:

SYMPTOMS Wrinkling & twisting of central leaf Twisted head covered with honey dew like slim Ear cockle and tundu are two distinct phases

MANAGEMENT:

MANAGEMENT Washing & drying Ploughing in the month of may - june Proper drainage of water Growing resistant varieties like sharbathi,Sonara,Lerma roja,Kalyan sona

Uproot and burned. Floatation of seed in brine solution 18kg salt in 110lit water to kill nematodes :

Uproot and burned. Floatation of seed in brine solution 18kg salt in 110lit water to kill nematodes

MAIZE CYST NEMATODE:

MAIZE CYST NEMATODE Heterodera zeae

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INFECTED ROOTS

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Thank you

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By Sandeep . V BSC Agri.