Explaining Zero Coupon Bonds and Valuation

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A company can raise capital in financial markets either by issuing equities or bonds. A zero coupon bond is a bond that doesn’t pay interest/coupon but instead pays one lump sum face value at maturity. Investors buy zero coupon bonds at a deep discount from their face value. A zero coupon bond generates gains from the difference between the purchase price and the face value while a coupon bond produces gains from the regular distribution of coupon/interest. Zero coupon bonds are issued at a deep discount and repaid the face value at maturity. The greater the length of the maturity is the cheaper price a bond has. Unlike other bonds, the investor’s return is the difference between the purchase price and the face value. An investor preferring a long-term investment may purchase zero coupon bonds such as saving money for children’s college tuition. The deep discount helps the investor grow a small amount of money into a sizable sum over several years. Normally investors buy zero coupon bonds when interest rates are high. This presentation gives an overview of zero coupon bond product and valuation. You can more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/FiZeroBond.html

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slide 1:

Zero Coupon Bond Valuation and Risk David Lee FinPricing http://www.finpricing.com

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Zero Coupon Bond Summary  Zero Coupon Bond Introduction  The Use of Zero Coupon Bonds  Valuation  Zero Coupon Bond Price vs Discount Factor  Practical Guide  A Real World Example

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Zero Coupon Bond Zero Coupon Bond Introduction  A company can raise capital in financial markets either by issuing equities or bonds.  A zero coupon bond is a bond that doesn’t pay interest/coupon and instead pays one lump sum face value at maturity.  Investors buy zero coupon bonds at a deep discount from their face value.  Zero coupon bonds are probably the simplest bond type in the market.  A zero coupon bond generates gains from the difference between the purchase price and the face value while a coupon bond produces gains from the regular distribution of coupon/interest.

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Zero Coupon Bond The Use of Zero Coupon Bonds  Zero coupon bonds are issued at a deep discount and repaid the face value at maturity.  The greater the length of the maturity is the cheaper price a bond has.  Unlike other bonds the investor’s return is the difference between the purchase price and the face value. For example a 100 zero coupon bond is sold as 90. The investment return is 10.  An investor preferring a long-term investment may purchase zero coupon bonds such as saving money for children’s college tuition.  The deep discount helps the investor grow a small amount of money into a sizable sum over several years.  Normally investors buy zero coupon bonds when interest rates are high.

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Zero Coupon Bond Valuation  The present value of a risk-free zero coupon bond is given by − where t – valuation date P – principal amount or face value r - continuous compounded interest rate for the period T – maturity date  The present value of a defaultable zero coupon bond can be expressed as − + where s – credit spread

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Zero Coupon Bond Zero Coupon Bond Price vs Discount Factor  For a risk-free zero coupon bond with 1 face value the bond price − that is exactly the discount factor.  In theory a discount factor is a stochastic variable while a zero coupon bond price is deterministic variable. The bond price is the expectation of the discount factor.  In practice however discount factor and risk-free zero coupon bond price are equivalent.

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Zero Coupon Bond Practical Guide  Intuitively − + can be regarded as a credit risk adjusted discount factor.  To use the model one should first calibrate the model price to the market quoted price by solving the credit spread.  After making the model price equal to the market price one can calculate sensitivities by shocking interest rate curve and credit spread.  We use LIBOR curve plus credit spread rather than bond specific curves for discounting because bond specific curves rarely exist in the market especially issued by small entities. Using LIBOR curve plus credit spread not only accounts for credit/issuer risk but also solves the missing data issue.

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Zero Coupon Bond A Real World Example Buy Sell Buy Calendar NYC Coupon Type Zero Currency USD Issue Date 3/2/2017 Maturity Date 8/31/2017 Settlement Date 3/2/2017 Settlement Lag 1 Face Value 100 Pay Receive Receive

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Thank You You can find more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/FiZeroBond.html

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