Corticosteroids

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Corticosteroids:

Corticosteroids

Steroids: the worst drugs for adverse effects:

Steroids: the worst drugs for adverse effects

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Corticosteroids History Synthesis Pharmacological Actions Pharmacokinetics Preparations Therapeutic principles Dosage schedule & Steroid withdrawal Uses: Therapeutic Diagnostic Adverse reactions Contraindications Precautions during therapy Glucocorticoid antagonists

History:

History 1855 – Addison's disease 1856 – Adrenal glands essential for life 1930 – Cortex > medulla 1932 – Cushing’s syndrome 1949 – Hench et al (Steroids in rheumatoid arthritis) 1952 – Aldosterone

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Basal secretions Group Hormone Daily secretions Glucocorticoids Cortisol Corticosterone 5 – 30 mg 2 – 5 mg Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone 11 - deoxycorticosterone 5 – 150 μg Trace Sex Hormones Androgen Progestogen Oestrogen DHEA Progesterone Oestradiol 15 – 30 mg 0.4 – 0.8 mg Trace From Essential of Pharmacotherapeutics, ed. FSK Barar. P.351

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Cholesterol Pregnenolone Progesterone Corticosterone 11-Desoxy-corticosterone 18-Hydroxy- corticosterone ALDOSTERONE 17- α - Hydroxy pregnenolone 11- Desoxy- cortisol 17- Hydroxy progesterone 21, β hydroxylase CORTISOL 11, β hydroxylase Dehydro-epi androsterone Andro-stenedione Oestrone Oestriol TESTOSTERONE OESTRADIOL ACTH

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Glucocorticoid Analogues

Pharmacological Actions:

Pharmacological Actions Direct (Intended) Actions Anti-inflammatory Anti-allergy Anti-immunity Permissive Actions Lipolytic effects Effect on bp Effect on bronchial muscles (e.g., sympathomimetic amine )

Pharmacological Actions:

Pharmacological Actions Negative feedback mechanism. Steroids and drugs designed to mimic them are directly gene-active . Glucocorticoids ( e.g ., prednisolone) used to suppress inflammation, allergy and immune responses. Anti-inflammatory therapy is used in many illnesses ( e.g ., RA, UC, BA, eye and skin inflammations). -Useful in, say, tissue transplantation and lymphopoiesis (leukemias and lymphomas). Striking improvements can be obtained, but severe adverse, but highly predictable, effects are ensue.

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Adrenals Kidney Posterior Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary Gland ACTH Stress Circadian rhythm CRH (-) Glucocorticoids, Catecholamines, etc.. Glucocorticoids, Catecholamines, etc.. Muscle: Net loss of amino Acids (glucose) Liver: Deamination of proteins into amino acids, gluconeogenesis (glucose) Fat Cells: Free fatty acid mobilization Heart rate: Increased Immune system: altered Hypothalamopituitary adrenal (HPA) axis: Negative Feedback

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Corticosteroids are Gene-Active

Pharmacological Actions:

Pharmacological Actions For most clinical purposes, synthetic glucocorticoids are used because they have a higher affinity for the receptor, are less activated and have little or no salt-retaining properties. Hydrocortisone used for: orally for replacement therapy, i.v. for shock and asthma, topically for eczema (ointment) and enemas (ulcerative colitis). Prednisolone the most widely used drug given orally in inflammation and allergic diseases.

Pharmacological Actions:

Pharmacological Actions Betamethasone and dexamethasone : very potent, w/o salt-retaining properties; thus, very useful for high-dose therapies ( e.g ., cerebral edemas). Beclometasone, diproprionate, budesonide : pass membranes poorly; more active when applied topically (severe eczema for local anti-inflammatory effects) than orally; used in asthma, (aerosol). Triamcinolone : used for severe asthma and for local joint inflammation (intra-articular inj.).

Pharmacological Actions:

Pharmacological Actions Carbohydrate Protein Lipid Electrolyte and H 2 O CVS Skeletal Muscle CNS Stomach Blood Anti-inflammatory Immunosuppressant Respiratory system Growth and Cell Division Calcium metabolism

Stress and The Adrenal Glands:

Stress and The Adrenal Glands

Actions: Carbohydrate and protein metabolism:

Actions: Carbohydrate and protein metabolism Gluconeogenesis Peripheral actions (mobilize aas and glucose and glycogen) Hepatic actions Peripheral utilization of glucose Glycogen deposition in liver (activation of hepatic glycogen synthase) Negative nitrogen balance and hyperglycemia

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Redistribution of Fat Buffalo hump Moon face Promote adipokinetic agents activity (glucagon, growth hormone, adrenaline, thyroxine) Actions: Lipid metabolism

Actions: Electrolyte and water balance:

Actions: Electrolyte and water balance Aldosterone is more important Act on DT and CD of kidney Na + reabsorption Urinary excretion of K + and H + Addison’s disease ?? Na+ loss Shrinkage of ECF Cellular hydration Hypodynamic state of CVS Circulatory collapse, renal failure, death

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Restrict capillary permeability Maintain tone of arterioles Myocardial contractility Actions: Cardiovascular system Mineralocorticoid induced hypertension ?? Na + sensitize blood vessels to the action of catecholamines & angiotensin

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Addison's disease: weakness and fatigue is due to Prolonged use: Actions: Skeletal Muscles Needed for maintaining the normal function of Skeletal muscle inadequacy of circulatory system Steroid myopathy

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Direct: Mood Behaviour Brain excitability Indirect: maintain glucose, circulation and electrolyte balance Actions: CNS ICP ( pseudotumor cerebri ) - Rare

Pseudotumor cerebri (Intracranial hypertension):

Pseudotumor cerebri (Intracranial hypertension) Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids Amiodarone Vitamin A Oral contraceptives Tetracyclines From Harrison. 15 th edition, volume 1, page 435

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Aggravate peptic ulcer. May be due to: Acid and pepsin secretion immune response to H.Pylori Actions: Stomach

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RBC: Hb and RBC content ( erythrophagocytosis ) WBC: Lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils Polymorphonucleocytes Actions: Blood

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Recruitment of WBC and monocyte- macrophage into affected area & elaboration of chemotactic substances Lipocortin ELAM1 and ICAM-1 in endothelial cells TNF from phagocytic cells IL1 from monocyte-macrophage Formation of Plasminogen Activator Action of MIF and fibroblastic activity Expression of COX II Actions: Anti-inflammatory

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Phospholipids Arachidonic acids lipoxygenase Cycylooxygenase Leukotriene Prostaglandins, Thromboxane Prostacyclins Phospholipase A2 Lipocortin Corticosteroids PAF by lipocortin

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Anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids Corticosteroid inhibitory effect

Immunosuppressive and anti-allergic actions:

Immunosuppressive and anti-allergic actions Suppresses all types of hypersensitivity and allergic phenomenon At High dose: Interfere with all steps of immunological response Causes greater suppression of Cell-mediated immunity ( graft rejection and delayed hypersensitivity ) Transplant rejection: antigen expression from grafted tissues, delay revascularization, sensitisation of T lymphocytes etc .

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Inhibit cell division or synthesis of DNA Delay the process of healing Retard the growth of children Actions: Growth and Cell division

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Intestinal absorption Renal excretion Excessive loss of calcium from spongy bones ( e.g., vertebrae, rib s, etc ) Actions: Calcium metabolism

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Not bronchodilators Most potent and most effective anti-inflammatory Effects not seen immediately (delay 6 or more hrs) Inhaled corticosteroids are used for long term control Actions: Respiratory system

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Preparations Drug Anti-inflam. Salt retaining Topical Cortisol 1 1.0 1 Cortisone 0.8 0.8 0 Prednisone 4 0.8 0 Prednisolone 5 0.3 4 Methylpredni- solone 5 0 5 Intermediate acting Triamcinolone 5 0 5 Paramethasone 10 0 - Fluprednisolone 15 0 7

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Preparations Drug Anti-inflam. Salt retaining Topical Long acting Betamethasone 25-40 0 10 Dexamethasone 30 0 10 Mineralocorticoids Fludrocortisone 10 250 10 DOCA 0 20 0

Synthesis:

Stimuli Part Principal product Angiotensin II Zona glomerulosa ACTH Zona fasiculata & reticularis Sympathetic nervous system Medulla Synthesis Aldosterone Cortisol Adrenal androgens Adrenaline & Nor-adrenaline

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Stimuli Sense Organs Other Brain Centers Hippocampus Hypothalamus Pituitary Thyroid Gonads Adrenal Cortex Nerves of the CNS and ANS Glucocorticoids Thymus Gland Other Immune System Centers Thymosin From thymus Nervous System Endocrine System Immune System Interleukin-1 [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [+] INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION – THE EFFECTS OF GLUCOCORTICOIDS Light Sound Smell Taste Touch

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