Celebrating The Eucharist

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An overview of the Roman Catholic Mass

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Celebrating the Eucharist:

Celebrating the Eucharist …the Source and Summit of Christian Life 1

Course Coverage:

Course Coverage Brief historical account of liturgical development in the Church up until the present time Special focus on the Constitution on the Liturgy and various contemporary liturgical theologies of the post Vatican II Church Videos used address the celebration of the Eucharist: Eucharist: Sacred Meal, Sacrifice, Real Presence Become One Body, One Spirit in Christ 2

Celebrating the Eucharist:

Celebrating the Eucharist Session One: Liturgy, the Work of the People 3

Session One Objectives:

Session One Objectives Liturgy: The Work of the People Appreciate the importance of symbolic actions in ritual Understand liturgy as the work of the Christian community Articulate the relationship between liturgy and the Paschal Mystery Understand the Eucharist as Sacred Meal, Sacrifice and Real Presence Incorporate these teachings into what we teach at the parish or school 4

The Celebration of the Eucharist:

The Celebration of the Eucharist Eucharist is a word with roots in the Greek word for Thanksgiving It is certainly right that we should be thankful, since the Eucharist is Jesus’ continual gift of Himself to His Church, the People of God It isn’t surprising, then, that the Second Vatican Council declared that taking part in the Eucharist is the “source and summit of the Christian life” 5

Vatican II on Liturgy:

Vatican II on Liturgy “Liturgy is the summit toward which the activity of the Church is directed; it is also the font from which all her power flows.” [ Constitution on the Liturgy,10 ]

Pope John Paul II:

Pope John Paul II On April 8, 1992, Pope John Paul II, preaching on the Eucharist, said the following: The Eucharist is the source of the Christian life because whoever shares in it receives the motivation and strength to live as a true Christian. Christ's sacrifice on the cross imparts to the believer the dynamism of his generous love. The Eucharistic banquet nourishes the faithful with the Body and Blood of the divine Lamb sacrificed for us and it gives them the strength to "follow in his footsteps" (cf. 1 Pet 2:21). 7 Eucharist: The Source of Christian Life

Pope John Paul II:

Pope John Paul II In that same homily the Holy Father continued… The Eucharist is the summit of the whole Christian life because the faithful bring to it all their prayers and good works, their joys and sufferings. These modest offerings are united to the perfect sacrifice of Christ. Thus they are completely sanctified and lifted up to God in an act of perfect worship which brings the faithful into the divine intimacy (cf. Jn 6:56-57). 8 Eucharist: The Summit of Christian Life

Pope John Paul II:

Pope John Paul II In saying this, Pope John Paul II echoed the words of the great theologian, St. Thomas Aquinas, who wrote that the Eucharist is "the culmination of the spiritual life and the goal of all the sacraments" (Summa Theol., III, q. 66, a. 6). 9 Eucharist: The Summit of Christian Life

The Eucharist as Sacrifice:

The Eucharist as Sacrifice The Mass is above and beyond all else a sacrifice, a renewal of the one sacrifice of Jesus Christ, the High Priest, on Calvary This sacrificial character, defined by the Second Vatican Council, instills in the sacred liturgy something far beyond its character as a memorial meal The Mass, then, comes to us as a result of Jesus’ ultimate sacrifice 10

Pope Benedict on the Eucharist:

Pope Benedict on the Eucharist “The Eucharist is far more than just a meal; it has cost a death to provide it, and the majesty of death is present in it. Whenever we hold it, we should be filled with reverence and awe in the face of this mystery, with awe in the face of this mysterious death that becomes a present reality in our midst…The Christian feast, the Eucharist, plumbs the depths of death. It is not just a matter of pious discourse and entertainment, of some kind of religious beautification, spreading a pious gloss on the world; it plumbs the very depths of existence, which it calls death, and strikes out an upward path to life, the life that overcomes death.” – God Is Near Us , P. 44 11

The Mass: Scriptural Roots:

12 The Church has always taught that Jesus instituted the Eucharist at the Last Supper with His Apostles – the first Mass It was at the Last Supper that Jesus commanded His Apostles to “Do this in memory of me.” Jesus was clear about what was happening: “This is my Body” and “This is the cup of my Blood.” The Mass: Scriptural Roots

The Mass: Scriptural Roots:

13 The Mass has its roots in Scripture, for its institution at the Last Supper is described in all three Synoptic Gospels: Mt 26:26-30 Mk 14:22-25 Lk 22:14-23 …while John gives us Jesus’ introduction of the Eucharist in His Bread of Life discourse: Jn 6:1-58 …and Paul provides a description of the Eucharist along with a commentary on its meaning: 1 Cor 11:23-29 The Mass: Scriptural Roots

The Mass: Early Christians :

In the first two centuries of Christianity the Mass contained the same two-part formula we use today. It began with teachings and readings from Scripture followed by the breaking of bread, and wine And so the Word of God in Scripture was followed by the Word of God Incarnate. Justin Martyr shows us this in 155 AD. And the Bible itself describes a Mass with teachings and readings until midnight, followed by the breaking of the bread. (Acts 20:7-12) 14 The Mass: Early Christians

A Eucharistic People:

We, as Catholics then, are a Eucharistic People. Not only are we the Body of Christ, but we also share in and receive the Body of Christ in the Celebration of the Eucharist and the reception of Holy Communion What a precious gift the Lord has given us! 15 The Church has always believed and taught that Jesus Christ is truly present in the Eucharist – the “Real Presence” of Jesus’ Body and Blood under the appearances of bread and wine A Eucharistic People

We are called…:

We are called… The Church calls us to enter more deeply and richly into our Eucharistic identity. What does it mean to be a Eucharistic people? Do we truly believe that the liturgy is the "summit and source" of our lives? How do we live the liturgy in our daily lives? These will be some of the questions we will ponder in this course . 16

Video :

Video Introduction Eucharist as Sacred Meal Eucharist as Sacrifice Eucharist as Real Presence 17

Eucharist as Sacred Meal:

Eucharist as Sacred Meal As you watch the video… Write down any comments or observations in the video that you found especially interesting or valuable 18

Eucharist as Sacred Meal:

Consider the Sacrum Convivium , the Heavenly Banquet – How can our lives reflect this and draw others to Christ? We are often like the disciples who want to dismiss the crowd. What is the root of this lack of trust on their part and ours? Dionysius the Areopagite said “the Good is diffusive of itself.” Have you seen this in your life and the lives of others? How can knowing you are “loved into existence” affect your life – how you consider and treat yourself and others? 19 Eucharist as Sacred Meal

Eucharist as Sacrifice:

Sacrifice means “to make holy”. We all must make sacrifices, often daily. How can we make them holy? How can we unite our daily sacrifices with the perfect and eternal sacrifice of Jesus in the Mass, the Eucharist? Consider the communion with God that is made possible by the Eucharist. Why is the liturgy, then, at the very heart of the Church’s teaching on social justice? 20 Eucharist as Sacrifice

Eucharist as Real Presence:

Examples of beauty and intelligibility in God’s creation? What does this say about God’s relationship with creation? How does the Incarnation follow from this? How do you approach the Eucharist – as source and summit of your life? How can you cherish the gift more fully? Appearance and realty – describe times in your life when things weren’t what they seemed? Most saints’ lives revolved around the Eucharist. Why is the Eucharist necessary for growth in holiness? 21 Eucharist as Real Presence

The Meaning of Liturgy:

The Meaning of Liturgy Small Group Discussion: What did Fr. Barron say in the video that was especially helpful in communicating the meaning of liturgy? What can we do to better enable our children, youth and adults to appreciate liturgy as the 'communal ' prayer of the Church? 22

The Meaning of Ritual:

The Meaning of Ritual Rituals consist of the repetition of patterned actions that help us recall the meaning of an original experience Religious rituals are patterned ways in which we gather, remember, give thanks, ask God's blessing, celebrate, and go forth to spread the reign of God Rituals draw us into relationship with our God and one another Ritual (or rite) is the right way of honoring God, a form of prayer and common worship that pleases God and is appropriate to His nature. 23 “Worship is the attempt, to be found at every stage of history, to overcome guilt and bring back the world and one’s own life into right order.” – Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (2000)

The Meaning of Liturgy:

The Meaning of Liturgy Liturgy has its origin in the Greek word liturgia, meaning 'work of the people’ or ‘public service’ Liturgy is a communal act that embodies how we relate to God, to one another, and to the world The central ritual celebration for Catholics is the Eucharist In the Eucharist, we both recall and “re-present” the Paschal mystery of our faith: the saving action of Christ’s death and resurrection 24

The Meaning of Ritual:

The Meaning of Ritual Small Group Discussion: Describe any rituals that satisfy the need for meaning and identity in your family 25 How do the liturgical rituals of the Church satisfy the need for meaning and identity? What can we do to help better form our children and youth in the importance of ritual in the school, through the various subjects we teach, etc.?

The Paschal Mystery:

The Paschal Mystery In every sacramental liturgical action we celebrate our participation in the dying and rising of Jesus Christ 26 We celebrate the Paschal mystery in our liturgies, and then express our faith in this mystery in our daily lives

The Paschal Mystery:

The Paschal Mystery Small Group Discussion: Where [or how] do you live out the Paschal mystery in your daily life? How can we foster the teaching about the Paschal mystery with the children, youth and adults we teach? [Include secular subjects as well] 27

The Role of the Assembly:

The Role of the Assembly The Constitution on the Liturgy [#14] states: " In the reform and promotion of the liturgy, this full and active participation by all the people is the aim to be considered before all else." In light of this the Church teaches the following: Liturgy requires the full and active participation on the part of the whole assembly Participation in the liturgy expresses our identity as individual Christians and as a community of faith The liturgy invites the response of the assembly at all times 28

The Role of the Assembly:

The Role of the Assembly Small Group Discussion: How do you experience full and active participation in liturgy? What can deter one from participating fully and actively in the liturgy? 29

Key Concepts:

Key Concepts Ritual satisfies our human need for pattern, meaning, and identity Liturgical Rituals provide avenues into the Mystery of God The Eucharist is our central liturgical celebration We celebrate the Paschal Mystery in all our liturgies Liturgy requires the participation of the entire Christian assembly The Trinity provides us a perfect model of community Christians celebrate the Paschal Mystery through a cycle of time The Liturgy of the Hours is the public daily prayer of the Church These foundational liturgical elements form the basis of the following sessions in which we will examine what we believe and how we live the liturgy in terms of the: 1) Introductory Rites; 2) Liturgy of the Word, 3) Liturgy of the Eucharist, 4) Communion and Concluding Rites 30

The Mass: Two Major Parts:

Liturgy of the Word. Three Bible readings: OT, Psalm, NT, and a Gospel reading A Homily commenting on the readings If we participate at Mass every day, we get a lot of Bible Liturgy of the Eucharist. Scripture, prayer, praise & worship Then the Lord Himself appears and we come forward to meet Him and accept Him Talk about a "Personal Relationship" with Jesus! 31 The Mass: Two Major Parts

PowerPoint Presentation:

Some other elements of the Mass: Penitential Rite – we repent before the Lord and ask his forgiveness and mercy Gloria (on Sundays outside Advent & Lent and on feasts and solemnities) – a prayer of praise glorifying God (see Luke 2:14) Gospel Acclamation – praise to God as we prepare to hear His Gospel Prayers of Intercession The Lord's Prayer (Matthew 6:9) 32 The Mass: Other Elements

The Mass: Four Actions:

Perhaps the easiest way to describe the Mass is to divide it into the following four sections, each an action on our part: Come (Introductory Rites). We come together as one Body, gathering before our Lord Listen (Liturgy of the Word). We listen to Scripture, the Word of our Lord and a Homily applying what we heard Do (Liturgy of the Eucharist). We pray in thanksgiving and participate in the Eucharist, becoming One with Him Go (Concluding Rites). We are sent out to take this message to all the world 33 The Mass: Four Actions

The Liturgical Year:

The parts of the Mass – the Scriptural readings and many of the prayers – vary based on the liturgical year, which is divided up into different “seasons.” 34 Seasons of the Liturgical Year Advent: 4th Sunday before Christmas to Christmas Eve Christmas: to the Baptism of the Lord Ordinary Time: to Ash Wednesday Lent: to Mass on Holy Thursday Tri du um: Holy Thursday, Good Friday , Easter Vigil Easter: to Pentecost Pentecost Ordinary Time: to 1 st Sunday of Advent The Liturgical Year

The Church:

Sacristy: room in which vestments, sacred vessels, and most other liturgical items are kept. Also the room where the priest, deacon and servers vest. Maintained by the sacristan. 35 Sanctuary: that part of the Church in which the altar is located. The priest’s and deacon's chairs are also in the sanctuary. The Church

Sacred Furnishings:

Altar: the table in the sanctuary where the Liturgy of the Eucharist takes place. It is covered with a white altar cloth. 36 Tabernacle: the locked cabinet in which the Blessed Sacrament is kept. The sanctuary lamp (right) is lit when Eucharist is in the tabernacle. Sacred Furnishings

Sacred Furnishings:

Ambo: the podium in the sanctuary from which the Word of God is read and preached. 37 Credence Table: Table in the sanctuary on which vessels and other liturgical objects are kept for use during Mass. Sacred Furnishings

Liturgical Books:

Roman Missal: the book containing the prayers for Mass. Held by the server during the opening and closing prayers. Placed on the altar during the preparations of the gifts. Lectionary: the book containing the readings for Mass. Usually taken by the reader from the sacristy and placed on the ambo before Mass. Book of the Gospels: book with an elaborate gold cover containing the Gospel readings for Mass. Usually carried by the deacon in procession and placed on the altar. Liturgical Books

Liturgical Vessels & Objects:

Chalice: The large cup used by the priest at Mass to hold the wine that becomes the blood of Christ. Some can be very ornate. Ciborium: cup- or bowl-like vessel, sometimes with a lid; holds the hosts used for communion; also used to reserve the Blessed Sacrament in the tabernacle. Cup: Used by the deacon and ministers of Holy Communion to give the Blood of Christ to the faithful. Liturgical Vessels & Objects Chalice with Pall & Purificator

Liturgical Vessels & Objects:

Corporal: white linen cloth on which are placed the vessels containing the bread and wine during Mass. Also used at Adoration and Benediction. Purificator: folded white cloth used to cleanse the sacred vessels. The purificator used by the priest is marked with an embroidered cross. Water Cruet, Finger Bowl, Towel: Used to wash the priest’s hands during the preparation of the gifts. Kept on the credence table. Liturgical Vessels & Objects Chalice with Paten, Host & Purificator

Liturgical Vessels & Objects:

Monstrance : This is a large, ornate vessel used to hold and expose the Blessed Sacrament for Adoration, Benediction and solemn Eucharistic processions. Lunette. A thin, circular receptacle, having a glass face that holds the Consecrated Host used for Adoration and Benediction. Usually slides into the monstrance on a track. Holy Water Vat & Aspergillum. The metal bucket (Vat) and the perforated metal ball or tube on a handle (Aspergillum) that holds the holy water used to sprinkle the faithful or articles to be blessed. Liturgical Vessels & Objects

Liturgical Vessels & Objects:

Candlelighter /Extinguisher : Used by the server to light and extinguish the candles. Has a replaceable wick that can be made longer or shorter. Pyx . A small case, varying in size from an inch to several inches in diameter. It is used by ministers of Holy Communion to carry consecrated hosts to those who are sick or unable to attend Mass. Liturgical Vessels & Objects

Vestments:

Cincture: a long cord used for fastening some albs at the waist. It holds loose fitting albs in place and is used to adjust the proper length. The cincture comes in various liturgical colors.. We see vestments in Scripture (Ex 40:13-14, Lev 8:7-9) and also in history, from the Pre-Constantine Mass documented in 303 AD. 43 Alb: long, white robe worn by priest, deacon, server. It can be worn by all liturgical ministers. Vestments

Vestments:

Amice: a rectangular cloth with two long ribbons attached to the top corners. The priest or deacon puts it over his shoulders, tucking it in around his neck to cover collar or other clothing. It is tied around the waist. 44 Stole: long cloth, colored to the liturgical season or feast, worn by priests and deacons. A priest (R) wears it around the neck, letting it hang down in the front. A deacon (L) wears it over his left shoulder and fastened at his right side, like a sash. Vestments

Vestments:

Chasuble: priest’s sleeveless outer vestment, slipped over the head, hanging down from the shoulders; the proper Mass vestment of the priest. Its color varies according to the feast or liturgical season. 45 Dalmatic: loose-fitting robe with open sides and wide sleeves worn by the deacon. Its color varies according to the liturgical season or feast. Vestments

Vestments:

Cope: c ape-like vestment worn over the shoulders. It hangs to the ankles, is open at the front, and is clasped at the neck. Priest or deacon can wear it at Benediction and in certain processions. Of any color. Humeral Veil: long, narrow, shawl-like vestment used at Benediction and in processions when the blessed sacrament is carried. Worn by priest or deacon. 46 Vestments

Celebrating the Eucharist:

Celebrating the Eucharist Session Two: The Introductory Rites 47

Session Two Objectives:

Session Two Objectives Introductory Rites: “We shall go up with joy.” Understand the meaning and importance of the liturgical assembly Appropriate the meaning of Church and the Body of Christ Properly prepare the introductory rites for liturgical celebrations in the school or parish religious education program Understand the relationship between liturgy [what we pray] and life [how we live ] Apply what we have learned to the disciplines we teach 48

The Mass: Introductory Rites:

The Mass: Introductory Rites Entrance Song and Procession* Greeting Penitential Rites Gloria Collect* 49

The Introductory Rites: Their Meaning:

The Introductory Rites: Their Meaning The Introductory Rites enable us to become the Body of Christ where Christ is truly present! General Instruction of the Roman Missal #46 states the following regarding the Introductory Rites: 50 “Their purpose is to ensure that the faithful who come together as one establish community and dispose themselves to listen properly to God’s word and to celebrate the Eucharist worthily.”

The Introductory Rites: Their Meaning:

In the Introductory Rites, Christ joins the Church to himself and gathers her children to join their voices to his perfect hymn of praise The liturgical assembly, where two or three come together in Christ’s name, and where he is found in their midst [Mt 18:20], is the first image that the Church gives of herself 51 An important function of these rites is to enable the gathered assembly to take on the form of a community, alert and ready to listen to the word and to celebrate the sacrament The Introductory Rites: Their Meaning

The Introductory Rites: Their Meaning:

When we gather we fulfill the Lord's command to “ do this in memory of me” (Luke 22:19) The assembly is not a random group of individuals but the gathering of God's people to exercise its royal priesthood in the sacrifice of praise 52 Everything in the celebration is organized to encourage and foster an awareness of mutual interdependence, of common dignity and purpose The Introductory Rites: Their Meaning

Introductory Rites Misunderstood:

Introductory Rites Misunderstood Too often the Introductory Rites are not understood as an essential part of the Mass People often think the Introductory Rites are simply a preliminary , not an actual, part of the Mass Many regularly arrive late for the Eucharistic Liturgy without good reason Ministers are preparing for Mass, distracting others by doing things that should have been done well ahead of time [musicians practicing, readers preparing the reading for the first time, etc .] Parish has poor hospitality 53

Introductory Rites Misunderstood:

Introductory Rites Misunderstood An erroneous understanding of the Introductory Rites Before the revision of the Order of Mass after the Second Vatican Council, some people were catechized that they had fulfilled their Sunday obligation if they arrived prior to the Offertory Many still have this erroneous understanding today and pass it on to their children 54 This was wrong then, and is wrong now!

Introductory Rites Misunderstood:

Introductory Rites Misunderstood Vatican II’s teaching on the Introductory Rites stressed the importance of all elements of the Mass Constitution on the Liturgy [Article 56] 55 "Accordingly this Council strongly urges pastors that in their catechesis they insistently teach the faithful to take part in the entire Mass, especially on Sundays and holy days of obligation."

Video: The Introductory Rites:

Video: The Introductory Rites Group Discussion How can you stress the importance of the Introductory Rites to your students? Be creative. Analogies perhaps? 56

Introductory Rites:

Introductory Rites The assembly is called together in Christ and established again as the Church The risen Lord is present in the midst of the assembly, which becomes visible as the body of Christ Thus, the assembly itself is the first instance of Christ's presence in the liturgy 57 The function of these rites is to enable the community, coming together from a multiplicity of concerns and a variety of ways of life, to become aware of itself again as a gathered community, alert and ready to listen to the word and to celebrate the sacrament

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Mass begins with the procession to the altar The people stand while they join with the choir and sing an entrance hymn The preparation has begun 58 Introductory Rites

Entrance Procession and Hymn:

Entrance Procession and Hymn We Process and Sing This gives us a sense of identity and common purpose The opening hymn intensifies the unity of the gathered people Everyone actively participates in this part through active singing: the assembly and the ministers in procession 59

PowerPoint Presentation:

The celebrant genuflects in front of the tabernacle if it is in the sanctuary All ministers bow and venerate the altar 60 Priest and deacon then reverence the altar with a kiss, acknowledging Christ’s presence in this holy place Introductory Rites

PowerPoint Presentation:

The congregation and the priest (celebrant) make the sign of the cross, asking God to be in their minds, hearts and actions The Sign of the Cross † In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen 61 Introductory Rites

PowerPoint Presentation:

“ The sign of the Cross is a confession of faith: I believe in him who suffered for me and rose again; in him who has transformed the sign of shame into a sign of hope and of love of God that is present with us. The confession of faith is a confession of hope: I believe in him who can and will save me even in apparent absence and impotence...the Cross shows us the road of life – the imitation of Christ.” -- The Spirit of the Liturgy (2000) 62 The Sign of the Cross Pope Benedict XVI on the Sign of the Cross:

PowerPoint Presentation:

After the Greeting, the celebrant may introduce the Mass of the day and welcome strangers, guests or special groups 63 Introductory Rites Celebrant & Assembly greet each other The priest “signifies the presence of the Lord to the community gathered there by means of the Greeting. By this Greeting and the people’s response, the mystery of the Church gathered together is made manifest.” [GIRM, no. 50]

PowerPoint Presentation:

After the Greeting, all are asked to prepare themselves by calling to mind their sins and asking for God's forgiveness, mercy, and strength 64 Penitential Rite

Penitential Rite:

Penitential Rite During the rite the assembly, gathered in God's presence, recognizes its sinfulness and performs and Act of Penance, confessing the mystery of Christ's love There are a variety of options for the Penitential Rite, including the Confiteor and Kyrie Eleison 65

Optional: Blessing & Sprinkling:

Optional: Blessing & Sprinkling Rite of Blessing and Sprinkling of Water On Sundays, especially in the Easter Season, in place of the customary Act of Penance, from time to time the blessing and sprinkling of water to recall Baptism may take place This optional rite serves as a memorial of Easter and baptism In the rite we thank God for intervening to save us through the medium of water and ask him to continue giving forgiveness and life 66

Gloria:

Gloria An ancient hymn of praise, glorifying God and recognizing the glory of God in the Holy Trinity – sung if at all possible The text originates from the Christmas narrative in the Gospel of Luke (Luke 2:14) Knowing and experiencing God’s presence and mercy brings forth joy and a desire to praise him Celebrated on Sundays outside Advent and Lent, and on Solemnities and Feasts 67

The Collect:

The Collect The people are called to pray; after a moment's silence the celebrant says the collect which varies throughout the liturgical year The collect completes the introductory rites. In petition to God, it sets the tone of the celebration and prepares the assembly to hear the word of God A brief period of silence should take place after the words "Let us pray" so all in the assembly can turn their minds and hearts to God and truly pray [See GIRM , no. 54] 68

Group Discussion:

Group Discussion Having seen and listened to the importance of the Introductory Rites, what are the important points for catechesis of our children, youth and adults in the Church? 69 The General Directory for Catechesis states that catechesis in the Catholic School should permeate every discipline and subject taught [GDC, 73]. In light of this, how can you communicate the sense of Church and the assembly through the different subjects you teach? Consider both religion and the secular subjects (e.g., history, literature, math, science, art, music etc.).

Catechetical Areas of Concern:

Catechetical Areas of Concern Areas of concern for further catechesis: Ecclesiology Forming people into a sense of what it means to be the Church To be the Church is, first of all, to be communal and public Ecclesiological Images: Communion, priestly people, people of God, pilgrim people, Body of Christ… 70

Catechetical Areas of Concern:

Catechetical Areas of Concern Theology of the ‘Assembly ’ Random group of individuals [shared prayer] vs. gathering God’s people [prayer in one voice ] Christ is first present in the assembly Liturgy organized to “encourage and foster an awareness of mutual interdependence, of common dignity and purpose” Do not believe that unless you are involved in a specific liturgical ministry you are not fully participating All that we do in the preparation and celebration of the liturgy has one aim – the full, active, and conscious participation of the faithful. Liturgy is neither a spectator sport nor theatre 71

Celebrating the Eucharist:

Celebrating the Eucharist Session Three: The Liturgy of the Word 72

Session Three Objectives:

Session Three Objectives The Liturgy of the Word: “The Word of the Lord.” Understand the meaning and importance of the Liturgy of the Word in their lives Appropriate the meaning of God’s Word as dialogue, covenant, and living Properly prepare a Liturgy of the Word for liturgical celebrations in the school and/or parish religious education program Use Sacred Scripture in all the classes they teach 73

Video: The Liturgy of the Word:

Video: The Liturgy of the Word Group Discussion How have the images, sounds and actions spoken to you? What did this video help you to understand about the Liturgy of the Word? About liturgy in general? 74

Liturgy of the Word:

Liturgy of the Word 1 st Reading Responsorial Psalm 2 nd Reading Gospel Homily Profession of Faith General Intercessions 75 After the Opening Prayer, the congregation sits and prepares to listen to the Word of God

Who are we?:

Who are we? Our identity as Christians is made manifest in the Liturgy of the Word The structure of the Liturgy of the Word forms us into our Catholic identity each time we celebrate it We are a people who…… Listen (Readings) Reflect (Silence) Respond (Psalm) Assimilate (Homily) Apply (Silence after the Gospel) Profess (Creed) Pray and Intercede (General lntercessions) 76

Liturgy of the Word:

Liturgy of the Word The Issue: Old Habits and Beliefs As with the Introductory Rites, some consider the Liturgy of the word as a mere preparation for the Liturgy of the Eucharist Some still see it has a reminder of what happened 2,000 years ago Some believe that they can miss the Liturgy of the Word and still fulfill their Sunday obligation 77 ?

Second Vatican Council:

Second Vatican Council Constitution on the Liturgy 78 "The two parts that, in a certain sense, go to make up the Mass, namely, the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist, are so closely connected with each other that they form but one single act of worship.” (#56) "Sacred scripture is of the greatest importance in the celebration of the liturgy.“ (#24)

God’s Word in the Liturgy:

God’s Word in the Liturgy Meaning of the Word of God Dialogue Covenant Living 79

Liturgy of the Word: Dialogue:

Liturgy of the Word: Dialogue The Liturgy of the Word builds on the Introductory rites. First we are formed as a people; then, together, we enter into a living dialogue and relationship with our God When we listen to the Word of God proclaimed at liturgy, we participate in a real dialogue with our God The importance of listening [vs. reading along with] is that we open ourselves up to hear God speaking to us The proclamation of the Word is not simply to remind us of what happened centuries ago, but to engage us in the present in the works of salvation 80

Liturgy of the Word: Covenant:

Liturgy of the Word: Covenant The Liturgy of the Word realizes our covenantal relationship with God In God’s Word the divine covenant is announced; in the Eucharist the new and everlasting covenant is embodied and renewed Through this active dialogue the covenant established between God and his people is made real once again in the present This covenant is 'sealed' today in the sharing of the Body and Blood of Christ. The Liturgy of the Word is essential to the Mass because the meaning of communion is proclaimed in the Word; the message of Scripture is made actual once again in the communion banquet. The proclamation of the Word is thus integral to the Mass and at its very heart 81

Liturgy of the Word: Living:

Liturgy of the Word: Living The Word of God proclaimed in the liturgy is a Living Word! In the Word of God the community of faith even now hears God speaking to it; therefore biblical readings and psalms may not be omitted, shortened, or replaced by non-biblical texts. [GIRM #57] This is the proclamation the living Word of God set forth in the midst of the assembly The living Word of God enters our being and forms and transforms us The emphasis, then, is not on the intellectual comprehension of the word [a task of catechesis], but on listening to the word with our whole being 82

PowerPoint Presentation:

The readings of the Liturgy of the Word are from the Lectionary, which contains selections from Sacred Scripture The Sunday selections cover a three year cycle, with the first reading is related to the gospel of the day There is a two year cycle for the weekday Readings 83 Liturgy of the Word

PowerPoint Presentation:

The First Reading (usually from the Old Testament) is followed by the singing of one of the Psalms led by a cantor The Second Reading is from the letters of the New Testament 84 Liturgy of the Word: Biblical Readings It is unlawful to substitute other, non-biblical texts for the readings and responsorial Psalm, which contain the Word of God.

Liturgy of the Word: Biblical Readings:

Liturgy of the Word: Biblical Readings Focus - The Word of God is Alive; we truly enter into a living dialogue with God and affirm our covenant with him. Ideas for celebrating the Word to its full potential: When a prayerful silence is observed before or after a reading, the whole assembly is to take part. The reader does not move to or from the ambo during the period of silence The readings may be sung, provided the form of singing respects the rhythms and genius of the language and does not obscure the words After the first and second readings, “The word of the Lord”, may be sung, even by someone other than the reader, so as to elicit from the faithful a sung response of gratitude for the Word of God 85

Liturgy of the Word: Responsorial Psalm :

Liturgy of the Word: Responsorial Psalm Psalms are God-given words that we use to respond to the living Word of God. Ideas for using the psalms: The psalms, the songs and hymns of Israel, are normally sung. This may be done in a variety of ways Even when it is impossible to sing the psalm, it may be possible to support and enrich its recitation with instrumental music. Psalms should always be recited in a manner conducive to meditation 86

Liturgy of the Word: Gospel Acclamation:

Liturgy of the Word: Gospel Acclamation The Gospel Acclamation expresses our greeting of the Lord and our faith in his presence as He addresses us in the gospel reading Ideas for praying the Gospel Acclamation: The gospel acclamation is accompanied by a gospel procession – the deacon carrying the Book, led by light and incense, and done in the midst of the assembly As an acclamation, the Alleluia is sung by everyone present. The verse may be sung by cantor or choir (or even recited). If the Alleluia cannot be sung, it is omitted 87

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Sunday Gospels follow a three year cycle: Year A (Matthew); Year B (Mark), and Year C (Luke) Excerpts from the Gospel of John are also read on certain Sundays, especially during parts of Lent, and during Holy Week and Easter Book of the Gospels Carried by the Deacon in the Entrance Procession 88 Liturgy of the Word: Gospel

PowerPoint Presentation:

All stand while the Gospel Acclamation (alleluia) is sung The deacon (or if no deacon, a priest) proclaims the Gospel After reading the Gospel he kisses the Book of the Gospels and proclaims, “The Gospel of the Lord” The community responds, “Praise to You, Lord Jesus Christ” 89 Liturgy of the Word: Gospel

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After the Gospel is proclaimed, the congregation sits for the homily, which is preached by either a priest or deacon 90 Liturgy of the Word: Homily What exactly is the Homily? The Homily is part of the Liturgy and should be an exposition of some aspect of the readings from Sacred Scripture or of another text from the Mass of the day. It should take into account both the mystery being celebrated and the particular needs of the listeners.

Liturgy of the Word: Homily:

Liturgy of the Word: Homily The Homily is an integral part of the Liturgy of the Word, a necessary source of nourishment for the Christian life The Homily should expound on the mysteries of the faith and the guiding principles of Christian living, most often from the Scriptures proclaimed but also from other texts and rites of the liturgy Its purpose: To show how God’s Word in the readings is indeed alive in the midst of the people today 91 “The homily is an invitation to meet the Lord. As a general rule the homily should conclude with an encouragement to prayer, which would give some content to the brief pause [the silence that follows].” – Pope Benedict

PowerPoint Presentation:

All then stand and together make a Profession of Faith by reciting either the Nicene Creed or the Apostles Creed, in which we give full assent to our common beliefs as Catholic Christians I believe in one God, the Father almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible. I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Only Begotten Son of God, born of the Father before all ages. God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, consubstantial with the Father; through him all things were made. For us men and for our salvation he came down from heaven, and by the Holy Spirit was incarnate of the Virgin Mary, and became man… 92 Liturgy of the Word: Creed

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The Creed is followed by the General Intercessions (or Prayer of the Faithful), during which we offer prayers for the church, the world, the local community, the sick, the deceased, and other needs The people respond to each intention by asking God to hear and grant their requests 93 Liturgy of the Word: General Intercessions

Liturgy of the Word: General Intercessions:

Liturgy of the Word: General Intercessions Enlightened and moved by God's word, the assembly exercises its priestly function by interceding for all humanity The General Intercessions are a sign of the communion of this particular assembly with all other parish assemblies and with the universal Church 94

Liturgy of the Word: General Intercessions:

Liturgy of the Word: General Intercessions Ideas for praying the General Intercessions The intentions are addressed to the assembly, not to God. They are invitations or biddings to the faithful, who then pray for the intention in the silence of their hearts and in a common petition These intentions should be short, clear, and objective enough for the faithful to comprehend and respond to them without difficulty They should evoke a response of petition rather than praise, thanksgiving, or repentance For each intention, the invitation to pray and the response may be sung or the entire intention may be sung or even spoken while music is played 95

Group Discussion:

Group Discussion Having seen and listened to the importance of the Liturgy of the Word, what do we need to do to help our children, youth and adults better understand the Liturgy of the Word as Dialogue, Covenant, and Alive? 96 The General Directory for Catechesis [GDC] states that catechesis in Catholic schools and religious education programs should permeate every discipline taught [GDC, 73]. In light of this, how can we use the Word of God and communicate its 3-fold meaning in the different subjects we teach (history, literature, math, science, art, music…)?

Celebrating the Eucharist:

Celebrating the Eucharist Session Four: The Eucharistic Prayer 97

Session Four Objectives:

Session Four Objectives The Eucharistic Prayer: “Lift up your hearts.” Understand the Eucharistic Prayer as the central prayer of our lives See how the Eucharistic Prayer shapes and transforms us as a people Live this prayer in our daily lives Apply the teachings and formative aspects of this prayer in the subjects we teach and within the entire school community 98

Liturgy of the Eucharist:

Liturgy of the Eucharist “At the Last Supper Christ initiated the Paschal Sacrifice and banquet, by which the Sacrifice of the Cross is continuously made present in the Church whenever the priest, representing Christ the Lord, carries out what the Lord himself did and handed over to his disciples to be done in his memory.” [GIRM 72] 99

Video: The Eucharistic Prayer:

Video: The Eucharistic Prayer Video - Lift Up Your Hearts – The Eucharistic Prayer Group Discussion What did this video help you to understand about the Eucharistic Prayer? What was your prior understanding of the Eucharistic Prayer before this video? 100

Liturgy of the Eucharist:

Liturgy of the Eucharist There are three major parts to the Liturgy of the Eucharist: Preparation of the Gifts: the bread and the wine with water, the same elements that Christ took into his hands, are brought to the altar Eucharistic Prayer: Thanks is given to God for the whole work of salvation, and the offerings become the Body and Blood of Christ Fraction & Communion: The faithful, though they are many, receive from the one bread the Lord’s Body and from the one chalice the Lord’s Blood in the same way the Apostles received them from Christ’s own hands 101

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Liturgy of the Eucharist begins with the Presentation of the Gifts (what was called the Offertory) The congregation sits and sings an hymn while the gifts of bread and wine are carried in procession to the altar, usually by one or more of the faithful The celebrant then offers the bread and wine and thanks God for them With these gifts we also offer our lives. As God will transform bread and wine into his Body and Blood, so too will He transform us. 102 Presentation of the Gifts

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St. Thomas Aquinas says… It is what Jesus did following Jewish custom Symbolizes the Lord’s Passion: both water and wine flowed from His side Signifies the effect of the sacrament: the people are signified by the water, Christ's blood by the wine. When mixed in the chalice, the people are made one with Christ. Symbolizes eternal life: 'The water flows into the chalice, and springs forth unto everlasting life.’ (St. Ambrose) 103 Preparation of the Gifts Why water mixed with wine? “By the mystery of this water and wine may we come to share in the divinity of Christ who humbled himself to share in our humanity.”

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After the blessing over the bread and wine, the celebrant washes his hands Inviting the people to pray, he prays over the gifts asking that they be made holy and acceptable in the eyes of God 104 The “washing of Hands” or Lavabo expresses the desire for inward purification. The celebrant washes his hands in symbolic cleansing to prepare himself as an offering to the Lord. Washing of Hands “Wash me, O Lord, from my iniquity and cleanse me from my sin.”

Preparation of the Gifts: Summary:

Preparation of the Gifts: Summary Deacon prepares the altar with corporal, chalice, other vessels as needed, purificator & missal Priest receives gifts brought to altar by the faithful Money or other gifts collected in the church should also be received but not placed near the altar Singing may always accompany the rite of the offertory, even when there is no procession of gifts Priest prays over the bread and wine, washes his hands at the side of the altar and then says the Prayer over the Offerings 105

Eucharistic Prayer:

Eucharistic Prayer Main parts of every Eucharistic Prayer Dialogue Thanksgiving Acclamation [Sanctus] Epiclesis Institution Narrative & Consecration Anamnesis Offering Intercessions Final Doxology 106

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Eucharistic Prayer begins with a dialogue between priest and people: The Lord be with you. R/. And with your spirit. Lift up your hearts. R/. We lift them up to the Lord. Let us give thanks to the Lord our God. R/. It is right and just. 107 Dialogue This dialogue affirms that we are all gathered in the unity of the Body of Christ; that we lift up our entire being to the Lord, and do so consciously and deliberately involving the whole person

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The priest then introduces the Eucharistic Prayer by praying the Preface, a prayer that varies based on the liturgical season and occasion (50 in the Roman Missal) The priest, in the name of the entire holy people, glorifies God the Father and gives thanks for the whole work of salvation or for some special aspect of it that corresponds to the day, festivity or season 108 Thanksgiving (Preface) We give thanks, not on our own initiative, but by our experience of having found favor with God in Christ

Acclamation (Sanctus):

Acclamation (Sanctus) The Preface concludes with the Sanctus acclamation sung by the people: “Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of hosts…” Caught up in the love of God who is holiness itself, we constantly celebrate our life in Christ, believing that heaven and earth embrace each other 109 And so the whole congregation, joining with the heavenly powers, sings the Sanctus This acclamation, which is part of the Eucharistic Prayer itself, is sung or said by all the people with the priest

PowerPoint Presentation:

We then begin the Eucharistic Prayer, a prayer of thanksgiving and sanctification, the center and high point of the Celebration of the Eucharist The are a number of Eucharistic Prayers. Which is used depends on the occasion and solemnity of the Mass. For example, at daily Mass the priest might select Eucharistic Prayer #2, while #1 might be more fitting on a major feast or solemnity. 110 Eucharistic Prayer How have you experienced the Eucharistic Prayer as a summation of your life?

Eucharistic Prayers:

Eucharistic Prayers Different Eucharistic Prayers may be used in the United States: Eucharistic Prayers I through IV Eucharistic Prayer for Masses of Reconciliation I and II Eucharistic Prayer for Various Needs and Occasions 1 through IV Eucharistic Prayers for Children are not in the revised Roman Missal, but may still be used. They will no doubt be addressed later. 111

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We ask God to send down the Holy Spirit so that through his power the gifts will be sanctified and transformed into Christ’s Body and Blood “Make holy, therefore, these gifts, we pray, by sending down your Spirit upon them like the dewfall, so that they may become for us the body and blood of our Lord, Jesus Christ.” We ask that we who partake of the Body of Blood of Christ be transformed by the Spirit to be built up further as that Body of Christ in the world, that we partake of all the blessings of the cross that we have asked God to remember “Humbly we pray that, partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ, we may be gathered into one by the Holy Spirit.” 112 Eucharistic Prayer: Epiclesis The Epiclesis (it means calling down upon or invocation ) expresses the why of our Eucharistic praying. It has two parts:

PowerPoint Presentation:

Eucharist & Invocation. We invoke the Holy Spirit over gifts of bread and wine and over ourselves, asking that the gifts be transformed so that we who share in them might be transformed as well Spirit & Church. We invoke the Spirit who brings us into the reality that is the Body of Christ Spirit of God. We are a people drenched by Spirit-filled waters, glistening from a Spirit-filled unction, stirred by a Spirit-filled story…and so we call upon the very Spirit of God who wrenched Jesus from the jaws of death Transforming Spirit. Calling down the Spirit, we plead with God to continue to be in our midst and transform us in a communion pledged and shared in the banquet of the Body and Blood of Christ. 113 Eucharistic Prayer: Epiclesis

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The Institution Narrative and Consecration. By means of the words and actions of Christ, the Sacrifice is carried out which Christ himself instituted at the Last Supper He offered his Body and Blood under the species of bread and wine, gave them to his Apostles to eat and drink, and left them the command to perpetuate this same mystery We ask God to act in fidelity to the New Covenant, established in Jesus' blood through the Holy Spirit, who draws us to the Father through Christ It is through the words of consecration by the priest, acting in persona Christi, that the bread and wine become the Real Presence of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ 114 Eucharistic Prayer: Consecration

PowerPoint Presentation:

“In a similar way, when supper was ended, he took the chalice and, once more giving thanks, he gave it to his disciples, saying: Take this, all of you, and drink from it, for this is the chalice of my Blood, the Blood of the new and eternal covenant, which will be poured out for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins. Do this in memory of me. 115 “At the time he was betrayed and entered willingly into his Passion, he took bread and, giving thanks, broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying: Take this, all of you, and eat it, for this is my Body, which will be given up for you. Eucharistic Prayer: Consecration Memorial Acclamation: The Priest declares the mystery of faith and the congregation responds (3 options)

PowerPoint Presentation:

“The Church, fulfilling the command that she received from Christ the Lord through the Apostles, keeps the memorial of Christ, recalling especially his blessed Passion, glorious Resurrection, and Ascension into heaven.” “The Church – and in particular the Church here and now assembled – offers the spotless victim to the father in the Holy Spirit.” “The faithful not only offer this victim … but also learn to offer themselves.” 116 Eucharistic Prayer: Anamnesis & Offering [See GIRM, 79]

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Intercessions consist of a series of prayers for the Church, the world, the Pope, clergy and laity, and the dead Proclaiming our belief in the communion of saints, we then pray for the Church and all her members, living and dead, called to participate in the redemption and salvation purchased by Christ’s Body and Blood 117 Eucharistic Prayer: Intercessions The memory of the risen Christ instills hope in us that God's embrace of love is stronger even than death and will not let us go We are moved to remember a future that is still outstanding

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Through him, and with him, and in him, O God, almighty Father, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, all glory and honor is yours, for ever and ever. R/. Amen This doxology, the final prayer of the Eucharistic Prayer, is offered in praise of God, expressing the glorification of the Holy Trinity The words of the doxology are confirmed and concluded by the people’s acclamation: Amen 118 Eucharistic Prayer: Final Doxology Also called the Great Amen , this acclamation by the people expresses their agreement with all that has been said and done in the Eucharistic prayer

Discussion:

Discussion We began our presentation on the Eucharistic Prayer by saying that this prayer manifests who we are and what we believe. How does the Eucharistic Prayer describe us as a people? 119

Discussion:

Discussion If the Eucharistic Prayer shapes and transforms us as a people, how can we promote this identity through the: Various courses that we teach both secular and religious; Atmosphere, environment, etc. of that total school community? 120

Celebrating the Eucharist:

Celebrating the Eucharist Session Five: The Communion Rite 121

Session Five Objectives:

Session Five Objectives The Communion Rite Understand communion as the reception of the Lord’s Body and Blood as spiritual food Understand that we are made one body by receiving Communion from the one Bread of Life which is Christ See the actions and prayers of the Communion Rite as ritual actions that reveal our identity as the Church Live out the intimate unity between liturgy and life 122

Video The Communion Rite:

Video The Communion Rite Group Discussion What did this video help you understand about the communion rite? 123 How do you experience this in your own parish?

The Communion Rite:

The Communion Rite The Communion Rite begins after the Eucharistic Prayer In keeping with the Lord’s command, all who are properly disposed receive his Body and Blood, eating and drinking together in a Paschal Banquet that is that is the culmination of the Eucharist 124 The assembly is made ready to share in this banquet by a series of rites that lead from the Eucharistic Prayer directly to the Communion. The Lord's Prayer The Rite of Peace The Fraction (or breaking of the bread) Communion Silence [or song of praise] Prayer after Communion

The Lord’s Prayer:

The Lord’s Prayer All stand in preparation for communion; the priest invites the people to pray and all the people recite or sing together the words that Jesus taught us The priest alone adds the embolism which the people conclude with a doxology 125 The prayer, in its entirety through the doxology, is sung or said aloud.

The Lord’s Prayer:

The Lord’s Prayer We praise God in His holiness It is a prayer for the eschaton [the future] when we pray for “thy kingdom come” – preparing us for the heavenly banquet We petition for daily food, bread for our bodies and Eucharistic bread for our souls We ask for forgiveness, for purification from sin so that what is holy may, in fact, be given to those who strive for holiness And we ask for guidance, the grace to lead a holy life, to resist temptation and evil 126

The Rite of Peace:

The Rite of Peace In the Rite of Peace, the Church asks for peace and unity for herself and for the whole human family Through this rite, the faithful also express to each other their communion in the Church and their mutual charity before communicating in the Sacrament The sign is an acknowledgment that Christ whom we receive in the Sacrament is present in our neighbor 127 At the Sign of Peace, the deacon invites the congregation to offer each other a sign of Christ’s peace

The Rite of Peace:

The Rite of Peace In this exchange the assembly acknowledges the insistent Gospel truth that communion with God in Christ is enjoyed in communion with our sisters and brothers in Christ It is an opening of ourselves and our neighbors to a challenge and a gift from beyond ourselves Like the Amen at communion, it is the acceptance of a challenge, a profession of faith that we are members, one with another, in the Body of Christ 128

Eucharistic Bread & Wine:

Eucharistic Bread & Wine The bread for celebrating the Eucharist must be made only from wheat, must be recently baked, and, according to the ancient tradition of the Latin Church, must be unleavened [GIRM 320] The wine for the Eucharistic celebration must be from the fruit of the grapevine (cf. Lk 22:18), natural, and unadulterated, that is, without admixture of extraneous substances [GIRM 322] 129

Fraction:

Fraction After the Sign of Peace the priest breaks the Eucharistic Bread, assisted if necessary by the deacon Christ’s gesture of breaking bread at the Last Supper, which gave the entire Eucharistic Action its name in Apostolic times, signifies that the many faithful are made one body [1 Cor 10:17] by receiving Communion from the one Bread of Life which is Christ, who died and rose for the salvation of the world 130 The priest breaks the Bread and puts a piece of the host into the chalice to signify the unity of the Body and Blood of the Lord in the work of salvation, namely of the living, glorious Body of Jesus Christ

PowerPoint Presentation:

All then reply: "Lord I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof, but only say the word, and my soul shall be healed." During the Fraction the supplication, Agnus Dei ( Lamb of God), in which we ask for mercy and peace, is usually sung by a choir or cantor with the congregation responding; at the very least, it is recited aloud Then the celebrant genuflects, raises the Host and Chalice, and says: “Behold the Lamb of God, behold him who takes away the sins of the world. Blessed are those called to the supper of the Lamb.“ 131 Agnus Dei

PowerPoint Presentation:

In receiving the Body and Blood of Christ we believe that we are truly receiving the Lord himself. He is present with us in the bread and wine which has become his Body and Blood We enter a deep and intimate "Communion” with him who gave his life for us. In answering "Amen" we are also saying our "Yes" to God 132 Communion After the distribution of Communion, the priest and faithful spend time praying privately. If desired, a psalm or other canticle of praise or a hymn may also be sung by the entire congregation To complete the prayer of the People of God, and to conclude the entire Communion Rite, the priest says the Prayer after Communion, in which he prays for the fruits of the mystery just celebrated

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After communion, and a period of reflection, all rise for the Prayer After Communion and Final Blessing by the celebrant 133 On solemn occasions or if a Bishop is the celebrant, a longer Solemn Blessing is given Concluding Rite

The Dismissal:

Following the blessing is the dismissal Note that the word "Mass" (Missa) comes from the Latin for dismissal (Missio), and stresses the importance of being sent out to live in communion with God and all people We are sent out to love and to serve the Lord in the world Our "Thanks be to God" in response to the dismissal is an acclamation which proclaims our assent to go out and live what we have just prayed If a deacon is present, he will give the dismissal: “Go in peace…” 134 The Dismissal

Dismissal: Leaving Mass Early:

Dismissal: Leaving Mass Early The Mass ends with the dismissal, but as a mark of respect the faithful should wait until the priest has entered the sacristy (or left the main area of the church) and any recessional hymn has ended Leaving after Communion does not allow us to thank God properly for the gift of his Son and also deprives us of the added grace of the concluding prayer and final blessing 135 The congregation should neither stampede toward the exit after Mass nor hang around chatting in the aisles. The church is a place of worship and should be reverenced as such

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