SUBSTANCE ABUSE

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Introduction

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Substance abuse Taking a drug or any substance for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. Drug addiction= Substance dependence "When an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance Tolerance can be defined as the phenomenon of decreased effect with prolonged exposure to a drug.

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“Abused drugs” create “artificially” pleasurable experiences for the brain by interfering with the normal activities of “neurotransmitters” or the chemicals that send “chemical information” from one neuron (brain cell) to another.

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Major Neurotransmitters: 1. Norepinephrine – chemical messenger to cause us to protect ourselves when we are angry or afraid, the fight-or flight responses. 2. Dopamine – chemical messenger for pleasure. 3. Endorphins – chemical messengers for relieving pain and stress – natural opiate.

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Gamma-aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Is one of the brain’s principal neurotransmitters, being particularly involved in the inhibition of stimulation. GABA is involved in coordination and the function of the brain’s systems, which allow us to “think” and “make choices.”

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Depressants

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Slow down the central nervous system. At low doses: produce a feeling of calm, relax muscles, relieve feelings of tension and worry, and drowsiness. At higher doses: some produce sever intoxication, unconsciousness, coma and death. Examples: Alcohol, solvents/inhalants Cannabis (also belongs to hallucinogen drug class) Opioids (opium, pethadine, methadone, heroin) Prescribed tranquilizers : Benzodiazepines (eg valium) Sleeping pills: Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate)

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Depressants :Alcohols

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Alcohol in beverages is ethyl alcohol. Amount of alcohol in beer and wine is usually described as a percentage of the total volume. Synthesized or produced naturally by fermentation C 6 H 12 O 6 → 2( CH 3 -CH 2 -OH) + 2CO 2 1 glass wine= 1 shot of whiskey= 12 beer Alcohol

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Alcohol is a depressant drug stimulating GABA – gamma-aminobutyric acid – which is one of the brains principal neurotransmitters and therefore gives an overall depression of brain function.

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Copyright Alcohol Medical Scholars Program Rapidly absorbed primarily from duodenum Rate of absorption is extremely variable Peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) depends on: Amount and alcohol concentration of beverage Rate of drinking Food consumption and composition

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Copyright Alcohol Medical Scholars Program Volume of distribution = Total Body Water Gender Differences in body composition

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Copyright Alcohol Medical Scholars Program Metabolism 90-98% metabolized in liver Alcohol Acetaldehyde Acetate Accumulation of acetaldehyde associated with headache, gastritis, nausea, dizziness (hangover) Alcohol dehydrogenase Aldehyde dehydrogenase

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Small doses: euphoria, drowsiness, dizziness, flushing, release of inhibitions and tensions. Larger doses: slurred speech, staggering, double vision. Very large doses: death. Alcohol should not be ingested simultaneously with other central nervous system depressants. Short term effects

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Copyright Alcohol Medical Scholars Program 16 Illicit drugs (e.g., cocaine, heroin) Prescription drugs (e.g., benzodiazepines, metronidazole) Over-the-counter drugs (e.g., acetaminophen) Rx

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Alcohol affects the immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems. It can cause neurological damage, including dementia, blackouts, seizures, and hallucinations. Various cancers are associated with heavy drinking. It can result in hepatitis, chronic gastritis, hypertension, cirrhosis of the liver, and coronary heart disease. the third leading cause of birth defects and mental retardation among newborns. Long-Term Effects

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Characteristics Growth retardation Facial malformations Small head Greatly reduce intelligence

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Alcohol abuse occurs when there are ongoing negative consequences from drinking. Alcohol dependence, or alcoholism, is more severe and occurs when people have problems stopping drinking.

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Chronic drinkers are likely to become physically and psychologically dependent. Sleeplessness Sweating Nausea and vomiting Tremors Seizures Hallucination Death

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Disulfiram is an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase leading to nausea, dizziness, headache and flushing, making the entire drinking experience very aversive, and thus decreasing the desire to drink. Naltrexone (Revia) is approved for the treatment of alcoholism. It is an opioid antagonist. It has been shown to be useful in decreasing craving for alcohol, which is associated by its ability to block opioid function.

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Acamprosate acts by stimulating the GABA inhibitory system and antagonizing the glutamate excitatory system, thus decreasing drinking. Benzodiazepines are used primarily in the treatment of the hyperexcitability, including convulsions and hallucinations, during withdrawal.

depressants:

depressants Lecture 2

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Inhalants Breathable chemical vapors that produce mind altering effects. There are four types of inhalants Solvents Gases Nitrites Aerosols Street names include poppers, snappers, ozone .

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Inhalants are ingested into the body by breathing in the vapors of the product. Several methods of inhalation can be used by abusers: Using a bag Using a rag Using pressurized containers ( Aerosols )

Short term effects:

Short term effects Euphoria Lightheadedness Exhilaration Vivid fantasies and sometimes recklessness Feeling of invincibility Depending on the type of inhalant and method of use, possibly irritation and watering of the eyes, sneezing, coughing and nasal inflammation may occur. Inhalants enter the bloodstream from the lungs and then go to other organs, particularly the brain and liver. Breathing, heart beat and other body functions are slowed down. If the person passes out with a plastic bag over the nose and mouth, death from suffocation can occur. Death can also occur if the person is startled or engages in strenuous activity while intoxicated.

Long term effects:

Long term effects Effects include pallor, fatigue, forgetfulness, inability to think clearly, tremors, poor coordination and difficulty walking, thirst, weight loss, depression, irritability, hostility, and paranoia. Kidney, liver and brain damage may occur. It is not known to what extent the damage is reversible.

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Psychological and physical dependence can develop. Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, depression, irritability, dizziness, tremors, nausea, abdominal pains and headaches.

TREATMENT OF INHALANT ABUSE :

TREATMENT OF INHALANT ABUSE 􀂄 Supportive treatment of acute overdose (eg. airway, breathing, circulation) 􀂄 Beta-blockers may be used to protect against fatal arrhythmias 􀂄 No medication can reverse the effects of most inhalants 􀂄 Long-term treatment of inhalant abuse includes: 􀂄 counseling 􀂄 strict abstinence 􀂄 drug treatment protocols (eg. 12-Step programs) 􀂄 Need for more basic and clinical research on treatment and prevention

Tranquilizers and Sedative-Hypnotics:

Tranquilizers and Sedative-Hypnotics

Barbiturates:

Barbiturates All derivatives of Barbituric acid Produce a wide spectrum of central nervous system depression, from mild sedation to coma. Nonspecific depressant. In moderate amounts, these drugs produce a state of intoxication that is remarkably similar to alcohol intoxication. Symptoms include: 1- Slurred speech 2- loss of motor coordination 3-Impaired judgment. Barbiturates were widely diverted from medical use and used on the street in the 60s where they were called “downers” and sold under a variety of different names.

Synthesis:

Synthesis Barbituric acid is synthesized by a condensation reaction that results in the release of H2O (dehydration) and the heterocyclic pyrimidine Further substitution of side chains on the ring produce the pharmacologically active barbiturates Malonic Acid Urea Barbituric Acid

Uses: :

Uses: Sedatives, hypnotics, anesthetics and anticonvulsants. The primary differences among many of these products are how fast they produce an effect and how long those effects last. Barbiturates are classified as ultrashort, short, intermediate, and long-acting. The ultrashort-acting barbiturates produce anesthesia within about one minute after intravenous administration. Those in current medical methohexital (Brevital®), thiamyl (Surital®) and thiopental (Pentothal®).

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Barbiturate abusers prefer short-acting and intermediate-acting barbiturates that include Amobarbital (Amytal®), pentobarbitalts (Nembutal®), secobarbital(Seconal®), and Tuinal (an amobarbital/secobarbital combination product). After oral administration, the onset of action is from 15 to 40 minutes, and the effects last up to six hours. These drugs are primarily used for insomnia and preoperative sedation. Veterinarians use pentobarbital for anesthesia and euthanasia. Long-acting barbiturates include phenobarbital (Luminal®) and mephobarbital (Mebaral®), Effects of these drugs are realized in about one hour and last for about 12 hours, and are used primarily for daytime sedation and the treatment of seizure disorders.

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How are Barbiturates Consumed? Orally – In pill, tablet or liquid form Injection – Into the blood stream Into muscle tissue Directly under the skin Inserted into the body via suppository.

Examples of barbiturates and their street names:

Examples of barbiturates and their street names Generic Name Street Name Amo barbital Downers, blue heavens, blue velvet, blue devils Pento barbital Nembies, yellow jackets, abbots, Mexican yellows Pheno barbital Purple hearts, goof balls Seco barbital Reds, red birds, red devils, lilly, F-40s, pinks, pink ladies, seggy Tuinal Rainbows, reds and blues, tooies, double trouble, gorilla pills, F-66s

Short term effects:

Short term effects Euphoria Lightheadedness Exhilaration Vivid fantasies and sometimes recklessness Feeling of invincibility Depending on the type of inhalant and method of use, possibly irritation and watering of the eyes, sneezing, coughing and nasal inflammation may occur. Inhalants enter the bloodstream from the lungs and then go to other organs, particularly the brain and liver. Breathing, heart beat and other body functions are slowed down. If the person passes out with a plastic bag over the nose and mouth, death from suffocation can occur. Death can also occur if the person is startled or engages in strenuous activity while intoxicated.

Long-Term Effects:

Long-Term Effects Long-term, high-dose use may result in effects similar to chronic intoxication (impaired vision, memory and judgment, and slurred speech), as well as depression or mood swings. Changes in liver function may result in faster metabolism of other drugs. Babies of chronic users may have difficulty in breathing and feeding, disturbed sleep patterns, sweating, irritability and fever.

dependence:

dependence Regular use induces tolerance, making increased doses necessary to produce the desired effect. The margin between an effective dose and a lethal dose gradually narrows. Psychological dependence can occur with regular use, as can physical dependence. Withdrawal symptoms including restlessness, anxiety, insomnia, delirium, seizures and may result in death. Marilyn Monroe died of barbiturate overdose in 1962

depressants:

depressants Lecture 3

BENZODIAZEPINES:

BENZODIAZEPINES Benzodiazepines Primarily Used as Tranquilizers (Anxiolytics). Although sleep may occur as a result of increase of dose and progress to hypnosis and then anesthesia. They replaced barbiturates in the treatment of many disorders. They are not general CNS depressants. Uses: treat anxiety and nervousness, relax muscles, control certain types of muscle spasm and to treat sleep problems.

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Short-acting benzodiazepines are generally used for patients with sleep-onset insomnia (difficulty falling asleep) without daytime anxiety. estazolam (ProSom®), flurazepam Sleeping pills (Dalmane®), temazepam (Restoril®), and triazolam (Halcion®). Benzodiazepines with a longer duration of action are utilized to treat insomnia in patients with daytime anxiety. These benzodiazepines include alprazolam (Xanax®), chlordiazepoxide (Librium®), clorazepate (Tranxene®), diazepam (Valium®), halazepam (Paxipam®), lorzepam (Ativan®), oxazepam (Serax®), prazepam (Centrax®), and quazepam (Doral®). Clonazepam (Klonopin®), diazepam, and clorazepate are also used as anticonvulsants. Alprazolam and diazepam are the two most frequently encountered benzodiazepines on the illicit market.

Short term effects:

Short term effects Effects include a feeling of well-being, loss of inhibition, decreased muscle tension, reduced mental alertness and mildly impaired coordination and balance. High doses, paradoxical reactions such as rage, personality changes, sleep disturbances can occur. Side effects such as skin rashes, nausea, dizziness have been reported. Driving motor vehicles and operating machinery should be avoided by those taking tranquilizers. It is particularly hazardous to take them together with alcohol, other CNS depressants, and some antihistamines (in cold, cough and allergy remedies). They are seldom fatal in overdoses except when mixed with other drugs, especially alcohol.

Long-Term Effects:

Long-Term Effects Chronic abuse of benzodiazepines may result in impairment in thinking, memory and judgement, confusion, disorientation, and impaired motor coordination. Prolonged use may also lead to increased, rather than reduced, aggressiveness in some people. When benzodiazepines are used by pregnant women, they cross the placenta and are distributed to the fetus. After birth, babies exposed to benzodiazepines in the uterus may show withdrawal symptoms. There is some research evidence indicating an increased risk of major malformations.

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Although they are safer and have fewer side effects than barbiturates, they can also produce dependence and are generally recommended for short'term use only.

Club Drugs “party drugs”:

Club Drugs “party drugs”

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The term club drugs refers to synthetic drugs. Used at nightclubs, bars, and raves (all-night dance parties). Refers to a variety of drugs used at dance clubs or parties, i.e., “raves” Attractive due to these factors: Inexpensive Produce increased stamina Intoxicating Examples include: MDMA (Ecstasy) GHB, Rohypnol and ketamine GHB and Rohypnol are central nervous system depressants that are often connected with drug-facilitated sexual assault, rape, and robbery

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Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, also known as MDMA or Ecstasy, is a synthetic mind-altering drug that exhibits many hallucinogenic and amphetaminelike effects. Ecstasy enhances self-awareness and decreases inhibitions; however, seizures, muscle breakdown, stroke, kidney failure, and cardiovascular system failure often accompany chronic abuse. • Ketamine is primarily used as a veterinary animal anesthetic that in humans causes euphoria and hallucinations. • Ketamine can also cause impaired motor functions, high blood pressure, amnesia, and mild respiratory depression. Ecstasy ketamine

Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) Mexican Valium, roofies, roaches:

Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) Mexican Valium, roofies, roaches Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol®) is a potent benzodiazepine. gained popularity among younger individuals as a "party" drug. It has also been utilized as a "date rape" drug. flunitrazepam is placed in the alcoholic drink of an unsuspecting victim to incapacitate them and prevent resistance from sexual assault. The victim is frequently unaware of what has happened to them and often does not report the incident to authorities ALERT!!!- Date Rape Danger

Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) :

Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) GHB, and any salts thereof (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) liquid ecstasy, liquid X, grievous bodily harm, Scoop GHB was originally developed as an anaesthetic for its sedative rather than pain-reducing properties. It has also been used in some countries to treat alcohol withdrawal and narcolepsy. It has also been used by body builders to stimulate muscle building growth hormones during certain sleep cycles. Can easily be made in labs for illegal use.

Short term effects:

Short term effects Effects include a feeling of well-being, loss of inhibition, decreased muscle tension, reduced mental alertness and mildly impaired coordination and balance. High doses, paradoxical reactions such as rage, personality changes, sleep disturbances can occur. Side effects such as skin rashes, nausea, dizziness have been reported. Driving motor vehicles and operating machinery should be avoided by those taking tranquilizers. It is particularly hazardous to take them together with alcohol, other CNS depressants, and some antihistamines (in cold, cough and allergy remedies). They are seldom fatal in overdoses except when mixed with other drugs, especially alcohol.

CANNABIS:

CANNABIS

Cannabis:

Genus of flowering plants (Cannabaceae) that include 3 species Cannabis sativa, C. indica and C. ruderalis Indigenous to Central Asia and South Asia Cannabis has long been used for Hemp Food Medicinal purposes Psychoactive drug Cannabis

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Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids 60 cannabinoids have been isolated from the hemp plant and there are naturally occurring cannabinoids in most species called endocannabinoids, in a similar fashion as endorphins (opiates) have been found. Cannabidiol ( CBD ) and/or Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( THC ) ratio of THC to CBD

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There are two main receptors for cannabinoids in humans CB1(in brain) if stimulated produces Euphoria Impaired short term memory and sense of time CB2 (in spleen, peripheral sites) if stimulated produces Immunosuppressant activity Not psychoactive

CANNABIS PREPARATONS :

MARIJUANA HASHISH HASH OIL THC CANNABIS PREPARATONS

PREPARTION OF CANNABIS:

PREPARTION OF CANNABIS Marijuana Not a single drug but a complex mixture of over 400 chemicals Dried flowering tops and leaves of the plant THC concentration 0.5% - 5% in the past, now up to 20 – 25% It can be baked into cookies or cakes. Dried cannabis buds

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Dried, sticky resin of Cannabis plant. Sold in solid pieces, ranging in colour from light brown to black; ; in texture from dry and hard to soft and crumbly. Usually crumbled and smoked in pipe or hand-rolled cigarette with tobacco or marijuana. THC concentration, 2 - 8% or higher Hashish, hash

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Thick, greenish-black, reddish-brown or yellow oil. obtained by extracting hashish with an organic solvent. Usually wiped onto a cigarette or rubbed into tobacco and smoked. THC concentration 15 - 50% Hash Oil oil, honey oil

Tetrahydrocannabinol :

delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Δ 9-THC), Δ 1-THC Noncrystalline, waxy liquid at room temperature 11-hydroxy THC 11-Nor-9-carboxy THC (-) Trans-isomer ( Marinol) is 6 to 100 times more potent than (+) trans-isomer( Dronabinol) Water insoluble Tetrahydrocannabinol

Therapeutic Actions :

Reduces the nausea and loss of appetite associated with chemotherapy Can reduce pain signaling Can be used to treat the discomfort of AIDS Can reduce the pressure increases in the eye associated with glaucoma multiple sclerosis, epilepsy Therapeutic Actions

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How is it used? Leaves and flowering tips are dried Smoked Consumed as tea Mixed into food Resin from flowering heads Smoked Mixed with tobacco Alcohol extract (cannabis oil) is mixed with tobacco and smoked

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Effects of smoking are felt within a few minutes and last two to four hours. Effects from ingestion (e.g., eaten in baked or cooked foods) appear more gradually and last longer, and the person may feel dull and sluggish for some time afterwards.

Brain regions in which cannabinoid receptors are abundant:

Brain regions in which cannabinoid receptors are abundant Cerebellum Hippocampus Cerebral cortex, especially cingulate, frontal, and parietal regions Nucleus accumbens Basal ganglia Body movement coordination Learning and memory Higher cognitive functions Reward Movement control

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Calm, relaxed, talkative and sometimes drowsy. Concentration and short-term memory are markedly impaired. Sensory perception seems enhanced, colours are brighter, sounds are more distinct. Sense of time and space is distorted. Appetite increases, especially for sweets. impaired coordination and balance, rapid heartbeat, red eyes, dry mouth and throat. Some experience hallucinations with larger doses and symptoms worsen in persons with psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia.

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decreased motivation and interest, as well as difficulties with memory and concentration. The respiratory system is damaged by smoking

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There is some evidence that tolerance develops in regular high-dose users. Psychological and physical dependence on cannabis can occur in people who use heavily or regularly. Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, irritability, sleeping problems, sweating and loss of appetite.

Hallucinogen:

Hallucinogen

What are hallucinogens ? :

What are hallucinogens ? Hallucinogens are a group of drugs that work on the brain to affect the senses and cause ‘hallucinations’ Seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting or touching things that do not exist.

Hallucinogens also called… :

Hallucinogens also called… Psychedelics: substances that expand or heighten perception and consciousness. Psychotomimetic: substances that mimic psychosis . Psychotogenic : substances that produce psychosis. "mind-expanding"

Hallucinogens …:

Hallucinogens … Some hallucinogens occur naturally. Others are made in laboratories by mixing different chemical substances (‘trips’, LSD,‘acid’). Some drugs, such as cannabis and ecstasy can cause hallucinogen-like effects when used in high doses or in certain ways. Using hallucinogens is often called ‘tripping’.

Effects of hallucinogens :

Effects of hallucinogens Depends on: • how much you take • your height and weight • your general health • your mood • your past experience with hallucinogens • whether you use hallucinogens on their own or with other drugs • whether you use alone or with others, at home or at a party, etc. The effects of hallucinogens are not easy to predict. The effects are different for different people and at different times

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The main effects of hallucinogens are changes in the way you perceive things with your senses. They can include strange sensations such as floating or your body becoming part of another object. Some people find such unusual sensations interesting and pleasant, while to others these same effects are unpleasant and disturbing.

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Bad trip Some users can experience many general senses of fear, unrelieved terror, they are going insane or will never return to reality. Users may exhibit actions suggesting harm to themselves or others around them. This harm could take the form of suicidal ideation. Medical treatment consists of supportive therapy and minimization of external stimuli. In some cases, sedation is used when necessary to control self-destructive behavior, or when hyperthermia occurs. Diazepam is the most frequently used sedative for such treatment, but other benzodiazepines such as lorazepam are also effective. In severe cases, antipsychotics such as haloperidol can reduce or stop hallucinations, but this treatment is only effective against the so-called "classical" hallucinogens (LSD, psilocybin and mescaline, among others).

Flashbacks:

Flashbacks Spontaneous recurrence of trip after period of normalcy can occur after long periods of abstinence more common after multiple high dose use prolonged afterimages for days and weeks after tripping mechanism unknown can be brought on by other drugs or setting most commonly reported in low light situations not intrinsically dangerous and usually go away

4 Categories of Hallucinogens :

4 Categories of Hallucinogens 1) Serotonin-like 2) Psychedelic Anesthetics 3) Anticholinergic 4) Catecholamine-like

Serotonin-like Hallucinogens :

Serotonin-like Hallucinogens Act as agonist of Serotonin Receptors. Examples: LSD Psilocybin Psilocin DMT Bufotenine Ololiuqui Harmine Serotonin

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide LSD:

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide LSD LSD (‘acid, ‘trips’) is the most often used form of hallucinogen. In its pure form LSD is a white, odorless powder. Synthesized from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot alkaloids of the rye fungus. fungus growing on various grains. Produced in labs specifically for illegal drug market. No current medical use.

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This pure form is very strong. It comes in liquid form, tablets, capsules or squares of gelatin or blotting paper or postage stamp-sized papers impregnated with varying doses of LSD (50 to 300 mg or more).

Effects:

Effects Effects are felt within an hour, and last 2 to 12 hours. Perception intensifies, colors appear brighter, objects more sharply defined or distorted. Dilation of pupils, dizziness, dreamy detached feelings Possible changes in the perception of time and distance. A person may feel the body as light, heavy or distorted. Thinking and concentration are difficult and short-term memory is impaired. Extreme mood swings, including joy, inspiration, depression, anxiety, terror, aggression can occur. At High doses causes nausea, tremors, & confusion.

Psilocybin/Psilocin:

Psilocybin/Psilocin Found in psiloycbe mexicana mushroom In its pure form, psilocybin is also a white powder, but it is usually sold as dried mushrooms or in substances made from mushrooms. Street Names: mushrooms, magic mushrooms, shrooms, Musk, Silly Putty, Simple Simon. Psilocybin is from the same chemical family as LSD so its effects are similar. Last about 6-10 hours Need a lot to get same effect as LSD

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How is Psilocybin Consumed? Eaten – While the mushrooms are usually dried prior to sale and/or consumption, they can be eaten raw or cooked like regular mushrooms. Drank – Heated with water to make a tea or a soup. Smoked – The mushroom is ground into a fine powder and often smoked on top of marijuana. Psilocybin

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DMT (Dimethyltryptamine) Short-acting serotonin agonist (30 min) snorted or smoked Can’t be taken orally. Bufotenine Found in toad skins

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Ololiuqui Found in morning glory seeds 100 seeds creates hallucinations, distorted visions, confusion. Side Effects: nausea, vomiting, headache, & sleepiness. Harmine Found in plants & shrubs in Middle East & South America. Side Effects: intoxication, hallucinations, sleep, nausea, and vomiting.

Psychedelic Anesthetics:

Psychedelic Anesthetics PCP (Phencyclidine) Ketamine(Ketalar)

Phencyclidine:

Phencyclidine Street Names: Angel Dust, Black Dust, Blue Madman, Busy Bee, Cliffhanger, Crazy Coke. Developed as intravenous anesthetic. Use was discontinued due to delirium and mania experienced after coming off drug (effects lasted up to 18hours).

Phencyclidine:

Phencyclidine Street Names: Angel Dust, Black Dust, Blue Madman, Busy Bee, Cliffhanger, Crazy Coke. Developed as intravenous anesthetic. Use was discontinued due to delirium and mania experienced after coming off drug (effects lasted up to 18hours).

Ketamine:

Ketamine Street Names: Cat Valium, Jet, Kit Kat, Special K, Vitamin K Developed to replace PCP as anesthetic. Injected, snorted, orally ingested. Odorless, tasteless so often used as date rape drug

Anticholinergic Hallucinogens:

Anticholinergic Hallucinogens Attach to Acetylcholine receptors and block the site so Acetylcholine cannot attach. Impairs learning and memory as result Found in Belladonna, Nightshade, Jimsonweed, and Mandrake plants. Effects: Dry mouth, decreased sweating, dry skin, increased body temperature, blurred vision, increased heart rate, dilated pupils, drowsiness, decreased attention.

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@ High Doses = Hallucinations, paralysis of respiratory system, coma, and death. Examples: Scopolamine, Mandrake, Hyoscine, Hyoscyamine, and Atropine.

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Catecholamine-Like Hallucinogens Also called Phenethylamine Psychedelics Structurally similar to Catecholamines (Norepinephrine & Dopamine) and Amphetamines. EXAMPLES: Mescaline Myristin: found in nutmeg Elemicin : found in nutmeg Norepinephrine Dopamine Amphetamine

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Synthetic Amphetamine Derivatives DOM (dimethoxymethylamphetamine) MDA (Methylenedioxyamphetamine) TMA (trimethoxyamphetamine) DMA (dimethoxymethylamphetamine) MDE (methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) MDMA (methylenedioymethamphetamine) PMA (paramethoxyamphetamine )

Mescaline :

Mescaline Peyote or "Mescal buttons" consists of the dried tops of the cactus Lophophora Williamsii (Fam. Cactaceae). • This plant has been associated with Indian ceremonies for many years. It disturbs normal mental function and causes concomitant hallucinations and euphoria. • The drug contains several alkaloids, including Mescaline (that is the most active constituent).

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Mescaline is a hallucinogenic alkaloid Administration Chewed raw or cooked and eaten Pure powder form High cost of synthesis and lacks a large market

Salvia divinorum potent hallucinogen:

Salvia divinorum potent hallucinogen Many other Salvia spp. may also contain psychoactive diterpenes. “Salvinorin A” Related to Sage plants/Mint family Mexican origin First reported in 1962 but popularity increased via Internet… Salvinorin A acts as opioid receptor agonist. The plant leaf is chewed, smoked or taken as tincture. Produce brief effect. The most common after effect include improved mood, sensation of insight and calmness. Low toxicity and low addictive potential

Salvia divinorum:

Salvia divinorum tiny bit of crunched up leaves soaked in extract Salvinorin A

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