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Premium member Presentation Transcript NEMATODE PARASITES IN CEREALS: NEMATODE PARASITES IN CEREALSINTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION NEMATODES ARE USUALLY Thread like Non-visible to naked eye Specific parasites on plants & roots It causes stunting Reducing yieldSlide 3: TYPES OF NEMATODES INFECTING CEREALS1.ROOT KNOT NEMATODE: 1.ROOT KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne incognita M.javanica M.arenaria M.halpaSlide 5: INFECTED ROOTSSlide 6: GALLS ON ROOTSIDENTIFICATION: IDENTIFICATION Microscopic round worms Obligate endo - parasites Widely distributed in nurseries Favours in upland or in well drained soilDAMAGES: DAMAGES PRODUCE GALLS ON ROOTS IT AFFECT WATER & NUTRIENT MOVEMENT IN PLANTS PROVIDE LOCATION FOR OTHER DISEASE PRODUCING ORGANISMS. IT CAUSES CHLOROSIS,WILTING,DELAY IN FLOWERING & REDUSE YIELDMANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT DEEP SUMMER PLOUGHING CROP ROTATION WITH NON HOST CROP USE OF RESISTANT VARIETIES SOIL SOLERISATION TREAT NURSERY BED WITH CARBOFURAN @ 0.3g ai/sq.m ROOT DIPPED IN SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDE HOT WATER TREATMENT 2.ROOT LESSION NEMATODE: 2.ROOT LESSION NEMATODE -Pratylenchus spp.Slide 11: INFECTED ROOTSIDENTIFICATION: IDENTIFICATION Damage is non-specific These are wide spreading It has wide host ranges like wheat,bajra,maize,rice,barlyetcDAMAGES: DAMAGES Yellowing and stunting of tops Loss of primary roots Severe pruning of roots,reduced size of blossom Produce lesions on roots Water soaked lesions on spotsMANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Hot water treatment Growing target patula Summer ploughing Application of carbofuran/phorate @ 1-2 kg ai / ha 3.SPIRAL NEMATODE: 3.SPIRAL NEMATODE -Helicotylenchus multicinctusSlide 16: SPIRAL NEMATODEDAMAGES: DAMAGES Mild stunting & reduction in yield Small light to dark brown lessions MANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Application of carbofuran or phorate @ 1-2kg/ha may reduce the yield loss 4.RENIFORM NEMATODE: 4.RENIFORM NEMATODE -Rotylenchus reniformisSlide 20: RENIFORM NEMATODEIDENTIFICATION: IDENTIFICATION Kidney shaped Semi endo-parasites Female penetrates into the root Establish permanent feedingDAMAGES: DAMAGES Growing less vigorously than healthy ones Smaller root system Infected root appear dirty because of nematode egg sacksMANAGEMENTS: MANAGEMENTS Summer ploughing Clean cultivation Growing antagonistic / trap cropping (eg.marigold,asparagus,crotalaria) Soil solarisation Use resistant varieties Seed treatment with 1-3% carbofuran Application of non-edible neem cake 5.STUBBY ROOT NEMATODE: 5.STUBBY ROOT NEMATODE Trichodorus christeiIDENTIFICATION: IDENTIFICATION Present mostly in sandy soil It is capable of vertical migration Small & can’t see with our naked eye Ecto parasitesDAMAGES: DAMAGES Feed root tip and stop root growth Stubby root appearance Stunting,yellowing & slow growth Plants are finally killedMANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Apply 5 tonnes of FYM /ha Treatment with carbofuranSlide 28: INFECTED ROOTS 6.STUNT NEMATODE: 6.STUNT NEMATODE Tylenchorhynchus spp.Slide 30: INFECTED ROOTSIDENTIFICATION: IDENTIFICATION Ecto -parasites Medium sized nematode It prefer sandy soil All stages are parasitic Average feeding time 10 minutesDAMAGES: DAMAGES Root elongation Damaging root tissues Stubby root condition leading to stunting and reduced plant growthMANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Summer ploughing Soil solerization FumigationSlide 34: DISEASES CAUSED BY NEMATODEMOLYA DISEASE IN WHEAT: MOLYA DISEASE IN WHEAT Heterodera avenaeSYMPTOMS: It cause cyst in roots Stunted growth of plant Delay in emergence of ears Reduced leaf area Fewer leaves and roots SYMPTOMSSlide 37: INFECTED ROOTSMANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Use of resistant varieties Mixed cropping Soil fumigation with DBCP Spraying of Bavistin ROOT KNOT NEMATODE IN WHEAT: ROOT KNOT NEMATODE IN WHEAT Meloidogyne javanecaSlide 40: INFECTED ROOTSYELLOW ROT / TUNDU DISEASE: YELLOW ROT / TUNDU DISEASE - Anguina triticiSlide 42: INFECTED KERNALSIDENTIFICATION: IDENTIFICATION Otherwise known as bacterial spike blight & yellow slim blight Occurance:-Australia Punjab(India) Ecto -parasiteSlide 44: NEMATODESYMPTOMS: SYMPTOMS Wrinkling & twisting of central leaf Twisted head covered with honey dew like slim Ear cockle and tundu are two distinct phasesMANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Washing & drying Ploughing in the month of may - june Proper drainage of water Growing resistant varieties like sharbathi,Sonara,Lerma roja,Kalyan sonaUproot and burned. Floatation of seed in brine solution 18kg salt in 110lit water to kill nematodes : Uproot and burned. Floatation of seed in brine solution 18kg salt in 110lit water to kill nematodesMAIZE CYST NEMATODE: MAIZE CYST NEMATODE Heterodera zeaeSlide 49: INFECTED ROOTSSlide 50: Thank youSlide 51: By Sandeep . V BSC Agri. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.