Scientific Writing

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research paper writing, writing research proposal, writing for grants,

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Dr. Daxaben Mehta Principal, Smt. S. C. U. Shah Home Science And C.U.Shah Arts &Commerce Mahila College Wadhwancity, Dist: Surendranagar Scientific Writing

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Scientific Writing Types of Scientific Publication Outline Language Structure & Preparation of a Paper Title - Author Abstract Key words

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Types of Scientific Publication Oral presentations Written presentations Books and book chapters Review papers Journal articles Science magazines, Newspaper articles Writing for Grants

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Extension leaflets and posters Conference posters Annual reports, quarterly reports and project reports, Conference abstracts Conference/Workshop proceedings Letter to journals and book reviews Types of Scientific Publication

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Description Of An Outline Value Of The Outline Developing The Outline Outline

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Language Language Simple accurate Precise Brevity Grammar Active voice

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Structure of a Paper Introduction Materials & Methods Results – Tables & Figures Discussion Conclusion References Acknowledgements

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The major sections required in a paper are often abbreviated in the acronym “ IMRaD ” meaning; Introduction, Methodology (Materials and Methods), Results, and Discussion. Other sections are clearly necessary (a title, abstract, references, etc.) Structure of a Paper

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Thesis Main difference is the style and layout-Monograph Use university guidelines Extended literature review Main body split into sections/chapters A chapter on methodology Discussion - Compare results with previous publications Discuss implications

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Writing for Grants Research outline Synopsis of research Plan of research Research/project proposal Thesis plan

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Regardless of your research area and the methodology you choose, all research proposals must address the following questions: What you plan to accomplish why you want to do it and how you are going to do it. Research Proposal

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Research Proposal The (Longer) Standard Model A Basic Proposal Outline: Introduction Topic area Research question Significance to knowledge

Research Proposal :

Research Proposal Literature review Previous research others & yours Interlocking findings and Unanswered questions Your preliminary work on the topic The remaining questions and inter-locking logic Reprise of your research question(s) in this context  

Research Proposal :

Research Proposal Methodology Approach - Data needs Analytic techniques Plan for interpreting results Expected results Discussion and Conclusion Budget and Bibliography (or References)

Research Proposal :

Elements of Research Proposal Title Introduction Statement of the problem Rationale/justification/significance of the research Scope and limitations of the study Review of literature Objectives of the research

Elements of Research Proposal :

Elements of Research Proposal Operational definitions of terms used Hypothesis - Methodology Used Time schedule/work plan Budget/estimated cost built up Organization of the report/chapter outline Bibliography/References Conclusions - Appendix

Elements of Research Proposal:

Elements of Research Proposal Title First page – title of the research; researcher’s name; name of institute/organization where the researcher belongs; name of the sponsoring organization, name of the supervisor, co-supervisor; date; etc In selecting the title, the following points should be taken care of:

Elements of Research Proposal:

Title Reflect the theme of the research Be self-explanatory Be brief Language be simple and unambiguous Be specific to a particular domain Bracket; arithmetic figures, etc be avoided Avoid confusing meaning

Title :

Introduction Introduction Thereoretical background Background of the problem Etc Statement of the problem Definition Nature Extent

Introduction :

Rationale Rationale/justification/significance of the research Importance Addressing the national context problem Bridging the knowledge gaps Useful to the society/community Present state of affairs Affected stakeholders

Rationale:

Scope Scope and limitations of the study Boundaries of the research Aspects and issues addressed Shortcomings of the research – resource and time constraints

Scope:

Review of literature Researches so conducted; vital information Issues discussed; unaddressed issues Relevancy to the present research Finding out information/knowledge gaps

Review of literature :

Objectives of the research Contextual/consistent to the title Concise, clear-cut, expressed in simple language, precise, self-explanatory Distinctive, quantifiable , measurable Two types of objectives : general/broad/overall; specific

Objectives of the research :

Hypothesis Operational definitions of terms used Clear-cut meaning of the terms used Hypothesis Proposition subject to verification May be null, accepted, rejected Guide/lead the research

Hypothesis :

Methodology Selection of appropriate approach Tools/techniques to be used Data collection techniques Data processing, analysis, interpretation techniques Data/information presentation techniques

Methodology:

Work Plan Budget Time schedule/work plan Time line of the assigned tasks Time line of the resource flow – 3Ms Budget/estimated cost built up Cost built up – resource personnel, support staff, stationery, transport, utilities, house rents, miscellaneous, etc

Work Plan Budget:

Organization Organization of the report/chapter outline Outline of the dissertation/report Four major parts of the report: introductory, findings and discussion, summary, and conclusion

Organization:

Organization Part Desired share (%) Acceptable share (%) Introductory 10 15 Findings and Discussion 80 70 Summary and Conclusion 10 15 Total 100 100

Organization:

Bibliography Bibliography/References Related documents to be consulted/studies Follow technicalities in writing Bibliography/references To be presented in alphabetic order To be presented in classified manner viz., manuscripts, books, journals, commission reports, newspapers, etc

Bibliography:

Conclusion State about the feasibility of the proposed research/study Upcoming challenges Upcoming treats, difficulties, hindrances Make a conclusive remak

Conclusion :

Tips and Tricks Read and read - Take notes Talk to supervisors, experts, fellows Write topics and topics Get confused, get afraid Generate a number of research questions Systematize research questions Cut down these in line with your coherent thinkings

Tips and Tricks :

Common Mistakes To provide context to frame research question(s) To delimit the boundary of research issue(s) To cite landmark studies undertaken so far To present accurate theoretical background of the study To focus the research questions(s)

Common Mistakes :

Common Mistakes To develop coherent and persuasive arguments Too much detailed or too much short on major issues Too much rambling – going all over without clear cut sense of direction Incorrect citation/references Too long or too short

Common Mistakes :

DOs and DO NOTs DO Produce/prepare a professional looking proposal Make it interesting Make it informative, meaningful Write easy way to read Present content in a page Use clear headings/sub-headings

DOs and DO NOTs:

DOs and DO NOTs DO Be concise, precise Check spelling, grammar Present in accurate/acceptable format DO NOTs Use no ward which you do not understand Use of difficult ward unimpressive to the readers/ supervisor/ authoruty

DOs and DO NOTs:

Scientific Writing THANK YOU

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