a novel paradigm for portable power harnessing based on piezo electric

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a novel paradigm for portable power harnessing based on piezo electricity :

a novel paradigm for portable power harnessing based on piezo electricity GREEN ENERGY: Members of the Team: SRIRAM KARTHIK, SHRUTI CHANDRASEKHAR Name of College and City: SRM University Course of specialization: Electrical and Electronics Year/ Batch:IV College ID: 1051010185/1051010172

Abstract: :

Abstract: Power shortages can occur anywhere and anytime in this modern world. It would be of at most help when one has the capability to generate one’s own required power. The ideas and the methods proposed here would be an eye opener for such a requirement. The required amount of power could be harnessed from a piezo electric mat. A mat is basically a matrix consisting of piezo electric crystals. A suitable low cost converter circuit is also being proposed in this work and the simulations of the above said is shown and it has been conclusively proved that such an arrangement really is feasible. This apparatus would enable one to charge batteries or mobile phones and one could even operate low power electronics equipment.

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Piezoelectric Effect This is basically an effect observed when crystals such as quartz are mechanically deformed. When a crystal is mechanically deformed in one plane , there is an accumulation of charges in the surface of the crystals in a plane perpendicular to the plane of deformation . So there exists an electric field due to this charge separation and hence a voltage is created between these two ends.

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The type of voltage signal which we get is alternating in nature. The frequency would probably be in the range of few MHz When a piezo crystal is applied with a transient mechanical stress, then the crystal starts to vibrate back and forth and hence the electric field pattern inside the crystal keeps alternating w.r.t time . Therefore the voltage signal from the crystal is alternating in nature

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  MATERIALS The piezoelectric effect occurs only in non conductive materials. Piezoelectric materials can be divided in 2 main groups: crystals and ceramics.   piezoelectric crystalline materials are Quartz, Rochelle salt, Cane sugar, Topaz, Tourmaline, Berlinite (AlPO4), Gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4), Langasite , etc. piezoelectric ceramics are Barium titanate , Lead titanate , Lead zirconate titanate , Potassium niobate , Lithium niobate , Lithium tantalate , Sodium tungstate, Bismuth ferrite, Sodium niobate , etc.

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PZT-5A CRYSTAL Piezo element selected for the HVG(high voltage generator). The simplest method of obtaining high voltage from the piezo was to compress it axially. The compression was quasi-static, so that the dynamic mechanical processes need not be considered. PZT-5A is a lead zirconate titanate polycrystalline ceramic material that is commonly used in ignites in which voltages as high as 20 kV are produced. PZT-5A cylinder 15 mm in diameter and 20 mm long, a force of 10 kN produces a voltage of 28 kV. For a given maximum stress the voltage depends only on the material constant and the length of the piezo. The open-circuit voltage increases in proportion with the length of the piezo crystal

IMPLEMENTATION:

IMPLEMENTATION

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Circuit diagram

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It consists of a rectifier made of schottky diodes to convert the alternating voltage signals to DC and to schottky diodes ensure there is a minimal voltage drop. The next stage consists of a dc-dc converter chip. It has the ability to convert 1 volt dc to 5 volt dc. Either LT1615 or LT3526L micro power step up converters could be used. The minimum start up voltage is about 0.8V for the IC to turn on. But since the output of each crystal is small, we have to connect more crystals to get the desired IC work. The last stage of the circuit consists of a adjustable voltage regulator. Its main function is just to give advantage to the user to control the output voltage.

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Circuit diagram drawn using LTSpice

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Output response

Specifications:

Specifications LT1615 micro power DC-DC step up converter MBR0540 Schottkey diode IN5817 Schottkey diode Piezo electric crystal Few other basic components.

Approximated Estimate:

Approximated Estimate The cost of the IC LT1615 is about 2$ and it happens to be the costliest element in the project ; other components happen to be really cheap Therefore, the net cost for constructing the circuit would come around Rs.200 including the costs required to make the printed circuit board. The cost of piezo electric crystals vary depending on the material. Its available with prices as low as Rs.10 per crystal which means that even if we are using it for a purpose which requires many such crystals, the net cost could be assuaged.

Electrical characteristics :

Electrical characteristics The efficiency of the constructed circuit would be really high, close enough to 90% as there is not much of power loss taking place, step up converter works with an efficiency on 95%. Since the diodes used have a very negligible voltage drop, the power losses happen to be optimal. But the overall efficiency might be a small value as it is purely dependent on the energy conversion taking place within the crystal. Hence it cannot be determined as it is outside the scope of this project.

Applications :

Applications As seen in the output response, the transient time is less than 10 ms so, we obtain a constant output of 5v. This output, can be stored up in batteries, which can be used in various applications like: For portable charging of mobile phones. Flash lights Small power radio/ transistors.

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As power can be stored up in batteries we can use it for n number of applications. This circuit can even be kept under dance floors, which can power a invertor .

Conclusion :

Conclusion By the proposed method, a constant DC voltage was attained in a rapid manner as the transient period is very short. This enables one to use this method for battery charging applications. Thus, this apparatus could be used as a prime source of green energy, where the principles of piezo electricity forms the base. It also has the advantage of being, portable and durable and hence it would be an ideal tool during abrupt power shortages even when one is lost in the middle of no where ! Apart from charging batteries, it also finds other applications like small power radar, radios and other electrical gadgets like emergency flash lights. This circuit could also be placed inside shoes and could be used to charge mobile phones while walking or during regular day to day activities Hence, one can conclude that this type of green energy comes in handy and such types of arrangements must be thoroughly encouraged in the future.

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