Temple and the Presence of God-Session 3


Presentation Description

Session 3 of the course, "Temple and the Presence of God." Session addresses the Temple of Christ.


Presentation Transcript

Temple and the Presence of God:

1 Rev: 4/24/2017 Temple and the Presence of God

III. The Temple of Christ:

III. The Temple of Christ 2


3 The Old Testament prefigures and is fulfilled in the New Testament The Temple of Moses (along with its successors) was a passing stage, a figure or symbol, a “type” of something far greater, of a Reality to come That Reality – a new order – appears with Christ The Person of Jesus, then, becomes the new Temple and “the place where glory dwells.” Temple of Christ “Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up” [John 2:19]. “For God so loved the world that he gave * his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him might not perish but might have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved through him” [John 3:16-17]


4 To whom does Jesus first reveals this prophetic theological truth? To His Apostles? To the Pharisees or Temple elders? No, He reveals it to a Samaritan, a woman, a sinner. Temple of Christ “…the hour is coming when you will worship the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem. But the hour is coming, and is now here, when true worshipers will worship the Father in Spirit and truth…” [John 4:21,23]


5 The encounter with the Samaritan woman occurs after the miracle at Cana, His “cleansing” of the Temple (His act of judgment), His declaration of the Kingdom to Nicodemus, the Baptist’s witness and testimony. Temple of Christ In becomes a summation of all these: the new Temple is a spiritual Temple. It is Christ Himself.


6 Herod the Great began rebuilding the Temple in 19 BC, but it wasn't completed until 64 AD A wonder of the world, it was the Temple in which Jesus worshipped and taught In 70 A.D, 40 years after Jesus’ prophecy [Matthew 23:38; 24:15], the Romans destroyed the Temple This emphasized its end as God’s dwelling and place of sacrifice Herod’s Temple “You see all these things, do you not? Amen, I say to you, there will not be left here a stone upon another stone that will not be thrown down” [Matthew 24:2].


7 The Priest, Zechariah Once when he was serving as priest in his division’s turn before God, according to the practice of the priestly service, he was chosen by lot to enter the sanctuary of the Lord to burn incense…the angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing at the right of the altar of incense. Zechariah was troubled by what he saw, and fear came upon him [Luke 1:8-9,11-12].


8 While ministering in the Temple Zechariah, a priest, receives the revelation about the birth of his son, John The Priest, Zechariah In the holy tabernacle I ministered before Him, and so I was established in Zion [ Sirach 24:10]. “…he will be great in the sight of the Lord…He will be filled with the holy Spirit even from his mother’s womb, and he will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord their God. He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah to turn the hearts of fathers toward children and the disobedient to the understanding of the righteous, to prepare a people fit for the Lord.” [Luke 1:15-17].


9 More than a prophet, prepares the way, inaugurates the Gospel A “new” Elijah [John 1:19-23], he spends his youth in the desert (Qumran?) and with his disciples announces the Messiah’s arrival Preaches conversion of repentance, ritual washing, fasting, prayer, justice Proclaims Jesus as the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world Invites his disciples to follow Jesus John the Baptist “Behold, I am sending my messenger ahead of you; he will prepare your way. A voice of one crying out in the desert: ‘Prepare the way of the Lord, make straight his paths.’” [Mark 1:2-3].


10 John’s testimony about Jesus is both personal and prophetic, proclaiming Jesus’ Redemptive Mission John the Baptist The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world. He is the one of whom I said, ‘A man is coming after me who ranks ahead of me because he existed before me.’ I did not know him, but the reason why I came baptizing with water was that he might be made known to Israel.” John testified further, saying, “I saw the Spirit come down like a dove from the sky and remain upon him. I did not know him, but the one who sent me to baptize with water told me, ‘On whomever you see the Spirit come down and remain, he is the one who will baptize with the holy Spirit.’ Now I have seen and testified that he is the Son of God.” [John 1:29-34]


11 Like the Essenes, he strongly rebukes the Pharisees and Sadducees for their hypocrisy and pride; but John never attacks the Temple itself He is the witness who preaches the “good news” and Baptizes Jesus – Trinitarian theophany of Father, Son and Spirit The new Temple – “He will clear His threshing floor…” [2 Chronicles 3:1] the original location of the Temple in Jerusalem John the Baptist I am baptizing you with water, for repentance, but the one who is coming after me is mightier than I. I am not worthy to carry his sandals. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. His winnowing fan is in his hand. He will clear his threshing floor and gather his wheat into his barn, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire.” [Matthew 3:11-12].


12 God doesn’t ask for a Temple to be built [2 Samuel 7:5-7] He agrees that Solomon should build Him a Temple, with the understanding that the Temple cannot contain Him [1 Kings 8:27] His “house” shall be the House of David; it is with the line of David that God wishes to live Covenant With David “ …the LORD will make a house for you: when your days have been completed and you rest with your ancestors, I will raise up your offspring after you, sprung from your loins, and I will establish his kingdom. He it is who shall build a house for my name, and I will establish his royal throne forever. I will be a father to him, and he shall be a son to me” [2 Sam 7:11-14 ].


13 The “Temple” then is a temporary home in which God’s glory will dwell until the Incarnation From that moment God dwells in Jesus Himself St. John proclaims this, speaking of Jesus as the Logos who “dwelt among us.” – literal translation “tabernacled among us” Jesus and the Temple “And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth; we have beheld His glory, glory as the only begotten Son of the Father” [John 1:14].


14 The Presence of God overshadows the Virgin; the same cloud of God’s Presence in the Tabernacle Mary, the new Tabernacle in which dwells the “Word became flesh” And the angel said to her in reply, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God” [Luke 1:35]. Mary, the Tabernacle


15 The name of this icon is “Mary, Wider than the Heavens” – a name given to Mary because she was chosen to carry the infinite God in her womb She is present in the Garden ( Genesis 3:15), as she was present on the first morning of creation ( Proverbs 8:24 ) Mary, the Tabernacle From eternity, in the beginning, He created me, and for eternity I shall not cease to exist [ Sirach 24:9]. Jesus is now surrounded by a two-fold Presence: the divine glory present in the angels that everywhere accompany the Word; and the human, the nakedness of the cradle


16 Jesus, in His humanity, encounters the Temple for the first time at His Presentation Jesus was presented there as an infant [Luke 2:22-39], according to the Law Presentation at the Temple When the days were completed for their purification according to the law of Moses, they [Mary & Joseph] took him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord… and to offer the sacrifice of “a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons,” in accordance with the dictate in the law of the Lord [Luke 2:22,24].


17 Just an infant in the Temple? Not to Simeon whose eyes are unsealed by the Holy Spirit Simeon sees something greater than the Temple He sees the one for whom the Temple has kept ceaseless vigil “Now, Master, you may let your servant go in peace, according to your word, for my eyes have seen your salvation, which you prepared in sight of all the peoples, a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and glory for your people Israel” [Luke 2:29-32]. Presentation at the Temple


18 The Presentation was truly a unique moment, when the two Temples exist simultaneously Until then there had been only a figurative Temple, an image of that to come, a sign of the promise to David But now, at once, we see the figure and the Reality, the promise and the Gift In the very heart of the figure, the Reality is manifested; in the heart of the promise, the Gift is given Two Temples? Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. We bless you from the house of the Lord [Psalm 118:26].


19 Two Temples and two defining moments: The arrival of the New Temple (the Reality) at the Incarnation The end of the Old Temple (the figure) at the Passion The mystery of their connection is shown in the light of the Gospel Two Temples? We ponder, O God, your mercy within your temple [Psalm 48:10].


20 This Presentation in the Temple fulfills those that precede it, each echoing all the louder: The presentation of Adam in the Cosmic Temple The presentation of Samuel in the Mosaic Temple The presentation of Mary herself (Feast Nov 21) It in turn precedes the Presentation of every Christian on the day of Baptism, which also points to the heavenly Temple “Father, they are your gift to me. I wish that where I am they also may be with me, that they may see my glory that you gave me, because you loved me before the foundation of the world.” [John 17:24] Presentation at the Temple


21 Jesus and His parents went to Jerusalem for Passover each year [Luke 2:41] At 12 He spent several days in the Temple and “astounded the teachers” with His understanding [Luke 2:41-52] His Father’s house (dwelling place); His “business” Already Jesus accepted His divine Sonship ; that obedience to His heavenly Father’s will takes precedence over ties to His family The Holy Family in the Temple And he said to them [Mary and Joseph], “Why were you looking for me? Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?” [Luke 2:49]


22 Jesus’ next Gospel encounter with the Temple is charged with mysterious significance It occurs after His Baptism by John and before His public ministry Satan tempts in the 3 holy places of Moses: Wilderness, Temple, and Mountain The Temptation


23 The Sinai experience (40 years) and the Temple become types of Jesus’ 40 days in the wilderness: Wilderness: bread not from heaven, but from stones Temple: not just in the Tabernacle but to manifest glory in the Temple surrounded by angels Mountain: not just a view of the Promised Land from Nebo, but the whole earth The Temptation


24 Satan set Jesus on a pinnacle of the Temple and tempts Him to throw Himself down The Temptation Then he led him to Jerusalem, made him stand on the parapet of the temple, and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down from here, for it is written: “He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you” [Luke 4:9-10].


25 Satan’s desire: to preserve the old order He fears little so long as the Presence still dwells in the Temple of stone The nations will remain under his influence He knows the old order will attack Jesus to maintain itself But Jesus is not of the Order of Moses or even a higher order – He is the Reality while Moses and the Temple are only figures pointing to Him The Temptation ‘You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test.” [Luke 4:12; Deuteronomy 6:16].


26 A procession of angels accompanies the Word, of which they are the radiance; but we also see the nakedness of the cradle We encounter this twofold presence at: Annunciation [Luke 1:26] Bethlehem [Luke 2:9-14] Temptation [Mark 1:12-13] Agony [Luke 22:43] Passion and Death [Matthew 26:53] Resurrection [Matthew 28:2-7; John 20:12-13] Ascension [Acts 1:10-12] Twofold Presence “Then the devil left him and, behold, angels came and ministered to him ” [Matthew 4:11].


27 Temple of Christ I say to you, something greater than the temple is here [Matthew 12:6].


28 Jesus’ first ministerial act in Jerusalem is to cleanse the Temple (John 2:13-25) Why? We turn to Jeremiah to understand Foreshadowing the treatment of Jesus, Jeremiah is condemned for predicting the ruin of the Temple and its corrupt priesthood See Jeremiah 7:12-14. Israel and its institutions must be destroyed so the new and eternal covenant can be established [Jeremiah 31:31] Cleanse the Temple Is it not written, “My house shall be called a house of prayer for all the nations”? But you have made it a den of thieves [Mark 11:17].


29 Jesus casts out the money-changers and others, and causes a temporary cessation of animal sacrifice Jesus demonstrates (an anticipation) what will happen: Sacrifices will cease when the Temple is destroyed This is not an act of reform; it is an act of judgment [John 9:39] Must be understood in light of Zechariah 14:21 Cleanse the Temple Then Jesus said, “I came into this world for judgment, so that those who do not see might see, and those who do see might become blind. [John 9:39].


30 Asked for a sign, Jesus prophesied His death and Resurrection (as John explains: “ he was speaking about the temple of his body ”) Theme of Jesus as the “New Temple” runs throughout John’s Gospel Prophesied in Deuteronomy 27:6 – a Temple of “ unhewn stones,” not made by human hands The Eucharistic sacrifice becomes the New Temple’s “pouring out of blood” [Hebrews 9:22] Cleanse the Temple …the Jews answered and said to him, “What sign can you show us for doing this?” Jesus answered and said to them, “Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up.” [John 2:18-19].


31 Jesus’ encounters with the Temple are all filled with meaning, and ultimately relate to Him as the true Temple Yet we can’t deny His complete devotion to the Temple Like the prophets, He condemned the human traditions of the elders and Pharisees, but said nothing against the Temple He denounces the Pharisees showing respect for its sacred character [Matthew 23:16-22] Jesus and the Temple “Woe to you, blind guides, who say, ‘If one swears by the temple, it means nothing, but if one swears by the gold of the Temple, one is obligated.’ Blind fools, which is greater, the gold, or the temple that made the gold sacred? [Matthew 23:16-17]


32 Jesus calls the Temple the: House of God [Mt 12:4; Lk 6:4] House of Prayer [Mt 11;17; 21:13; Lk 19:46] House of His Father [ Lk 2:49; Jn 2:16] The Temple is “holy” because of Him who dwells in it; it sanctifies the objects within it [Mt 23:16-21] Jesus pays the Temple tax [Mt 17:24-27] Jesus and the Temple “ I have spoken publicly to the world. I have always taught in a synagogue or in the temple area where all the Jews gather, and in secret I have said nothing. [John 18:20]


33 His first ministerial act in Jerusalem is to cleanse the Temple (John 2) He was at the Temple for the great feasts (John) He taught in the Temple and pronounced many of His most important judgments there He healed in the Temple He was called to be of the Temple in His humanity He is the fulfillment of the Temple and its worship Jesus and Temple When the feast was already half over, Jesus went up into the Temple area and began to teach. The Jews were amazed and said, “How does he know scripture without having studied?” [John 7:14-15].


34 Jesus not only expected a new, eschatological Temple, but also a new eschatological priesthood This is a New Temple and a radically new priesthood which Jesus applies to His disciples [Matthew 12:1-8] They will offer the sacrificial bread and wine of the New Covenant Jesus and Priesthood “I say to you, something greater than the Temple is here…For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath” [Matthew 12:6,8].


35 Gentiles shall worship God in His Temple, as worshippers and priests. This prophecy is repeated in Isaiah 66:20-21. Jesus and Priesthood And foreigners who join themselves to the Lord, to minister to him, To love the name of the Lord, to become his servants — All who keep the Sabbath without profaning it and hold fast to my covenant, them I will bring to my holy mountain and make them joyful in my house of prayer; their burnt offerings and their sacrifices will be acceptable on my altar, for my house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples [Isaiah 56:6-7].


36 Jesus, in telling the Apostles to “do this,” – i.e., offer His Body and Blood as bread and wine – is commissioning them to perform a priestly action As Moses sealed the Covenant with blood on Mt Sinai, Jesus seals the New Covenant with blood in the upper room [Exodus 24:1-11] Jesus is more than the new Moses; He is the Reality to which Moses points, the fulfillment of all elements of the Old Covenant Jesus and Priesthood I confer a kingdom on you, just as my Father has conferred one on me, that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom; and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel [Luke 22:29-30].


37 At the moment of Jesus’ death, the Temple veil is rent, as is the earth itself (same Greek word used for both) The effects are cultic and cosmic: the Temple and Creation (heaven and earth) are torn asunder Old Temple is replaced by a new; old world replaced by a “new heaven and a new earth” [Is 65:17; 66:22] Temple of Christ And behold, the veil of the sanctuary was torn in two from top to bottom. The earth quaked, rocks were split [Matthew 27:51].


38 After three days the Temple of the New Law, the glorified Person of Jesus, is raised up for everyone Now YHWH dwells no longer in the Temple made by hands, but in Jesus Christ Himself Jesus himself, in his own person, is the new Temple, the meeting-place between divinity and humanity, between heaven and earth. Temple of Christ And behold, the veil of the sanctuary was torn in two from top to bottom [Matthew 27:51].


39 Jesus’ declaration that He is “something greater than the Temple” is in harmony with His predicting its destruction This prophecy is in all synoptic Gospels and alluded to in John [Mt 24:2; Mk 13:2; Lk 21:6; Jn 2:19] Here He echoes the words of the prophets [Micah 3:12; Jeremiah 7:14] The prophecy is realized in 70 A.D. when the Romans destroy Jerusalem Temple Destroyed Amen, I say to you, there will not be left here a stone upon another stone that will not be thrown down [Matthew 24:2].


40 The Divine Presence no longer dwells in a Temple of stone, a single place. It dwells in Jesus Himself, and the angels minister to Him It is no longer the “bread of our fathers” feeding only the body, but the Bread of Life It is no longer the Land promised to Moses, or the Temple built by Solomon. They are mere shadows of the heavenly Temple of Reality: Jesus Christ All Has Changed Christ is the true temple of God, “the place where his glory dwells” [CCC 1197].


41 Jesus doesn’t repeat patterns; all before Him was repetition – figures and types. He is now the Reality He offers us real Bread, His Real Presence in His Body and Blood He builds a real Temple at the Resurrection He leads His people into the real Kingdom at the Ascension He sends His Holy Spirit to build the Church at Pentecost All Has Changed

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