Vat lieu phan huy sinh hoc Vat lieu tai tao

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Vật liệu phân hủy sinh học Vật liệu tái tạo (Renewable Materials)

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BACH KHOA UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENTIFIC REPORT OF GREEN CHEMISTRY HCM City 2017 TOPIC: RENEWABLE MATERIALS Supervisor: GS.TS. Phan Thanh Sơn Nam

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CONTENTS Contents GENERALITY OF POLYMERS AND RENEWABLE MATERIALS WAYS OF BIODEGRADATION POLYLACTIC ACID PLA APPLICATION CONCLUSION

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GENERALITY OF POLYMERS AND RENEWABLE MATERIALS I. What are Polymers II. Distinguish between Biodegradation and Decomposition. III. Biodegradable Polymers a Definition. b Classification. c Agents and Factors. IV. Method and Testing Standards www.trungtamtinhoc.edu.vn

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I. What are Polymers A large molecule or macromolecule composed of many repeated subunits known as monomers. Wikipedia.org Polymers.

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I. What are Polymers Various polymer architectures. 6 Wikipedia.org Polymers.

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I. What are Polymers Monomer arrangement in copolymers Wikipedia.org Polymers.

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I. What are Polymers

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I. What are Polymers

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I. What are Polymers

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I. What are Polymers take millions of years to make more …so recycle Michael Pitzl Australian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology – ofi CROPACK 2010 Renewable vs. Biodegradable – New materials for packaging technology

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I. What are Polymers A tiny bit of plastic is being made from vegetable organic material so that bit is biodegradable and renewable. • CO 2 H 2 O inorganic mineral biomass • CO 2 CH 4 humus and nontoxic substances. www.basf.com Dec. 09 2008 YU L. et al 2006

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I. What are Polymers Biodegradable Polymer Note: Biopolymer

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I. What are Polymers  Development of the market:   • Capacity 2009 400.000 t worldwide • Small market but high growth rates up to 10 www.european-bioplastics.org Feb. 17th 2010

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I. What are Polymers  Composition:  Biopolymer can be made from many different sources and materials: – Plant Oil – Cellulose – Corn Starch – Potato Starch – Sugarcane – Hemp etc.

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I. What are Polymers C Plant Oil Starch Cellulose O M P O S I Corn Sugarcane Potato T I O N

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I. What are Polymers  Impermeability     Optical properties     Spring     Seal and easy printing     Heat and chemical resistance     Stable environmentally friendly and competitive price     In accordance with the requirements of food packaging 

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II. Distinguish between Biodegradation and Decomposition: Wt 500 Microorganism bacteria fungi archaeas and protists

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II. Distinguish between Biodegradation and Decomposition: Www.epi-global.com Epi Degradability and Biodegradability Claims.

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III. Biodegradable Polymers: a Definition

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III. Biodegradable Polymers: b Classification:  Natural Polymers:   • Polysaccharides E.g. starch cellulose lignin chitin • Proteins

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III. Biodegradable Polymers:  Natural Polymers:   • Lipids E.g. animal fat • Polyesters produced by microorganism or by plants E.g. polyhydroxyalcanoates poly-3-hydroxybutyrate

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III. Biodegradable Polymers:  Natural Polymers: 

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III. Biodegradable Polymers:  Synthetic Polymers:    • PHAs: Poly-hydroxy-alkanoates • Polyvinyl alcohols • PHB: Poly-hydroxy-butyrates Wikipedia.org List of Synthetic Polymers.

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III. Biodegradable Polymers:  Synthetic Polymers:   • Polyalhydrides • PBS: Polybutylene succinate • PCL: Polycaprolactone • PLA: Polylactic acid Wikipedia.org List of Synthetic Polymers.

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III. Biodegradable Polymers: c Agents and Factors: Microorganism Enzyme Structure Mechanics Morphology Heat Light Weight Chemical Polymer

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III. Biodegradable Polymers: d Mechanism:  Microorganism: 

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III. Biodegradable Polymers: d Mechanism:  Microorganism: 

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III. Biodegradable Polymers: d Mechanism:  Enzyme: 

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III. Biodegradable Polymers: d Mechanism:  Enzyme: 

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III. Biodegradable Polymers: d Mechanism:  Enzyme: 

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III. Biodegradable Polymers: d Mechanism:  Enzyme: 

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III. Biodegradable Polymers: d Mechanism:  Enzyme: 

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IV. Method and Testing Standards:  Assessment Methods:  Enzyme • Survey of breaking chain • Fast but not selective Surface • Determine the amount of microorganisms • Other organic resource not from polymer Respiration • BOD: Biochemical Oxygen Demand • Easy and sensitive but just for aerobic environment CO 2 CH 4 • Used to determine ability of degradation

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IV. Method and Testing Standards:  Measuring Biodegradation:  100 C conversion to CO2 80 level of biodegradation 65 60 40 20 lag-phase degradation phase plateau phase 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 time d Carbon dioxide evolution Biodegradation

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IV. Method and Testing Standards:  Testing Standards:   Surface 

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IV. Method and Testing Standards:  Testing Standards:   Weight loss 

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IV. Method and Testing Standards:  Testing Standards:   Weight loss 

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IV. Method and Testing Standards:  Testing Standards:  • Molecular weight o Wt reduction o IP MI… • The mechanical properties  Represent for overall properties.   • C14 o Less – time consuming effective. o Unsafe

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No. Name Time of Unit degrading months years 1 Cotton Fiber 1-5 x 2 Paper 2-5 x 3 Rope 3-14 x 4 Orange peel 6 x 5 Wool 1-5 x 6 Inhaler of 1-12 x cigarette 7 Milk carton 5 x 8 Plastic sack 10-20 x 9 Nylon fabric 30-40 x 10 Aluminium cans 80-100 x 11 Glass bottle 1 million x 12 Plastic bottle 1 million x

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• By adding “weak” functional groups. • Two main methods to denaturate. WAYS FOR BIODEGRADATION

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Phạm Ngọc Lân NXB Đại học Bách Khoa Hà Nội tháng 7 năm 2006 Vật liệu Polyme phân hủy sinh học 79. Add functional groups Specifically esters group Add functional groups - To bring to the photochemical bond breaking reactions - In particular carbonyl group

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• Copolymerization Phạm Ngọc Lân NXB Đại học Bách Khoa Hà Nội tháng 7 năm 2006 Vật liệu Polyme phân hủy sinh học 80.

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• Copolymerization creation of ketones • Under UV light activated ketones are able to take part in free radical reactions such as Norish I reaction and Norish II reaction. Phạm Ngọc Lân NXB Đại học Bách Khoa Hà Nội tháng 7 năm 2006 Vật liệu Polyme phân hủy sinh học 81.

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Phạm Ngọc Lân NXB Đại học Bách Khoa Hà Nội tháng 7 năm 2006 Vật liệu Polyme phân hủy sinh học 82.

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• In 1893 Bischoff and Walden published the lactide production formulas the initiated development of PLA. • In 1932 Carothers and coworkers produced low molecular weight PLA. • In 1954 E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Ethicon Inc. began marketing PLA in medical applications for sutures implants and drug delivery systems. • In these days be used widely. Rahul M. Rasal et al Elsevier Dec. 14th 2009 Polylactic acid modifications Progress in Polymer Science 35 2010 338-356 339. www.trungtamtinhoc.edu.vn

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Advantages Eco-friendly Biocompatibility Processibility Energy savings Disadvantages Poor toughness BiSlowcompatibilitydegradation rate Hydrophobicity Side-chain group Lack of side-chain group Rahul M. Rasal et al Elsevier Dec. 14th 2009 Polylactic acid modifications Progress in Polymer Science 35 2010 338-356 339-340. www.trungtamtinhoc.edu.vn

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• PLA is Polylactic acid. PLA L-Lactic acid D-Lactic acid LACTIC ACID Rahul M. Rasal et al Elsevier Dec. 14th 2009 Polylactic acid modifications Progress in Polymer Science 35 2010 338-356 340.

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Latobacillus acidophilus Rahul M. Rasal et al Elsevier Dec. 14th 2009 Polylactic acid modifications Progress in Polymer Science 35 2010 338-356 341.

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Poly-L-lactide PLLA • Resulting from polymerization of LL-lactide also known as L-lactide. • Crystallinity of around 37 • Glass transition temperature between 60 – 65 o C • Melting temperature between 173 - 178 o C • Tensile modulus between 2.7 – 16 GPA. Middelton John C. Arthur J. Tipton Elsevier Dec. 2000 Synthetic biodegradable polymers as orthopedic devices Biomaterial 21 Donald Garlotta Journal of Polymers and Environment Apr. 2001 A Literature Review of PolyLactic Acid vol 9 No. 2.

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PLA: • Heat resistant: 110 o C • Be soluble in chlorinated solvents hot benzen tetrahydrofuran and dioxane. Wikipedia.org Biodegradable plastic.

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Mulch film made of PLA- blend “bio-flex” Tea bags made of PLA. Peppermint tea is enclosed Wikipedia.org Polylactic acid.

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Due to PLA’s relatively low glass transition temperature PLA cups cannot hold hot liquids. Biodegradable PLA cups in use at an eatery Wikipedia.org Polylactic acid.

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HDPE Storage Use Degradation 6–12 3 12-48 months Depending on the disposal system

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LDPELE Storage Use Degradation 3-6 3 12-48 months Depending on the disposal system

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PP Storage Use Degradation 3-12 Use 1-3 9-36 months Depending on the disposal system

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 Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry:     1. Prevention 2. Atom Economy 3. Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses 4. Designing Safer Chemicals 5. Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries 6. Design for Energy Efficiency www.acs.org/content/acs/en/greenchemistry/

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 Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry:   7. Use of Renewable Feedstocks 8. Reduce Derivatives 9. Catalysis 10.Design for Degradation 11.Real-time Analysis for Pollution Prevention 12.Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention. www.acs.org/content/acs/en/greenchemistry/

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1. Phạm Ngọc Lân NXB Đại học Bách Khoa Hà Nội tháng 7 năm 2006 Vật liệu Polyme phân hủy sinh học 79 – 82. 2. Rahul M. Rasal Amol V. Janorkar Douglas E. Hirt Elsevier 2009 Dec. Polylactic acid modifications 339 – 342. 3. Huỳnh Đại Phú Trường Đại học Bách Khoa TPHCM khoa Công nghệ Vật liệu Bài giảng Biopolymer. 4. Michael Pitzl Australian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technoogy – ofi CROPACK 2010 Renewable vs. Biodegradable – New materials for packaging technology. 5. www.epi-global.com Epi Degradability and Biodegradability Claims. 6. Södergård Anders Mikael Stolt Elsevier Jul. 2002 Properties of lactic acid based polymers and their correlation with composition Progress in Polymer Science 27.

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7. Middelton John C. Arthur J. Tipton Elsevier Dec. 2000 Synthetic biodegradable polymers as orthopedic devices Biomaterial 21. 8. Donald Garlotta Journal of Polymers and Environment Apr. 2001 A Literature Review of PolyLactic Acid vol 9 No. 2. 9. Wikipedia.org Polymers. 10. Wikipedia.org Polylactic acid. 11. Wikipedia.org List of Synthetic Polymers. 12. Www.acs.org/content/acs/en/greenchemistry/

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L/O/G/O Thank You www.trungtamtinhoc.edu.vn 62

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