Weight and Measures Used In Pharmaceutical Dispensing

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Weight and Measures Used In Pharmaceutical Dispensing:

Weight and Measures Used In Pharmaceutical Dispensing Dr.D.Dhachinamoorthi , M.Pharm., Ph.D., Professor & Principal QIS College of Pharmacy Ongole -523272

Introduction:

Introduction Before dispensing, a pharmacist should understand the various types of calculations, involved in it. Therefore pharmacist should have a thorough knowledge about weights and measures, which are used in the calculations.

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Weight : Weight is a measure of the gravitational force, acting on a body and is directly proportional to its mass. Measure: Measure is the measurement of volume of any substance. There are two systems of weights and measures: 1. The Imperial system 2. The Metric system

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IMPERIAL SYSTEM It is an old system of weights and measures based on arbitrary and unrelated units like grains, drachms, ounces and gallons. Measure of weight in imperial system: Imperial system is divided into two parts for the purpose of measurement of weight as i ) Avoirdupois system ii) Apothecaries system

Avoirdupois system:

Avoirdupois system In this system “pound” is the standard unit for weight. Therefore all measures of mass (weight) are derived from the Imperial standard, “pound”(Lb.) Eg . 1 lb =l6 oz. 1 lb = 7000 grains 1 oz. = 7000 /16 grains = 437.5 grains.

Apothecaries system:

Apothecaries system In this system “grain” is the standard unit for weight. Therefore all the measures of mass (weight) are derived from the “grain”. Eg . 20 grains = 1 Scruple’ 60 grains = 1 drachm 480 grains. = 1 ounce 8 drachms = 1 ounce 12 ounce = 1 pound 5760 grains = 1 pound

Abbreviations commonly used in weighing:

Abbreviations commonly used in weighing Latin name Symbol English name Equal to Granum gr Grain 1 grain Scrupulus ϶ Scruple 20 grains Drachma З Drachum 60 grains Uncia oz ℥ Ounce (Avoir) 437.5 grains Uncia (Troy) ℥ Ounce (Apothe) 480 grains Libra lb Pound (Avoir) 7000 grains Libra lb Pound (Apothe) 5760 grains

Measurement of Capacity in imperial system:

Measurement of Capacity in imperial system In both Avoirdupois and Apothecaries system, the standard unit for capacity is “gallon”. Therefore all other measures of capacity are derived from gallon. Eg . 1 gallon = 160 fluid ounces. 1/4 th of a gallon = 1 quart =40 fl.ounce 1/8th of a gallon = 1 pint =20 fl.ounce 1/160th of a gallon = 1 fl. ounce 1/8thofonefl.ounce = 1 fl. drachm 1/60th of one fl.drachm = 1 minim 1 fluid ounce = 480 minims 1 fluid drachm = 60 minims.

Abbreviations commonly used in measures of capacity:

Abbreviations commonly used in measures of capacity Latin name Symbol English name Equal to Minimum M Minim 1 minim Fluid drachm З fl.drachm 60 minims Fluid uncial ℥ fl.ounce 480 minims Octarious O Pint 20 fl.ounces Congius C Gallon 160 fl.ounces

METRIC SYSTEM:

METRIC SYSTEM The metric system is used in Indian pharmacopoeia Measurement of weight in Metric system: In Metric system “Kilogram” is the standard unit for measurement of weight. Therefore all other measures for weight are derived from kilogram (Kg) 1 Kilogram (Kg) = 1000 grams (g) 1 Hectogram (hg) = 100 grams 1 Decagram (dag) = 10 grams 1 Decigram (dg) 0.1 gram 1 Centigram (cg) = 0.01 gram 1 Milligram (mg) = 0.001 gram 1 Microgram (mcg) 0.000001 gram 1 gram (g) = 1000 mg 0.1 gram 100 mg 0.01 gram = 10 mg 0.001 gram = 1 mg

Measurement of capacity in Metric system:

Measurement of capacity in Metric system In Metric system, the standard unit for measure is “ litre ’. Therefore all measures of capacity are derived from the litre . Eg . 1 litre (Lt) = 1000 millilitre (ml)

Interconversions of Imperial and Metric units:

Interconversions of Imperial and Metric units Weight measures 1 grain = 64.8 mg =65 mg (60 mg) (for all practical purposes.) 1 gram = 15.43 gr = 15 gr 1milligram (mg) = 1/65 gr or 1/60 gr 1 kilogram = 2.2 lb (pounds)

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Capacity measures 1 drop = 1minim = 0.06 ml (for all practical purposes) 1 fl.ounce =29.57m1 =30m1 1 millilitre (ml) = 16.23 minims = 15 minims 1 litre = 33.1 fi . ounce 1 fl. drachm = 4 ml 1 fl.ounce =3Oml 1 ml = 15 minims 0.06 ml = 1 minim 500m1 = 1 pint l000ml = 1quart

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Domestic measures 1 drop = 1 minim = = 0.06 ml 1 teaspoonful = 1 fl. Drachm = 4 ml (5 ml for all practical purposes) 1 desertspoonful =2 fl.Drachm = 8 ml (10 ml for all practical purposes) 1 tablespoonful =4 fl. Drachm =16 ml (15 ml for all practical purposes) 2 tablespoonful=8 fl. Drachm =32 ml (30 ml for all practical purposes) 1 wine glassful=2 fl. Ounce=60 ml 1 teacupful=4 fl. Ounce=120 ml 1 tumblerful =8 fl. Ounce=240 ml

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Thank You