BAI GIANG CONG NGHE CAC CHAT HOAT DONG BE MAT HO QUOC PHONG KHOA CN DH

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

BÀI GIẢNG CÔNG NGHỆ CÁC CHẤT HOẠT ĐỘNG BỀ MẶT HỒ QUỐC PHONG KHOA CN ĐHCT

Comments

Presentation Transcript

slide 1:

Hồ Quốc Phong PhD Bộ môn CNHH Khoa CN ĐHCT CÔNG NGHỆ CÁC CHẤT HOẠT ĐỘNG BỀ MẶT 1 Bài giảng

slide 2:

Tổng quan về các CHĐBM Chương 1. Lý thuyết cơ bản về chất hoạt động bề mặt. Chương 2. Phương pháp đánh giá CHĐBM. Khả năng tẩy rửa Khả năng tạo bọt Các chỉ tiêu đánh giá khác 2

slide 3:

Bọt foam • Bọt là một hệ phân tán K/L mà pha khí chiếm thể tích lớn chứa tác nhân ổn định . • Bọt không có dạng hình cầu mà là đa diện. • Chất lỏng nguyên chất không có khả năng tạo bọt. 3

slide 4:

Bọt foam • Phân tán pha khí vào lỏng với sự tham gia của chất tạo bọt như chất hoạt động bề mặt. ̶ Là yếu tố tích cực trong quá trình giặt giũ. ̶ Dùng trong bình chữa cháy. ̶ Trong sản xuất chất dẻo xốp. 4

slide 5:

Surfactants in Foams 5

slide 6:

Foam structure 6

slide 7:

Foam Preparation • Condensation method • Dispersion method 7 where r and r 0 are the radii of the bubble and orifice and r is the specific gravity of liquid.

slide 8:

Classification of Foam Stability • All foams are thermodynamically unstable due to the high interfacial free energy. • 1 Unstable transient foams lifetime of seconds.  These are generally produced using ‘‘mild’’ surfactants e.g. short-chain alcohols aniline phenol pine oil shortchain undissociated fatty acid. Most of these compounds are sparingly soluble and may produce a low degree of elasticity. 2 Metastable ‘‘permanent’’ foams lifetime hours or days.  The above metastable foams are produced from surfactant solutions near or above the critical micelle concentration c.m.c.. The stability is governed by the balance of surface forces. 8

slide 9:

Độ bền vững hệ bọt Phụ thuộc vào tính chất của màng bao quanh. • Bản chất và hàm lượng chất tạo bọt. • Độ bền cực đại của bọt ứng với CHĐBM có gốc HC trung bình và dung dịch có nồng độ trung bình. • Ngoài ra còn nhiệt độ độ nhớt … • Sự tồn tại ngắn ngủi của bọt là do sự chảy của màng chất lỏng dưới tác dụng của trọng lực 9

slide 10:

Foam Stability • Stability may be increased in some cases by the addition of electrolytes that produce a ‘‘gel network’’ in the surfactant film. • Foam stability may also be enhanced by increasing the surface viscosity and/or surface elasticity. • High packing of surfactant films high cohesive forces may also be produced using mixed surfactant films or surfactant/polymer mixtures. • To investigate foam stability one must consider the role of the plateau border under dynamic and static conditions. One should also consider foam films with intermediate lifetimes i.e. between unstable and metastable foams. 10

slide 11:

Drainage and Thinning of Foam Films • Gravity is the main driving force for film drainage. • The rate of drainage of foam films may be decreased by increasing the bulk viscosity of the liquid from which the foam is prepared. • The viscosity of the aqueous surfactant phase can be increased by addition of electrolytes that form a ‘‘gel’’ • Film drainage can also be decreased by increasing the surface viscosity and surface elasticity. For convenience the drainage of horizontal and vertical films will be treated separately. 11

slide 12:

Drainage Films 12

slide 13:

Các nguyên nhân làm bền bọt • Hiệu ứng Gibbs – Marangoni – Hiệu ứng Marangoni là sự dịch chuyển vật chất bên trên hoặc bên trong một lớp lưu chất do sự khác nhau của SCBM. • Lực đẩy tĩnh điện • Sự hydrat hóa • Độ nhớt • Tính đàn hồi của màng 13

slide 14:

Các tác nhân làm tăng bọt foam bootster Chọn lựa CHĐBM • Có thể chọn 1 hay hỗn hợp CHĐBM ̶ Số lượng bọt tăng với nồng độ quanh CMC ̶ Dự đoán được khả năng tạo bọt của CHĐBM nhưng không dự đoán được tính ổn định . • Các yếu tố ảnh hưởng đến CMC có thể tăng hoặc giảm bọt ̶ Nhiệt độ làm tăng khả năng hòa tan chất HĐBM → tăng khả năng tạo bọt. ̶ Chất điện ly làm giảm CMC nên → làm thay đổi khả năng tạo bọt. 14

slide 15:

Các tác nhân làm tăng bọt foam bootster • Cấu trúc phân tử của CHĐBM có nguyên tác tổng như sau: ̶ Chất tạo HĐBM không ion ít tạo bọt hơn ion trong dung dịch nước. ̶ Cùng một họ chất HĐBM CMC càng kém thì khả năng tạo bọt cao. ̶ Cation đối của CHĐBM anion có liên quan đến khả năng ổn định bọt.  Sự ổn định bọt của sodium dodecyl sulfate giảm theo thứ tự sau: NH 4 + CH 3 4 N + C 2 H 5 4 N + C 4 H 9 4 N + 15

slide 16:

Phụ gia làm tăng bọt • Việc thêm ion đối có thể làm giảm CMC → tăng khả năng tạo bọt • Khi hợp chất có cùng mạch carbon với CHĐBM sẽ làm tăng khả năng tạo bọt và ổn định bọt. 16

slide 17:

Phá vỡ bọt Phá vỡ bọt • Thêm chất chống tạo bọt • Gia nhiệt • Hút chân không • Cơ học 17

slide 18:

Các tác nhân chống bọt antifoamer Theo 2 cách: • Ngăn cản sự tạo bọt: thường dùng các ion vô cơ như canxi để có ảnh hưởng đến tĩnh điện hay giảm nồng độ ion bằng việc kết tủa • Tăng tốc độ phân hủy bọt: bằng việc thêm các chất vô cơ hay hữu cơ sẽ đến thay thế các phần tử CHĐBM. 18

slide 19:

Cơ chế phá vỡ bọt • Cơ chế phá vỡ bọt bằng các hạt kị nước – Các hạt kị nước tạo thành khi cho xà phòng vào công thức bột giặt. – Xà phòng sẽ tác dụng với ion canxi tạo thành xà phòng canxi kị nước. – Các hạt này nằm trên màng bọt và trở nên không đồng nhất. – Phần màng tiếp xúc với hạt sẽ mỏng dần sau cùng tự tạo ra lỗ ở đó và bọt bị phá vỡ. 19 Dung dịch Không khí film Hạt kỵ nước Dung dịch Không khí film Hạt kỵ nước

slide 20:

Cơ chế chảy loang spreading • Các phần tử chống bọt sẽ di chuyển đến bề mặt và thay thế CHĐBM. • Hệ số chảy loãng S: S  F –  A -  FA Dung dịch Không khí film silicon/dầu Dung dịch Không khí film silicon/dầu 20

slide 21:

Một số chỉ tiêu khác • Khả năng tạo huyền phù • Khả năng thấm ướt • Chỉ số canxi chấp nhận 21

slide 22:

Khả năng tạo huyền phù • Huyền phù là hệ phân tán rắn trong môi trường lỏng R/L • CHĐBM làm cho hệ huyền phù ổn định. • Huyền phù có nhiều ứng dụng trong CN: – Hệ không nước: sơn dầu mực in verni… – Hệ có nước: sơn nước dung dịch thuốc nhuộm thuốc bảo vệ thực vật … • Đánh giá khả năng tạo huyền phù của CHĐBM. – Đo độ đục hỗn hợp than hoặc CaCO 3 phân tán trong dung dịch CHĐBM. – Đo thời gian lắng tủa. 22

slide 23:

Khả năng thấm ướt Hiện tượng dính ướt và không dính ướt a quan sát Giọt nước chảy lan ra Giọt thuỷ ngân thu về dạng hình cầuhơi dẹt Hiện tượng dính ướt Hiện tượng không dính ướt Tấm thuỷ tinh sạch Giọt nước Giọt thuỷ ngân 23

slide 24:

Khả năng thấm ướt • Xảy ra khi chất lỏng tiếp xúc với chất rắn • Tuỳ theo bản chất của chất lỏng và chất rắn mà có hiện tượng chất lỏng làm ướt hay không làm ướt vật rắn. – VD: Nước dính ướt thuỷ tinhnhưng không dính ướt lá sen….. 24

slide 25:

Khả năng thấm ướt • CHĐBM làm giảm sức căng bề mặt giúp việc thấm ướt dễ dàng hơn. • Hiện tượng thấm ướt có nhiều ứng dụng trong kỹ thuật sơn nhuộm tẩy trắng … • Đánh giá khả năng thấm ướt: thời gian chìm của cuộn chỉ có trọng lượng 5g đường kính 44cm trong dung dịch CHĐBM. 25

slide 26:

Chỉ số canxi chấp nhận • Chỉ lượng canxi tối đa có trong nước mà CHĐBM vẫn còn khả năng tẩy rửa. • Cách xác định: 50ml dung dịch 005 CHĐBM Dung dịch trở nên đục Dung dịch 1 calcium acetate 26

slide 27:

Chương 3 • Phân loại các CHĐBM • Ứng dụng các CHĐBM

slide 28:

General Classification of Surfactants Phân loại theo ái nước • Anionic Surfactants – Carboxylates – Sulphates – Sulphonates – Phosphate-containing Anionic Surfactants • Cationic Surfactant • Amphoteric Zwitterionic Surfactants

slide 29:

General Classification of Surfactants • Nonionic Surfactants – Alcohol Ethoxylates – Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates – Fatty Acid Ethoxylates – Sorbitan Esters and Their Ethoxylated Derivatives – Spans and Tweens – Ethoxylated Fats and Oils – Amine Ethoxylates – Ethylene Oxide–Propylene Oxide Co-polymers EO/PO – Surfactants Derived from Mono- and Polysaccharides

slide 30:

Anionic Surfactants n 8-16 X Na  These are the most widely used class of surfactants in industrial applications.  For optimum detergency the hydrophobic chain is a linear alkyl group with a chain length in the region of 12–16 carbon atoms. Linear chains are preferred since they are more effective and more degradable than branched ones

slide 31:

Carboxylates • These are perhaps the earliest known surfactants since they constitute the earliest soaps e.g. sodium or potassium stearate C 17 H 35 COONa sodium myristate C 14 H 29 COONa. • Most commercial soaps are a mixture of fatty acids obtained from tallow coconut oil palm oil etc. • The main attraction of these simple soaps is their low cost their ready biodegradability and low toxicity. • Their main disadvantages are their ready precipitation in water containing bivalent ions such as Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ .

slide 32:

Carboxylates • To avoid such precipitation in hard water the carboxylates are modified by introducing some hydrophilic chains e.g. ethoxy carboxylates with the general structure ROCH 2 CH 2 O n CH 2 COO ester carboxylates containing hydroxyl or multi COOH groups sarcosinates which contain an amide group with the general structure RCONR’COO.

slide 33:

Sulphates • These are the largest and most important class of synthetic surfactants which were produced by reaction of an alcohol with sulphuric acid i.e. they are esters of sulphuric acid. • The most common sulphate surfactant is sodium dodecyl sulphate abbreviated as SDS ansometimes referred to as sodium lauryl sulphate which is extensively used both for fundamental studies as well as in many industrial applications CH 3 CH 2 11 OSO 3 Na

slide 34:

• The critical micelle concentration c.m.c. of SDS the concentration above which • the properties of the solution show abrupt changes is 8x10 -3 mol dm -3 0.24.

slide 35:

Sulphonates • With sulphonates the sulphur atom is directly attached to the carbon atom of the alkyl group giving the molecule stability against hydrolysis when compared with the sulphates. • Alkyl aryl sulphonates are the most common type of these surfactants e.g. sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate and these are usually prepared by reaction of sulphuric acid with alkyl aryl hydrocarbons e.g. dodecyl benzene.

slide 36:

Sulphonates • Linear alkyl benzene sulphonates LABS are manufactured from alkyl benzene and the alkyl chain length can vary from C 8 to C 15 • The c.m.c. of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate is 5 x10 -3 mol dm -3 0.18. • The main disadvantages of LABS are their effect on the skin and hence they cannot be used in personal care formulations.

slide 37:

Sulphonates • Another class of sulphonates is the a-olefin sulphonates which are prepared by reacting linear α-olefin with sulphur trioxide typically yielding a mixture of alkene sulphonates 60–70 3- and 4- hydroxyalkane sulphonates 30 and some disulphonates and other species. • A special class of sulphonates is the sulphosuccinates which are esters of sulphosuccinic acid

slide 38:

Phosphate-containing Anionic Surfactants • Both alkyl phosphates and alkyl ether phosphates are made by treating the fatty alcohol or alcohol ethoxylates with a phosphorylating agent usually phosphorous pentoxide P 4 O 10 . The reaction yields a mixture of mono- and di-esters of phosphoric acid. The ratio of the two esters is determined by the ratio of the reactants and the amount of water present in the reaction mixture. The physicochemical properties of the alkyl phosphate surfactants depend on the ratio of the esters. Phosphate surfactants are used in the metal working industry due to their anticorrosive properties.

slide 39:

Cationic Surfactant • The most common cationic surfactants are the quaternary ammonium compounds with the general formula R’R”R’”R””N + X - where X is usually chloride ion and R represents alkyl groups. • A common class of cationics is the alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride where R contains 8–18 C atoms e.g. dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride C 12 H 25 CH 3 3 NCl

slide 40:

Cationic Surfactant alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride Imidazolines can also form quaternaries the most common product being the ditallow derivative quaternized with dimethyl sulphate dodecyl methyl polyethylene oxide ammonium chloride

slide 41:

Cationic Surfactant • Cationic surfactants are generally water soluble when there is only one long alkyl group. They are generally compatible with most inorganic ions and hard water but they are incompatible with metasilicates and highly condensed phosphates. They are also incompatible with protein-like materials. Cationics are generally stable to pH changes both acid and alkaline. They are incompatible with most anionic surfactants but they are compatible with nonionics. These cationic surfactants are insoluble in hydrocarbon oils.

slide 42:

Cationic Surfactant • In contrast cationics with two or more long alkyl chains are soluble in hydrocarbon solvents but they become only dispersible in water sometimes forming bilayer vesicle type structures. They are generally chemically stable and can tolerate electrolytes. • The c.m.c. of cationic surfactants is close to that of anionics with the same alkyl chain length. • The prime use of cationic surfactants is their tendency to adsorb at negatively charged surfaces e.g. anticorrosive agents for steel flotation collectors for mineral ores dispersants for inorganic pigments antistatic agents for plastics other antistatic agents and fabric softeners hair conditioners anticaking agent for fertilizers and as bactericides.

slide 43:

Amphoteric Zwitterionic Surfactants • These are surfactants containing both cationic and anionic groups. • The most common amphoterics are the N-alkyl betaines which are derivatives of trimethyl glycine CH 3 3 NCH 2 COOH described as betaine. An example of betaine surfactant is lauryl amido propyl dimethyl betaine C 12 H 25 CONCH 3 2 CH 2 COOH. These alkyl betaines are sometimes described as alkyl dimethyl glycinates.

slide 44:

Amphoteric Zwitterionic Surfactants • The main characteristic of amphoteric surfactants is their dependence on the pH of the solution in which they are dissolved. In acid pH solutions the molecule acquires a positive charge and behaves like a cationic surfactant • Whereas in alkaline pH solutions they become negatively charged and behave like an anionic one. A specific pH can be defined at which both ionic groups show equal ionization the isoelectric point of the molecule described by Scheme 1.1.

slide 45:

Amphoteric Zwitterionic Surfactants • Amphoteric surfactants are sometimes referred to as zwitterionic molecules. They are soluble in water but the solubility shows a minimum at the isoelectric point. Amphoterics show excellent compatibility with other surfactants forming mixed micelles. They are chemically stable both in acids and alkalis. The surface activity of amphoterics varies widely and depends on the distance between the charged groups showing maximum activity at the isoelectric point.

slide 46:

Nonionic Surfactants • The most common nonionic surfactants are those based on ethylene oxide referred to as ethoxylated surfactants. Several classes can be distinguished: – Alcohol ethoxylates – Alkyl phenol ethoxylates – Fatty acid ethoxylates – Monoalkaolamide ethoxylates – Sorbitan ester ethoxylates – Fatty amine ethoxylates and ethylene oxide–propylene oxide copolymers sometimes referred to as polymeric surfactants. C 2 H 4 O

slide 47:

Nonionic Surfactants • Another important class of nonionics is the multihydroxy products such as: – Lycol esters. – Glycerol and polyglycerol esters – Glucosides and polyglucosides and sucrose esters. – Amine oxides and sulphinyl surfactants represent nonionics with a small head group.

slide 48:

Alcohol Ethoxylates • These are generally produced by ethoxylation of a fatty chain alcohol such as dodecanol. Several generic names are given to this class of surfactants such as ethoxylated fatty alcohols alkyl polyoxyethylene glycol monoalkyl polyethylene oxide glycol ethers etc. A typical example is dodecyl hexaoxyethylene glycol monoether with the chemical formula C 12 H 25 OCH 2 CH 2 O 6 OH sometimes abbreviated as C 12 E 6 .

slide 49:

Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates • These are prepared by reaction of ethylene oxide with the appropriate alkyl phenol. The most common such surfactants are those based on nonyl phenol. These surfactants are cheap to produce but suffer from biodegradability and potential toxicity the by-product of degradation is nonyl phenol which has considerable toxicity. • Despite these problems nonyl phenol ethoxylates are still used in many industrial properties owing to their advantageous properties such as their solubility both in aqueous and non- aqueous media good emulsification and dispersion properties etc.

slide 50:

Fatty Acid Ethoxylates • These are produced by reaction of ethylene oxide with a fatty acid or a polyglycol and have the general formula RCOO-CH 2 CH 2 OnH. When a polyglycol is used a mixture of mono- and di-esters RCOO-CH 2 CH 2 On-OCOR is produced. These surfactants are generally soluble in water provided there are enough EO units and the alkyl chain length of the acid is not too long

slide 51:

Fatty Acid Ethoxylates • The mono-esters are much more soluble in water than the di-esters. In the latter case a longer EO chain is required to render the molecule soluble. The surfactants are compatible with aqueous ions provided there is not much unreacted acid. • However these surfactants undergo hydrolysis in highly alkaline solutions

slide 52:

Sorbitan Esters and Their Ethoxylated Derivatives Spans and Tweens • Fatty acid esters of sorbitan generally referred to as Spans an Atlas commercial trade name and their ethoxylated derivatives generally referred to as Tweens are perhaps one of the most commonly used nonionics. They were first commercialised by Atlas in the USA which has since been purchased by ICI. • The sorbitan esters are produced by reacting sorbitol with a fatty acid at a high temperature 200 C. The sorbitol dehydrates to 14-sorbitan and then esterification takes place. If one mole of fatty acid is reacted with one mole of sorbitol one obtains a mono-ester some di-ester is also produced as a by-product. Thus sorbitan monoester has the general formula shown in structure

slide 53:

Sorbitan Esters and Their Ethoxylated Derivatives Spans and Tweens The free OH groups in the molecule can be esterified producing di- and tri-esters. Several products are available depending on the nature of the alkyl group of the acid and whether the product is a mono- di- or tri-ester. Some examples are given below: • Sorbitan monolaurate – Span 20 • Sorbitan monopalmitate – Span 40 • Sorbitan monostearate – Span 60 • Sorbitan mono-oleate – Span 80 • Sorbitan tristearate – Span 65 • Sorbitan trioleate – Span 85

slide 54:

Sorbitan Esters and Their Ethoxylated Derivatives Spans and Tweens • Ethoxylated derivatives of Spans Tweens are produced by the reaction of ethylene oxide on any hydroxyl group remaining on the sorbitan ester group. Alternatively the sorbitol is first ethoxylated and then esterified. However the final product has different surfactant properties to the Tweens. Some examples of Tween surfactants are given below: – Polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monolaurate – Tween 20 – Polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monopalmitate – Tween 40 – Polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monostearate – Tween 60 – Polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan mono-oleate – Tween 80 – Polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan tristearate – Tween 65 – Polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan tri-oleate – Tween 85

slide 55:

Sorbitan Esters and Their Ethoxylated Derivatives Spans and Tweens • The sorbitan esters are insoluble in water but soluble in most organic solvents low HLB number surfactants. The ethoxylated products are generally soluble in water and have relatively high HLB numbers. One of the main advantages of the sorbitan esters and their ethoxylated derivatives is their approval as food additives. They are also widely used in cosmetics and some pharmaceutical preparations.

slide 56:

Ethoxylated Fats and Oils • Several natural fats and oils have been ethoxylated e.g. linolin wool fat and caster oil ethoxylates. • These products are useful for pharmaceutical products e.g. as solubilizers.

slide 57:

Amine Ethoxylates • These are prepared by addition of ethylene oxide to primary or secondary fatty amines. • With primary amines both hydrogen atoms on the amine group react with ethylene oxide and therefore the resulting surfactant has the structure. • The above surfactants acquire a cationic character if there are few EO units and if the pH is low. However at high EO levels and neutral pH they behave very similarly to nonionics. • At low EO content the surfactants are not soluble in water but become soluble in an acid solution. At high pH the amine ethoxylates are water soluble provided the alkyl chain length of the compound is not long usually a C 12 chain is adequate for reasonable solubility at sufficient EO content.

slide 58:

Ethylene Oxide–Propylene Oxide Co- polymers EO/PO • As mentioned above these may be regarded as polymeric surfactants. These surfactants are sold under various trade names namely Pluronics Wyandotte Synperonic PE ICI Poloxamers etc. • Two types may be di by reaction of polyoxypropylene glycol difunctional with EO or mixed EO/PO giving block copolymers 1.7.stinguished: those prepared by reaction of polyoxypropylene glycol difunctional with EO or mixed EO/PO giving block copolymers

slide 59:

Ethylene Oxide–Propylene Oxide Co- polymers EO/PO • The second type of EO/PO copolymers are prepared by reaction of polyethylene glycol difunctional with PO or mixed EO/PO. • These will have the structure POnEOmPOn and are referred to as reverse Pluronics. Trifunctional products 1.8 are also available where the starting material is glycerol.

slide 60:

Ethylene Oxide–Propylene Oxide Co- polymers EO/PO • Tetrafunctional products 1.9 and 1.10 are available where the starting material is ethylene diamine.

slide 61:

Surfactants Derived from Mono- and Polysaccharides • Several surfactants have been synthesized starting from mono- or oligosaccharides by reaction with the multifunctional hydroxyl groups. • The technical problem is one of joining a hydrophobic group to the multihydroxyl structure. Several surfactants have been made e.g. esterification of sucrose with fatty acids or fatty glycerides to produce sucrose esters

slide 62:

Surfactants Derived from Mono- and Polysaccharides • The most interesting sugar surfactants are the alkyl polyglucosides APG

slide 63:

Surfactants Derived from Mono- and Polysaccharides • These are produced by reaction of a fatty alcohol directly with glucose. • The basic raw materials are glucose and fatty alcohols which may be derived from vegetable • oils and hence these surfactants are sometimes referred to as ‘‘environmentally friendly’’. • A product with n ¼ 2 has two glucose residues with four OH groups on each molecule i.e. a total of 8 OH groups. The chemistry is more complex and commercial products are mixtures with n ¼ 1.1–3.

slide 64:

Surfactants Derived from Mono- and Polysaccharides • The properties of APG surfactants depend upon the alkyl chain length and the average degree of polymerisation. • APG surfactants have good solubility in water and high cloud points 100 C. • They are stable in neutral and alkaline solutions but are unstable in strong acid solutions. • APG surfactants can tolerate high electrolyte concentrations and are compatible with most types of surfactants.

slide 65:

Polymeric Surfactants • There has been considerable recent interest in polymeric surfactants due to their • wide application as stabilizers for suspensions and emulsions. Various polymeric • surfactants have been introduced and they are marketed under special trade names • such as Hypermers of ICI. One may consider the block EO/PO molecules Pluronics • as polymeric surfactants but these generally do not have high molecular • weights and they seldom produce speciality properties

slide 66:

• Another important class of polymeric surfactants that are used for demulsification • is those based on alkoxylated alkyl phenol formaldehyde condensates with • the general structure 1.13.

authorStream Live Help