Church History 1

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History of the Catholic Church - Part 1 - The Early Church (30 to 330 AD)


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Sent you a private message because I didn't see this section. Totally using your History presentation for my RCIA class. Thanks.

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oh wonderful sight. could you also present 4 & 5 parts. I searched in Google but i can not get. thanks. Aquin

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PowerPoint Presentation:

History of the Catholic Church A 2,000-Year Journey

History of the Catholic Church Course Description:

2 History of the Catholic Church Course Description As an institution established by Jesus Christ, the Catholic Church has a divine origin. But as an institution led by and populated with human beings, it is also subject to the faults of humans. During the long history of the Catholic Church, many of its members and some of those who led it have certainly erred, making poor decisions that resulted in sin and suffering. But many more of its members and leaders were also saints, men and women who lived and died for Jesus Christ and His One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. And during that same long history, the Church has not only preserved intact the deposit of faith, but has also brought about the development and preservation of much of civilization as we know it. This is what we will study in this course.

Macaulay on the Church (1840):

3 Macaulay on the Church (1840) “There is not, and there never was on this earth, a work of human policy so well deserving of examination as the Roman Catholic Church…No other institution is left standing which carries the mind back to the times when the smoke of sacrifice rose from the Pantheon, and when camelopards and tigers bounded in the Flavian amphitheatre. The proudest royal houses are but of yesterday, when compared with the line of the Supreme Pontiffs…The papacy remains, not in decay, not a mere antique, but full of life and youthful vigor. The Catholic Church…may still exist in undiminished vigor when some traveler from New Zealand shall, in the midst of a vast solitude, take his stand on a broken arch of London Bridge to sketch the ruins of St. Paul’s.” - Edinburgh Review (1840) Thomas Macaulay Scottish statesman & historian

Why Study Church History?:

4 Why Study Church History? To come to know Jesus better through his Church and its teachings To gain a better sense of our identity as Catholic Christians To be able to address many of the common errors and inaccuracies about the Church and its history To learn how best to express God’s Word in today’s world

Vatican II: Lumen Gentium:

5 Vatican II: Lumen Gentium “This is the unique Church of Christ that in the Creed we avow as One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic. After His Resurrection our Savior handed the Church over to Peter to be shepherded, commissioning him and the other Apostles to propagate and govern it. And it was this Church that He erected for all ages as ‘the pillar and foundation of truth’.” (1 Tim 3:15) – Constitution on the Church 9

Vatican II: Sacrosanctum Concilium:

6 Vatican II: Sacrosanctum Concilium “It is of the essence of the Church to be both human and Divine, visible and yet endowed with invisible resources, eager to act and yet devoted to contemplation, present in this world and yet not at home in it. The Church is all these things in such a way that in it the human is directed and subordinated to the Divine, the visible likewise to the invisible, action to contemplation, and the present world to that city yet to come which we seek.” – Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy 2

Course Outline:

7 Course Outline The Early Church (30-330) The Church of the Fathers (330-650) The Church of the Early Middle Ages (650 – 1000) The Church of the High Middle Ages [1000-1450] Protestant and Catholic Reformations (1450-1789) The Church and the Modern World (1789-Present)

Understanding the Past:

8 Understanding the Past “…it is impossible to understand the past unless we understand the things for which the men of the past cared most.” Christopher Dawson (Catholic Historian)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Part 1 The Early Church (30 – 330 AD) History of the Catholic Church

From a historical perspective, we realize that the Church is…:

10 From a historical perspective, we realize that the Church is… Based on the life and teachings of an historical person, Jesus of Nazareth Shaped by how Christians have lived out the Gospel message over the centuries in the world The story of the relationship of Jesus and the believers who have followed him over the centuries Filled with God’s presence throughout history

Ultimately, Church is MYSTERY:

11 Ultimately, Church is MYSTERY “However, the subject calls for lenience from the well disposed, and I confess that it is beyond my power to fulfill my promise completely and perfectly.” Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine (263-339) , from his Church History (1)

The Early Church – Overview 1:

12 The Early Church – Overview 1 The early Church was obliged to live in a pagan and alien world In addition to its main task of conversion and evangelization, it focused on protecting its members from pagan errors and vices For two centuries the Church was largely defensive toward the world, standing firm in the face of fierce opposition and persecution

The Early Church – Overview 2:

13 The Early Church – Overview 2 Once Christianity became the religion of Rome (319 A.D.) it assimilated the Empire’s culture in all its diverse forms Although the Church adapted itself to the culture, it never relinquished any of its essential teachings It still faced and endured theological disputes and barbarian invasions It overcame heresy through the teachings of the Church Fathers, and blunted the fury of invaders by having its missionaries convert them

The Early Church – Overview 3:

14 The Early Church – Overview 3 Estimates of the early Church’s growth: 500,000 members by end of 1 st Century 2 million members by end of 2 nd Century 5 million members by end of 3 rd Century 10 million members by the first half of the 4 th Century (350 A.D.) Christendom became an integral and accepted part of the world, contributing to the religious and secular lives of the people. Constantine the Great

The Early Church – Overview 4:

15 The Early Church – Overview 4 The Church’s incredible spread during its first three centuries is one of the proofs of its Divine origin This religion was preached by Jesus Christ, a carpenter, in tiny Palestine in a remote corner of the Empire This Jesus chose twelve humble men to carry His message to the world These men, and the thousands they converted, would rather die horrible deaths than apostatize In 300 years it became mightier than pagan Rome Eucharist depicted in the Catacombs

The Beginnings: Jewish Sources:

16 The Beginnings: Jewish Sources Judaism, a historical religion – God intervened in history and personally directed the life of the Israelites Covenant & Patriarchs: Abraham (c. 1850 BC), Isaac, Jacob Freedom & Law: Moses (c. 1300-1200 BC), Passover, Exodus Promised Land to Kingdom to Exile: Joshua to David to Ezekiel God is personal and transcendent, unlike the pagan gods Jews: independent, insistence on history, monotheism, adaptability Moses (by Michelangelo)

Influence: Jewish Sources:

17 Influence: Jewish Sources Early Church thoroughly Jewish: Jesus, Apostles, first followers were all Jewish NT writers (Luke possible exception) were all Jews Church is considered the New Israel Christ called: the New Law; the New Adam; the New Moses; the Son of David OT prophecies central to NT: Matthew cites OT 41 times – “it might be fulfilled.” Jesus takes Emmaus disciples through Scripture – Moses and all the Prophets Jesus Christ would make no sense without the OT roots Jesus Breaking Unleavened Bread

Influence: Jewish Sources:

18 Influence: Jewish Sources Early Church taught the entire OT prefigured the NT (e.g., Adam makes the coming of Christ necessary : “O Happy fault, O necessary sin of Adam, which gained for us so great a Redeemer.” ) Church inherited many Jewish qualities and spirituality (e.g., Pius XI: “Spiritually, we are all Semites.”) Millions of Jews lived outside Israel and provided a ready audience for early Christian preachers – synagogues were shelters and starting points Paul Preaching in a Synagogue in Damascus

The Beginnings: Roman Sources:

19 The Beginnings: Roman Sources Roman Empire at its material peak when Jesus is born ( Pax Romana ) from Spain to Persia, from Egypt to Scotland Effectiveness of communication and transportation not exceeded until the invention of the telegraph & railroad Culture, architecture, arts, language – homegrown & borrowed from others (Greeks) Safe sea lanes in the Mediterranean Effective administration throughout the Empire Protection of the Roman Army Extensive system of roads

Augustus Initiates Pax Romana:

20 Augustus Initiates Pax Romana “With vows and prayers your country calls for you…for with you here the ox plods the fields in safety, Ceres and bounteous happiness enrich our farms; our sailors sail waters unvexed by pirates; public honor stands inviolate; chaste homes are stained by no adulteries, and punishment follows swift on crime…Who fears Parthian, Scythian, German or Spaniard if Augustus be safe? Each man sees day close in peace on his native hills.” – Horace, Odes , IV, 5 Caesar Augustus

Pax Romana:

Pax Romana 21

Influence: Roman Sources:

22 Influence: Roman Sources Rome created an atmosphere in which missionary activity flourished Romans tolerant of established religions; considered early Christian activity Jewish Systematic, widespread persecution came late – gave Christianity time to expand Roman hunger for spiritual revival; its borrowed religion did not satisfy and its gods became mere ornaments Spiritual vacuum throughout the Empire filled by Christianity

The Beginnings: Christian Sources:

23 The Beginnings: Christian Sources Christianity brought unique and revolutionary elements – primary elements on which both other sources depend “He is risen!”- central message of Christianity – this is the message that electrified the world The miracle of the Resurrection and its theology came first The Resurrection and its consequences were the “Good News” – the written gospels, narratives of Jesus’ life, teachings, and death, were composed later to benefit those who had already accepted the Gospel

The Beginnings: Christian Sources:

24 The Beginnings: Christian Sources The Good News as preached followed a pattern: Fulfillment – Messianic Age Life, ministry, death & resurrection of Jesus He is risen! And heads the New Israel, the Church Holy Spirit a sign of Christ’s active presence in the Church Christ will come again Call to repentance and action The Gospel was preached long before it was written down by the four evangelists Read the sermons of Peter and Paul in Acts and note the similarities

The Beginnings: Christian Sources:

25 The Beginnings: Christian Sources Written gospels satisfied desire to know who Jesus is Accounts likely written for specific audiences Matthew for the Jews Mark for the Roman Christians Luke for Greeks or Gentiles John for established Christian communities at the end of the 1 st Century Christianity is historical from the very beginning… (e.g., Luke 2:1-2 & John 18:12-13 – historical details that can be verified Jesus born (6 BC – 1 AD); died (30-33 AD) The Four Evangelists

The Beginnings: Christian Sources:

26 The Beginnings: Christian Sources Other early Church Fathers stressed the maintenance of the Apostolic Tradition, specifically regarding Jesus as described in the Gospels Wrote and preached that the faithful should not listen to those who deny the historical Jesus or the reality of His humanity and divinity Among many others, Ignatius of Antioch & Polycarp of Smyrna both plead against the false doctrines being spread about Jesus and the Church

From the beginning…:

27 From the beginning… “Since many have undertaken to compile a narrative of the events that have been fulfilled among us, just as those who were eyewitnesses from the beginning and ministers of the word have handed them down to us, I too have decided, after investigating everything accurately anew, to write it down in an orderly sequence for you, most excellent Theophilus, so that you may realize the certainty of the teachings you have received.” – Luke 1:1-4 St. Luke

The Beginnings: Gospel of Luke:

28 The Beginnings: Gospel of Luke Much of what we know and understand about the early church comes from Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles These two books form a continuous story depicting Christ’s life through the crisis of the Crucifixion, to the Resurrection, and into Acts where we see the apostles, empowered by the Spirit, going about the business of spreading the Gospel St. Luke

The Beginnings: Christian Sources:

29 The Beginnings: Christian Sources The Words of Christ Tend to take three forms: Pronouncement stories (e.g., Mk 12:13-17) Proverbs (e.g., Mt 5:3-11) Parables (e.g., Lk 10:29-36) Pronouncements don’t rely on context; have a religious concern; elicit a response Proverbs – Jesus brings to this usually secular wisdom a religious dimension, or expands traditional religious ideas Parables – startle people into thinking about the Kingdom – understanding is a product of one’s faith Jesus Teaches

The Beginnings: Christian Sources:

30 The Beginnings: Christian Sources The Deeds of Christ (largely miracles) Jesus often reticent about performing and publicizing miracles; often refuses to work them and castigates those who seek them Jesus uses miracles not so much to prove his Divinity, but for purposes directly related to his ministry; for example… Jn 9:35-41 – Curing the blind man symbolic of spiritual sight which comes from faith Luke 5:1-11 – The large catch of fish symbolic of how Christ will “catch” people John 11 – Raising the dead Lazarus prefigures Christ's own Resurrection Jesus Heals the Paralytic (Mk 2:1-12)

The Beginnings: Christian Sources:

31 The Beginnings: Christian Sources Response to miracles Some (rationalists, secular humanists) reject them out of hand: “The great objection to miracles is that they do not occur.” – Matthew Arnold Modern apologists (Lewis, Chesterton…) show unreasonableness of blanket denials Chesterton: Christians are the ones who look at all the evidence and accept it; those who reject miracles do so a priori based on their biases and doctrines against them Many modern Christians argue against miracles, accepting the big ones (the Incarnation) while illogically denying the little ones Jesus Heals Bartimaeus (Mk 10:46-52)

Who do you say that I am…:

32 Who do you say that I am… Simon Peter said in reply, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God.“ Jesus said to him in reply, "Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah. For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my heavenly Father. And so I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.“ – Mt 16:16-19 Jesus’ prophecy

Petrine Primacy – Scripture:

33 Petrine Primacy – Scripture In addition to Mt 16: Jesus selects Simon first (Mt 4:18; Mk 1:16; Lk 5:1-11) Peter given primacy throughout Gospels (Mt 10:2) Jesus accustomed the jealous apostles to Peter's singular position among them Sequence of three closest to Jesus: Peter, James, John Peter regularly given special instructions and admonitions; Peter trained above the others in humility, patience and trust in God Peter’s faith declared essential, to strengthen the others Recognized as apostolic spokesman, only because the Lord had chosen him for leadership from the moment he was called to the apostolate

The Rock: Biblical Foundation:

34 The Rock: Biblical Foundation The image of the Rock, long used in both Biblical and extra-Biblical sources, implies permanence Qumran earlier hymn: “And I rejoiced in your truth, my God, for you lay a foundation upon a rock…to build a strong wall that will not be shaken and all who enter shall not falter.” Parables (Mt 7; Lk 6): building a house on rock foundation to withstand every storm Jesus’ final promise: “And behold, I am with you always, until the end of the age.” (Mt 28:20) The Church will continue to exist until the end of time: “As often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until He comes.” (1 Cor 11:26) Statue of St. Peter St. John Lateran, Rome

The Rock: Biblical Foundation:

35 The Rock: Biblical Foundation The Church will abide in the Truth: “And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate to be with you always, the Spirit of truth…” (Jn 14:16-17) “The Advocate, the holy Spirit that the Father will send in my name, he will teach you everything and remind you of all that I told you.” (Jn 14:26) “…the household of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and foundation of truth.” (1 Tim 3:15)

The Prophecy Fulfilled:

36 The Prophecy Fulfilled By saying, “My Church,” Jesus speaks of the society of people who join together in His Name and serve God as He commanded Peter, the rock, would die, but Christ’s Church would last “until the end of the age.” (Mt 28:20) Jesus, of course, is the irreplaceable foundation of His Church (1 Cor 3:11) Jesus foresaw the need to join a visible “rock” to Himself, so that to belong to the Church of Peter is to belong to Christ Himself. “…you are Peter, and upon this rock…” (Mt 16:16-19)

The Prophecy Fulfilled:

37 The Prophecy Fulfilled The Church’s history reflects the fulfillment of Jesus’ prophecy that, upon the foundation of Peter, He would build a new Israel, the Church Jesus’ teaching reveals that God the Father introduces His Kingdom into history and, through His power, brings it to fruition among us; He will perfect it in His own good time The “gates of the netherworld” is the force of evil responsible for both physical and spiritual death God’s people can overcome both forms of death to achieve entrance into the glory of God’s final Kingdom

The Prophecy Fulfilled:

38 The Prophecy Fulfilled Jesus promised that death, which overcomes all else, would be powerless against the Church He founded – as its Founder He made it immortal The gift of immortality implies the gift of indefectibility, which implies infallibility – to err while claiming to teach in the Name of God is to be conquered by error

The Beginnings: The Apostles:

39 The Beginnings: The Apostles Their witness brought Christ to the world Ordinary men: fishermen, tax collector, seemingly chosen for the ordinariness Normal men who would ask normal questions; common-sense men, not gullible; not the kind to invent, but the kind to doubt Despite all their confusion and doubt, they come to believe What they do is just as important as what they say; their lives convert the world – suffering and dying to spread the Good News (Who knowingly dies for a hoax?) The Apostles

The Beginnings: The Apostles:

40 The Beginnings: The Apostles Apostles had a tremendous impact on the early Church Provided the first interpretation of Christ’s message, along with his life, death and Resurrection They celebrated the first liturgies They make the first disciplinary and doctrinal decisions Their initial interpretive acts are the beginnings of Christian tradition St. Peter St. Paul

The Great Commission:

41 The Great Commission "All power in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, until the end of the age.“ The Great Commission (Mt 28:18-20)

The First Pentecost:

42 The Church began around AD 30, in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (the traditional Jewish feast of Pentecost to give thanks for the harvests) Peter stepped forward from among the Apostles and announced the Good News that Jesus, who had been sent by God and crucified, was alive, for God had raised Him up. He was the Savior, the Messiah, for whom their people had awaited for generations. (Acts 2-4) The First Pentecost The First Pentecost (Acts 2:1-4)

The First Pentecost:

43 Peter told those who asked that they had to repent and be baptized in the name of Jesus for the forgiveness of sins; then they would receive the Holy Spirit Three thousand were baptized and the Church was born The First Pentecost The Apostles Filled with the Spirit (Acts 2-5)

God’s Planned Surprise:

44 God chose the feast of Pentecost to manifest His Spirit, a day when Jews from all over the Empire would be in Jerusalem God’s Planned Surprise These were not Palestinian Jews, but “Parthians, Medes, and Elamites, inhabitants of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the districts of Libya near Cyrene, as well as travelers from Rome…” It was these to whom Peter preached It was these who were baptized As so the Church is Catholic (universal) from the very start

God’s Planned Surprise:

45 “…at the moment of her birth, the Church was already catholic, already a world Church. Luke thus rules out a conception in which a local Church first arose in Jerusalem and then became the base for the gradual establishment of other local Churches that eventually grew into a federation. Luke tells us that the reverse is true: what first exists is the one Church, the Church that speaks in all tongues – the ecclesia universalis; she then generates Church in the most diverse locales, which nonetheless are all always embodiments of the one and only Church.” – Pope Benedict XVI, Called to Communion , 1991 God’s Planned Surprise

Pentecost: the Beginning:

46 Pentecost: the Beginning Peter is reported to have converted 5,000 in Jerusalem by himself Most were Jewish pilgrims from elsewhere in the Empire; they return to their various Jewish communities and begin to form Christian cells It is these small communities that Paul worked so feverishly to keep together and in union with the universal Church It is for these reasons the Church rightly considers that first Pentecost its foundation day Sts. Peter and Paul Baptizing

The Early Church:

47 The Early Church The early (Jewish) Christians went on living as pious Jews: they prayed in the temple, observed dietary laws, and practiced circumcision. Their distinguishing features were their baptism in Jesus’ name, their diligent regard for the apostles’ teaching, their breaking of the bread., and their policy of having all things in common [Acts 2:31-37; 4:32-35]. Their zeal made then willing to go to prison and die for their faith Baptism depicted in the Catacombs

Jewish Authorities troubled by “The Way” because…:

48 Jewish Authorities troubled by “The Way” because… Peter and the other followers insisted Jesus was alive, that they had seen Him, talked with Him, eaten with Him, even when all knew he had been crucified and died They claimed Jesus was the Messiah sent by God to free the Chosen People, something that could cause the Jews problems with the Roman authorities They claimed He was the Son of God, a blasphemy to the Jews Like Jesus, they also cured people Some Apostles were jailed but escaped and continued preaching in the temple Peter Preaching (Acts 2:14-40)

Discussion: Gamaliel’s Advice Handout :

49 Read Acts 5:34-39 What advice did Gamaliel give the Sanhedrin on how to react? Discussion: Gamaliel’s Advice Handout Gamaliel Teaching (Acts 5:34-39; 22:3)

The Word Spreads:

50 Carried by the Jews of the Diaspora and the early missionaries, the Gospel message soon spread far beyond Jerusalem and throughout the Jewish communities in the Roman Empire Those spreading the word preached first in local synagogues because the Jews understood the messianic prophecies and could more readily accept Jesus as the fulfillment of their religious hopes The Word Spreads They soon discovered that the message of the Resurrection struck a universal chord in the Empire

Christianity Spreads:

51 Christianity Spreads Favorable Material Conditions in the Mediterranean World Roman Peace – “Pax Romana” Spiritual Turmoil in the Empire Appeal of Good News: He is risen! Appeal Of Christian Ideals God willed it

The Jewish Persecution:

52 Just as Jews so eagerly accepted the Good News, so also were the Jews the first persecutors of Christians Jesus was regarded as a blasphemer and the disciples as apostates and usurpers Apostles were persecuted in Jerusalem from the start After the deacon Stephen was stoned to death, Christians were actively and systematically persecuted Paul suffered on numerous occasions James (Greater, Zebedee) martyred in 44 – Herod Agrippa’s persecution James (Less) Bishop of Jerusalem martyred in 62 The Jewish Persecution Martyrdom of St. James, Bishop of Jerusalem (Acts 12:1-2)

The Word Spreads: St. Paul:

53 Born a Jew, from Tarsus in Asia Minor, Paul was a Pharisee and rabbi under the tutelage of the respected Gamaliel Roman citizen through his father Persecutor of Christians (present at St. Stephen’s stoning) On the road to Damascus to arrest Christians there when he is struck down and miraculously converted (Acts 9) The Word Spreads: St. Paul St. Paul’s Conversion (Acts 9:1-9)

Paul’s Conversion:

54 Some Critical Ramifications Jesus equates Himself with the Church: “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?...I am Jesus whom you are persecuting.” Paul’s conversion from persecutor to eager Christian made others suspicious Barnabas had to introduce Paul to the 12 to assure them of Paul’s sincerity Early Relations a bit testy with Paul Paul’s Conversion The “Street Called Straight” in Damascus (Acts 9:11)

Paul, God’s Choice:

55 Paul’s Unique Qualifications Familiar with the worlds of Rome & Jerusalem, with the cultures, languages, thought patterns – spoke with authority to either group Paul embodied the Church at the time – his very person was a tension between Jew & Greek His final trip to Rome was symbolic of Church’s ultimate break with Jerusalem Paul, God’s Choice Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls, Rome

Paul’s Mission:

56 Among Paul’s tasks was the unification of scattered Christian communities Made three missionary journeys through Asia Minor and Greece on which he: Spread the Good News of Jesus Christ Instructed Christians on Christian living Passed on news from other communities Explained points of doctrine Ensured the catholicity of the Church Addressed disciplinary issues: how to dress; how to fast; whom to follow; rules for deacons, bishops, presbyters Ease the tension between Greek and Jewish Christians Paul’s Mission St. Paul

Early Church To be or not to be…Jewish:

57 Early Church To be or not to be…Jewish The early followers of Jesus considered themselves Jewish and Christian. Their movement was known as The Way . We first encounter the term Christian when it was applied to the believers at Antioch in the early 40’s.

Paul’s Challenge: Jews & Gentiles:

58 At first, Church was exclusively Jewish Pentecost brought change as new (Jewish) Christians returned to their homes throughout the Empire with a message that also attracted Gentiles Question immediately arose: Must Gentile converts follow the Law of Moses (circumcision, dietary restrictions, cleansing, etc.)? Some said, “Yes” (See Acts 15:1,5) Paul said, “No” (Gal 2) Paul’s Challenge: Jews & Gentiles St. Paul preaching to Gentiles in Athens (Acts 17:15-34)

Council of Jerusalem: a Turning Point:

59 Council of Jerusalem: a Turning Point Through the early missionary activity of Paul and Barnabas, the Christian faith was brought to the Greek-speaking communities far beyond Jerusalem. Problems and challenges arose at the baptism of Gentiles in the new faith Up to this point [around 49-50 A.D.], Christians were perceived as just another Jewish sect Now, they were faced with an issue that could lead to the eventual separation of the Christian sect from Judaism proper Sts Peter & Paul

Council of Jerusalem:

60 Council called to address the problem of Gentile converts and the mandates of Jewish law, specifically circumcision. not whether circumcision was good or bad, but whether it was required for Gentile converts Larger question: Is Christianity open to all people or only to Jews (those who follow the Mosaic law)? St. Paul Council of Jerusalem A Turning Point in the Apostolic Community

Council of Jerusalem: a Turning Point:

61 Boiled down to Paul & Barnabas vs. the Christians of Jerusalem The Judaizers [those who wanted to keep Christianity a Jewish sect] supported baptisms of only those gentiles who were in full compliance of Mosaic Law. Paul wanted no Jewish obligations placed on gentile converts. Accounts of this Council can be found in Acts 15 and Galatians 2 The answer is…… Council of Jerusalem: a Turning Point St. Paul debating in Jerusalem

PowerPoint Presentation:

History of the Catholic Church A 2,000-Year Journey

No Mosaic Burdens: Acts 15:23-29:

63 New Christians need not become Jews first Circumcision would not be required of converts to the faith The mission to the Gentiles was approved as authentic This Council opened the Church to all believers Thus the Church became “catholic” in the root sense of the word: universal or all-inclusive From then on belief in Jesus Christ and participation in His Church became the defining characteristic of a Christian No Mosaic Burdens: Acts 15:23-29 Philip Baptizes the Ethiopian Eunuch (Acts 8:26-40)

Jerusalem Council Sets the Pattern:

64 Jerusalem Council Sets the Pattern After debate, Peter, the Rock, set the tone of the Council (Acts 15:7-11), in effect deciding the issue Peter is joined by James, Bishop of Jerusalem, in this decision Here James and Peter both seem to exert leadership. (Peter already speaks for the universal Church by virtue of the commission given him by Jesus; James speaks as Bishop of Jerusalem.) A formal announcement of the council’s conclusions as members “in agreement with the whole Church” concur Sts. Peter & James (Acts 15)

Jerusalem Council Sets the Pattern:

65 Jerusalem Council Sets the Pattern The Church recognizes a problem or issue affecting the whole Church A meeting is called with all the Church leaders (Paul & Barnabas go to Jerusalem – to the Church – for a solution) Open discussion of the issues with prayers for guidance by the Holy Spirit. The Upper Room (Acts 1:13)

Effects of the Council of Jerusalem:

66 Effects of the Council of Jerusalem Set the format for future councils: discussing all sides of the problem; reaching a decision through the guidance of the Holy Spirit; communicating the decision to universal Church. Brought order, unity, organization, and stability to the Church at a crucial time in its history Jerusalem

Foundation for Apostolic Collegiality:

67 Foundation for Apostolic Collegiality Apostles shared in the decision, assured of God’s guidance [“ It is the decision of the holy Spirit and of us…”] (Acts 15:23-29) A process was identified and the Church leadership did not hesitate to take authoritative positions The bishops and the pope, working together under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, chart the course for the future journey of the pilgrim people of God. Bishops, Cardinals in Rome

Final Break with Judaism :

68 Final Break with Judaism As a Jew, Jesus followed Jewish Law, the Torah; and many Jewish Christians continued to live as Jews. But Jesus often met with Gentiles and praised their faith. He also commanded the Church to “Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. ..” Jesus Reading from Isaiah (Luke 4:16-21)

Final Break with Judaism :

69 Final Break with Judaism Three decades of sometimes severe persecutions by Jewish authorities, in Jerusalem and elsewhere in the Empire, tested the Jewish-Christian relationship 62 AD. The separation became pronounced when James the leader of the Christians in Jerusalem was arrested by the Jewish High priest for blasphemy and beheaded Jesus Laments over Jerusalem (Luke 19:41-44)

Final Break with Judaism :

70 Final Break with Judaism 70 AD the Roman army took Jerusalem and leveled the temple. Judaism’s center was gone and it seemed that Israel would disappear. To survive it had to unify and require conformity of belief. The synagogues no longer welcomed the Christian sect. In the year 90 the Jewish leadership settled on the canon of the official Jewish sacred Scripture – the break was final.

The Word Spreads: Peter in Rome:

71 Ultimately, St. Peter went from Jerusalem to Antioch and finally to Rome, which from that time forward became the seat of the Church’s governance The Word Spreads: Peter in Rome Tradition holds that Peter spent more than 20 years in Rome as bishop before his martyrdom under Nero He was buried on the Vatican hill, in a pagan cemetery; Constantine built the first St. Peter’s Basilica over his grave.

Preserving the Tradition:

72 Preserving the Tradition A major responsibility (2 Thes 2:15) Deposit of faith preserved orally (2 Tim 1:13-14) Didache – early teachings of the Apostles put in writing Episcopate – authoritative teaching office needed to ensure these Apostolic traditions are passed down intact This remains the role of the bishops: to teach, to govern, and to sanctify

One Turning Point:

73 One Turning Point Resurrection of Jesus, foreshadowed the resurrection of all believers, the day of the Lord Many early Christians thought that the second coming would occur within the lifetime of those who had heard Jesus preach, continually admonishing his audience to be alert and ready (Mk 13:32-37, Lk 12:35-37)

One Turning Point:

74 One Turning Point Christians also began to question fate of those who had already died; to worry when and if the end would ever come [1 Cor 15:51-52] Passing of Apostles accelerated the change from oral to written tradition Church developed more permanent structures; roles more clearly defined Scripture canon formalized

The Early Church:

75 They also met in private homes for the “breaking of the bread” and the prayers. Eventually some houses were specifically designated for worship. The Early Church A house-church in Dura-Europos [Iraq] was built c. 250 A. D. and still stands.

The Good News: Public to “Private”:

76 The Good News: Public to “Private” The ministry of the apostles, as presented in the New Testament, was conducted in public After the first persecutions in 64 A.D., Christians continued to preach the Gospel publicly, despite the risk The Church also maintained its organization (39 of 1 st 40 popes martyred) In the post-apostolic Church conversions came via the nascent Church organization, apologists, “street evangelizers”, ordinary Christians, and martyrs Catacombs of Callistus

Evolution of Church Organization:

77 Evolution of Church Organization From Acts and Paul’s letters we know that a hierarchal Church emerged very early during Apostolic times The Apostles at first sent our Apostolic delegates (e.g., Titus, Timothy) with authority from the Apostles This naturally evolved into bishops with responsibility for local Churches Early Church Fathers

Ignatius of Antioch (106 AD):

78 Ignatius of Antioch (106 AD) “Jesus the will of the Father, just as the bishops, who have been appointed throughout the world, are the will of Jesus Christ. Let us be careful, then, if we would be submissive to God, not to oppose the bishop.” – Written in 106 AD by St. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, on his way to his martyrdom in Rome. St. Ignatius of Antioch Thrown to the beasts in Rome (c. 107)

Papal Primacy – Early Evidence:

79 Papal Primacy – Early Evidence Clement of Rome [c. 90 A.D.] 4 th Bishop of Rome As Bishop of Rome, he wrote to the Corinthians because some members of the community had taken it upon themselves to depose several priests of the Church in defiance of local bishop. Clement assumes the right to interfere in the internal affairs of another local church (Corinth) Emphasized need for a spirit of submissiveness and obedience; calls upon the authors of the schism to lay aside their ambitious schemes and repent He bids them "render obedience unto the things written by us through the Holy Spirit."

Papal Primacy – Early Evidence:

80 Papal Primacy – Early Evidence Ignatius of Antioch [c. 106 A.D.] In his Epistle to the Romans , he speaks of the Roman Church “ presiding in love, maintaining the law of Christ, and bearer of the Father’s name…” He speaks of “the Church… which also presides in the chief place of the Roman territory…” St. Ignatius of Antioch (c. 50 – c. 107)

Papal Primacy – Early Evidence:

81 Papal Primacy – Early Evidence Irenaeus [2 nd Century] – Against the Heresies “Because it would be too long in such a volume as this to enumerate the successions of all the churches, we point to the tradition of that very great and very ancient and universally known Church, which was founded and established at Rome, by the two most glorious Apostles, Peter and Paul: we point I say, to the tradition which this Church has from the Apostles, and to her faith proclaimed to men which comes down to our time through the succession of her bishops, and so we put to shame…all who assemble in unauthorized meetings. “For with this Church, because of its superior authority, every Church must agree -- that is the faithful everywhere -- in communion with which Church the tradition of the Apostles has been always preserved by those who are everywhere.” St. Irenaeus (d. 202) Bishop of Lyons

Persecutions of Early Church:

82 Persecutions of Early Church 30-60 A.D. – Christians benefit from Roman tolerance of Judaism; although persecutions by Jewish authorities is sometimes severe 64 A.D. – Emperor Nero blames Christians for fire that devastates Rome; persecutions begin Martyrdom of St. Peter c. 67 AD

Nero Begins Persecutions:

83 Nero Begins Persecutions Nero highly unpopular: Brutal (murdered his mother and wife) & corrupt Wanted land for his building project – “Golden House” – covering 1/3 of Rome Nero’s perfect scapegoats, Christians were seen as: Unconcerned about government or military Anti-social, avoided public baths and spectacles Secretive and elitist – mysterious religion – accused of cannibalism Burning of Rome 64 AD Nero blames Christians

Nero’s and Later Persecutions:

84 Nero’s and Later Persecutions St. Peter and St. Paul victims of Nero’s persecutions Peter – crucified on Vatican Hill Paul – beheaded (Roman citizen) at Tre Fontaine Most frequent means of persecution: imprisonment, confiscation of property, exile to Sardinian mines, execution Execution often as a means of entertainment or by crucifixion, combat with animals, or burning at night After Nero persecutions were sporadic until 250 AD when they took on a new and ugly form Roman Persecution of Christians

The Ten General Persecutions:

85 The Ten General Persecutions Nero (64-67) – Peter & Paul Domitian (95-96) – Clement I Trajan to Hadrian (112-138) – Ignatius of Antioch; Polycarp Marcus Aurelius (161) – Cecilia; Justin Septimus Severus (202) – Perpetua; Felicity; Irenaeus Maximin of Thrace (235) – Popes Pontian and Antherus Decius (249-251) – Fabiran; Agatha Valerian (257-260) – Cyprian; Lawrence; Agnes of Rome; Sixtus II Aurelian (275) Diocletian (303-311)

PowerPoint Presentation:

86 The Catacombs Catacombs – underground galleries cut from volcanic rock ( tufa ) for the burial of the dead; outside the city; some had large galleries that held 2,000 Used more by Christians and Jews (pagans more often cremated bodies) Not secret, generally not good hiding places; Pope Sixtus and four of his deacons were caught in the catacombs “teaching the people” But Romans didn’t normally patrol them nor tamper with the dead; and there were 90 miles of catacombs in Rome Catacombs-Altar where Pope Sixtus was saying Mass when he was martyred (257)

Christians Respond to Persecutions:

87 Christians Respond to Persecutions Decius ultimatum to all citizens to offer sacrifice to the gods or face death. Some Christians submitted by: Offering sacrifice as required Offering only incense Obtaining a certificate (libellus) saying they had offered sacrifice even though they hadn’t Many Christians, though, refused. Pope Fabian was among the first to die. Burning incense to the Roman gods

The Lapsi: What to do with them?:

88 The Lapsi : What to do with them? How to deal with those who renounced the Faith (the lapsi )? After persecution by Decius had eased, hard-liners, led by Novatian, argued that the lapsi had permanently given up the right to belong to the Church – should never be readmitted. Others argued for a general amnesty Pope Cornelius chose middle ground: lapsi could return after suitable period of public penance Penance depended on type of apostasy: sacrificati; thurificati; libellatici Good solution but problem arose again (Donatists) Pope Cornelius (Martyred 253)

Why Christians Were So Disliked?:

89 Why Christians Were So Disliked? Justin Martyr, in his Letter to Diogenes , explained: Christians “marry as men do and beget children, but they do not practice abortion. They share tables but not beds. They live in the flesh, but not according to the flesh…” “The world suffers nothing from Christians but hates them because they reject its pleasures.” Neighbors often denounced Christians out of sheer dislike, or for greed for their property, or for loss of customers for idols… Christians lived for heaven and not for earth How many today would willingly risk their lives to reject the evils our world throws in their faces? St. Justin Martyr (Martyred 165)

Decius Begins New & Severe:

90 Decius Begins New & Severe Emperor Decius in an effort to restore Roman glory acted forcefully: Sought to reform military Secure the borders (barbarians) Unify the people through religion by restoring worship of the gods, including the Emperor Emperor Decius c. 201 - 251 By 250, Rome’s population “existed mainly to draw their government doles, and to attend the free spectacles with which the government provided them.” -- Christopher Dawson, historian

Valerian, Diocletian & Galerius:

91 Valerian, Diocletian & Galerius Decius died in 250 fighting the Germans but persecutions continue under Valerian (c. 200-260) The most severe take place under Diocletian (244-311) and Galerius (260-311) during the years 303-311. In 311 under considerable pressure Galerius halts the persecution. In 313 Constantine, who now controls the Western Empire, issues the Edict of Milan granting Christianity free expression and many privileges Priestess making an offering to the gods

The Last of the Persecutions:

92 The Last of the Persecutions Last Roman persecutions under Diocletian were the worst (303) Vitality and growth of Christianity seen as threat to the old order. At the same time the Roman Empire was becoming too unwieldy to govern efficiently. Diocletian divided the Empire into West and the East. He moved to the eastern part and appointed another to the western. He was persuaded that persecuting Christians would help his cause.

Constantine Conquers:

93 Constantine Conquers 292: Diocletian divides Empire with Maximian 305: Diocletian & Maximian abdicate 312: Struggle between Maxentius and Constantine for Western Empire 312: In hoc signo vinces – Constantine defeats Maxentius near Rome at the Milvian Bridge 313: Constantine issues Edict of Milan, guaranteeing right of religious freedom within the Emprie Constantine then unites both Eastern and Western Empires under his rule

Christianity’s New Status:

94 Christianity’s New Status Dramatic change – from persecuted to favored religion almost overnight Between 250 and 311 over 60,000 Christians were put to death During the same period their numbers rose from three to seven million and now represented 15% of entire population. The persecutions had made people take notice and ask: “Why would so many people of all social classes willingly go to their deaths?”

PowerPoint Presentation:

95 Early Church: The Eucharist Jesus teaching in the synagogue in Capernaum: He announced the Eucharist, telling the people that unless they ate the flesh of the Son of Man and drank His blood, they would have no life in them. Consequently many of disciples left Him complaining, "this is a hard saying. Who can listen to it?" Yet instead of correcting a possible false impression or qualifying the mystery of faith, He turned to the Twelve and asked them, "Do you also wish to go away?"

PowerPoint Presentation:

96 Early Church: The Eucharist Jesus at the Last Supper: Made the Eucharist a permanent institution The Eucharist and the priesthood are instituted together The Apostles would be the ones through which the graces of redemption would flow from Jesus Christ to all of humanity “My Blood of the New Covenant” underscores the continuity between the two Laws and the perfection of the Christian over the Jewish dispensation

History of the Eucharist:

97 History of the Eucharist Eucharist first called the “Breaking of the Bread” Soon necessary to separate the rite from a meal, because of abuses at meals (1 Cor 11:17-22) and to ensure a more prayerful setting By the year 150, St. Justin Martyr tells us, the basic structure of the Mass had already long been in place

History of the Eucharist:

98 History of the Eucharist The first-century document, the Didache or “ Teaching of the Apostles ” shows the development of the Eucharist Eucharist celebrated on Sunday in memory of Christ’s resurrection The early Christians created a Liturgy of the Word somewhat modeled after synagogue prayer that included readings from Scripture, singing of psalms and an instruction Around the words of Eucharistic institution they added prayers of thanksgiving, praise and intercession (today’s Eucharistic Prayer)

History of the Eucharist:

99 History of the Eucharist How did the first Christians experience the Eucharist? A Sacrament A Sacrifice The new Passover The re-presentation of the Paschal Mystery The Communion of God with man The revelation of heavenly worship The source and summit of the Church’s life and unity Although the Mass has changed in external forms from age to age, the “Mass of all ages” remains the same, recognizable in the Church’s doctrine and in the details of the ritual.

History of the Eucharist:

100 Early celebrations were held in people’s homes After 313 AD more churches were built and the Mass shifted from homes to churches On Sunday there were two readings by a lector, a homily by the priest, then the Eucharistic Prayer and the distribution of Communion Yes, there was a collection! For widows, orphans and others in need The threefold roles of bishop, priest and deacon were already in place in the first century Our Second Eucharistic Prayer today is brief and simple, and owes its inspiration to one composed by Hippolytus of Rome in 215 History of the Eucharist

Discussion: The Eucharist in the 2nd Century Handout:

101 Discussion: The Eucharist in the 2 nd Century Handout Read Handout: St. Justin Martyr’s First Apology ( 65-67) written c. 150 A.D. Identify the structures of the celebration of the Eucharist in this text. Which are the same? Which are different? What does this tell you about the importance of celebrating the Mass throughout the ages? St. Justin Martyr

PowerPoint Presentation:

102 Early Church: The Eucharist Church sees multiplication miracle as a “type” of the Eucharist, a foreshadowing. Tabgha – an Arabic corruption of the Greek Heptapegon (Seven Springs) – traditional site of the miracle of the multiplication of loaves and fishes (Mt 14: 13-21). Situated in a narrow, fertile valley on the northern shore of the lake, watered by several springs The earliest building at Tabgha was a small 4 th century chapel; only a part of its foundations was uncovered. This was probably the shrine described by the pilgrim Egeria at the end of the 4th century: Multiplication of Loaves

PowerPoint Presentation:

103 Early Church: The Eucharist Church of the Loaves and Fishes (Tabgha) Early Mosaic of Eucharist, Tabgha, Galilee

PowerPoint Presentation:

104 Early Church: The Eucharist In the same place (not far from Capernaum) facing the Sea of Galilee is a well watered land in which lush grasses grow, with numerous trees and palms. Nearby are seven springs which provide abundant water. In this fruitful garden Jesus fed five thousand people with five loaves of bread and two fish. The stone on which the Master placed the bread became an altar. The many pilgrims to the site broke off pieces of it as a cure for their ailments. The Sea of Galilee

Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.] :

105 Jewish heresies Regarded Christianity as simply an extension of Judaism Mere association with Gentiles considered an abomination Gentiles must adhere to all Jewish laws, including circumcision and dietary laws Mistaken concepts of the Messiah caused some Jewish converts to question the divinity of Christ – Peter and Paul among the most active in refuting these arguments Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.]

Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.] :

106 Gnosticism The most influential of early heresies. Gnostics were Gentile Christians who combined Christianity with Eastern religions Believed in salvation through gnosis , or knowledge, not through faith or works Often believed Christ was a revealer of the hidden knowledge, a body of secret instructions given to the apostles. (Mk 4:33-34; 1 Cor 2:6-7) Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.]

Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.] :

107 Gnosticism Some Gnostics denied Christ’s divinity, others his humanity. All opposed Church teaching Belief in dualism Antinomianism – sex, drugs & rock & roll, 1 st century version Docetism - Christ pure spirit – material things evil Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.]

Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.] :

108 Marcionism Outgrowth of Gnosticism begun by Marcion (c. 85-160) Made a distinction between the creator God of the Old Testament and the redeemer God of Jesus Christ Denied relationship between Old and New Testaments, the Incarnation, and rejected validity of most of the New Testament The Marcionite heresy was certainly the greatest threat to the Catholic Church during the 2 nd Century Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.] Marcion (C. 85-160)

Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.] :

109 Montanism Montanus (d. 175) considered himself a prophet Rejected the Church in favor of direct prophecy from God - Montanus claimed to be possessed by God and spoke as God Claimed to be voice of “the Father, the Word, and the Paraclete” Advocated fasting, chastity and martyrdom; serious sinners could never be restored to a state of grace Perhaps due to his extreme personality, the famous Tertullian joined and defended the Montanists. The sect survived the death of Montanus for a few centuries, but eventually became small and secretive before disappearing altogether. Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.] Montanus (d. 175)

Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.] :

110 Modalism Heresy started by Sabellius, a Libyan priest Held that the Trinity was not three distinct Persons, but simply modes or manifestations of one Divine Person Ignored the words of Jesus regarding the Father and the Holy Spirit Modalism quickly died out; it was too contrary to the ancient Christian faith to survive for long A modern form exists among some Pentecostals – Jesus Only doctrine -- claims that Jesus is the only person in the Godhead and that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are merely names, modes, or roles of Jesus Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.]

Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.] :

111 Novationism Novatian (d. 258), a 3 rd century Roman priest, held that serious sinners were excommunicated and could never be readmitted Denied that the Church has the power to grant absolution in certain cases St. Cyprian said the Novatians no longer believed in the creed by rejecting belief in the remission of sins, and everlasting life through Holy Church Novatian set himself up as antipope to St. Cornelius; eventually established his own church Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.] Pope St. Cornelius

Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.] :

112 Subordinationism Teaches falsely that the Son is not eternal or divine (Arian Subordinationism) Son is therefore not equal with the Father in being or in attributes Another form of the heresy teaches that, though the Son is divine, he is not equal to the Father in being, attributes, and rank Essentially in all its forms it states that the Son is not equal to the Father Error rejected by the Council of Nicaea and strongly attacked by St. Athanasius Early Heresies [30 -250 A.D.] St. Athanasius

Catholic Culture: Early Debate:

113 Christians faced problems in a pagan world: How to educate their children? Could classical culture be assimilated or should it be rejected in favor of a new culture based solely on Scripture and the Fathers? Tertullian believed in the latter: “What has Jerusalem to do with Athens…the Church with the academy, the Christian with the heretic?” Clement of Alexandria held opposite view: since God is source of all truth, the many truths found in Greek philosophy, arts and sciences were not to be rejected. A well-educated Christian can better receive and defend the truths of the Faith, Catholic Culture: Early Debate St. Clement of Alexandria Tertullian

Catholic Culture: Education:

114 Clement’s view prevailed and led to the great synthesis of classical learning with Christianity Christians did not generally establish their own schools in the Roman world, even when they weren’t being persecuted Used secular schools but added intense instruction in Christians doctrine – by parents to children, by the Church to catechumens, by clergy to the whole community St. John Chrysostom instructed parents to tell their children Bible stories in an interesting and systematic way The early Christian family was deeply involved in religious training of children. Only after several centuries did Christian schools widely develop Catholic Culture: Education St. John Chrysostom

Catholic Culture: Literature:

115 Roman period rich in great Christian literature Sts. Jerome, Augustine, Ambrose produced first works of Christian theology, philosophy, exegesis and history Creating the new discipline of Christian theology was a monumental task No Greek or Latin vocabulary ; theological terminology had to be created Platonic influence very strong in early Church – “idealism” of perfect forms and the perfect state (Plato’s Republic ) utopia Platonism appealing – other worldly character – an escape from the realities of the roman Empire Catholic Culture: Literature Plato

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