Ecology : Ecology Notes = Green What is Ecology? : What is Ecology? Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment Why do we study ecology? We live in the natural world and use its resources (water, space,food, etc)
The natural world effects our lives (weather, fire, economy)
To protect biodiversity Levels of Organization : Levels of Organization Organism:
a form of life considered as an entity; an animal, plant, fungus, etc. Levels of Organization : Levels of Organization Population:
all the individuals of one species in a given area. Levels of Organization : Levels of Organization Community:
A community is assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area Levels of Organization : Levels of Organization Ecosystem:
A collection of all organisms that live in a particular place, which includes the nonliving, or physical, environment Levels of Organization : Levels of Organization Biome:
A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities Levels of Organization : Levels of Organization Biosphere:
The part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere Slide 9: Habitat:
the natural environment of an organism; place that is natural for the life and growth of an organism
the position or function of an organism in a community of plants and animals.
an environmental factor that tends to limit population size.
The maximum number of individuals that a given environment can support without detrimental effects. More ecology terms to be familiar with: Six major biomes: : Six major biomes: Taiga
Tropical rain forest
Grassland Taiga : Taiga A cool forest biome of conifers in the upper Northern Hemisphere Animals:
rodents, snowshoe hares, lynx, sables, ermine, caribou, bears, wolves, birds in summer Deciduous Forest : Deciduous Forest A forest biome with many kinds of trees that lose their leaves each autumn Animals:
Wolves, deer, bears, and a wide variety of small mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and insects Tropical Rain Forest : Tropical Rain Forest A hot, humid biome near the equator, with much rainfall and a wide variety of life Animals:
more species of insects, reptiles, and amphibians than any place else; monkeys, other small and large mammals, including in some places elephants, all sorts of colorful birds Desert : Desert A sandy or rocky biome, with little precipitation and little plant life Animals:
Rodents, snakes, lizards, tortoises, insects, and some birds. The Sahara Desert in Africa is home to camels, gazelles, antelopes, small foxes, snakes, lizards, and gerbils Tundra : Tundra A cold biome of the far north; the ground is frozen even in summer Animals:
Musk oxen, migrating caribou, arctic foxes, weasels, snowshoe hares, owls, hawks, various rodents, occasional polar bear. Grassland : Grassland A biome where grasses, not trees, are the main plant life. Prairies are one kind of grassland region. Animals:
American Grasslands: Prairie dogs, foxes, small mammals, snakes, insects, various birds
African Grasslands: Elephants, lions, zebras, giraffes Class Work : Class Work On your own paper, provide the following information on each biome that was discussed. You may find the information in your notes and in Chapter 20 of your textbook. Information should include: Biome name
Location in the U.S.
Average temperature range
Description of the climate
5 animals that live there
5 plants that are found there ENVIRONMENT : ENVIRONMENT All of the external conditions that affect an organism Biotic factors are the living parts of the environment
Abiotic factors are the nonliving parts of the environment Slide 19: What are the biotic and abiotic factors in this picture? http://www.thegardenhelper.com/102902.JPG Slide 20: Everything you do requires energy. How do you get the energy that you need? All living things get energy from their food to carry out life processes. Plants make their food. Animals eat their food. Slide 21: A food chain shows how each living thing gets its food. Plants make food using energy from the sun. Some animals eat plants and some animals eat other animals. Each link in a chain is food for the next link. Arrows indicate the direction of energy flow. Slide 22: Plants are called producers because they are able to use the energy from the sun to produce the food they need using carbon dioxide and water. Slide 23: Animals cannot make their own food so they must eat plants and/or other animals. They are called consumers.
There are three groups of consumers: Animals that eat ONLY PLANTS are called herbivores.
Animals that eat OTHER ANIMALS are called carnivores.
Animals that eat BOTH animals and plants are called omnivores. Slide 24: Some animals eat dead animals or carrion. They are called scavengers. They help break down or reduce organic material into smaller pieces. roach hyeina vulture Slide 25: DECOMPOSERSOrganisms (bacteria and fungi) which feed on decaying matter. Decomposers and scavengers break down dead plants and animals.
They also break down the waste (feces) of other organisms.
Decomposers are very important for any ecosystem because plants would not get essential nutrients, and dead matter and waste would pile up. What would happen to a forest ecosystem if the bacteria and fungi on the forest ground all died of disease? Slide 26: A herbivore is called a primary, or first order consumer because it eats the producers.
A carnivore that eats herbivores is a secondary, or second order consumer.
Some predators are called tertiary, or third order consumers. These animals usually have no predators. Food Chain Slide 27: Why are there more herbivores than carnivores? In a food chain, energy is passed from one link to the next.
When a herbivore eats, only a fraction of the energy that it gets from the plant food becomes new body mass; the rest of the energy is lost as waste or converted to heat (by the herbivore). Slide 28: ENERGY PYRAMID The further along the food chain that you go, the less energy that is available because a large amount of energy is lost at each link.
We use the energy pyramid as a model to show decreasing available energy at each level in the pyramid. 100% energy 10% energy 1% energy 0.1% energy Slide 29: FOOD WEBS Most organisms are part of more than one food chain.
Many animals eat more than one kind of food in order to meet their food and energy requirements.
These interconnected food chains form a food web. Slide 30: INTERACTIONS AMONG ORGANISMS Predator-prey
An animal that hunts or kills other animals for food is called a predator.
An animal that is eaten by another is called prey. Can you match some predator-prey relationships? Slide 31: What is symbiosis? What it means:
Two organisms that live together
Temporarily or for a longer time
At least one of the organisms benefits from the relationship Literal definition: the act of living together Slide 32: What are the different kinds of symbiosis? Mutualism Parasitism Commensalism both organisms benefit one organism benefits one organism benefits one organism is unaffected one organism is harmed Slide 33: Mutualism: both benefit Example 1: Moray Eel with Cleaner Fish Moray Eel gets a clean mouth Cleaner Fish gets a meal Slide 34: Commensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected Example 2: Cattle with cattle egrets Cattle stir up insects as they eat grassEgrets hang around and eat insects Slide 35: Parasitism: one benefits, one is harmed Example 3: Taenia worm in human eye Worm infects human blood streamHuman may go blind