Waterproofing : 1 1 Waterproofing By Shrikrishna Kulkarni Properties of water: Properties of water IUPAC Name Oxidane Availability -Abundant Water tendency Fluid dynamics Solvent Properties Why waterproofing: Why waterproofing Waterproofing is an integral part of the construction activity and its critical role must be appreciated. We fail to realize that all the money we spend on aesthetics will go down the drain if we do not ensure that the house is waterproofed. This is confirmed by the absence of waterproofing details in the advertisements released by construction companies that provide all other details, which are physically visible Why Waterproofing contd..:
Why Waterproofing contd.. Water seepage is just not an inconvenience but also damages your concrete, causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. Durability of the finished structure relates to concrete's ability to preserve the alkaline
around the reinforcement during its service life and to maintain its structural capacity. The protection of the reinforcement is lost if harmful substances like chlorides or carbon-dioxide and other toxic gases like nitrogen oxide and sulphuric oxides penetrate the cover layer along with moisture and oxygen causing corrosion of the re-bars.
Reasons: Reasons Poor workmanship Non use of mechanical devices Non curing for sufficient time Use of poor quality construction materials. lack of use of proper grade of cement Non proper water : cement ratio Reasons of leakages contd.: Reasons of leakages contd. capillary pores Crevices, micro cracks in concrete Environmental effects Thermal effects water absorption etc Effects of leakages: Effects of leakages Reduces life span Economical loss Health hazards – fungi, bacteria, termite humidity etc. Aesthetical effects Decrease the value Waterproofing Methods BBC: Waterproofing Methods BBC Water proofing with Brick bat Coba by Exposing the RCC Slab to its bare Surface Carting away of debris and Spreading neat Cement Slurry mixed with waterproofing Compound on the Cleaned Surface Filling up the uneven Surface Honey Combing etc. Spreading of CM(1:5) mix, mixed with Water proofing Compound and Grouting brick bat in the Mortar with Necessary Slope BBC Contd…: BBC Contd… This treatment to Continue along the inner Side of the Parapet or other Adjoining Walls up to a height of 30 cm in the Shape of a round Vatta and finally Converting the top Surface with Joint less Waterproofing Cement Sand Mortar 1:4, 20 to 25 mm thick finished Smooth with Trowel in Cement Color marked into 30cms x 30 cms False Squares. The Average thickness of Complete treatment shall be 100mm. Curing to be Continuously done for Surface. BBC Disadvantages: BBC Disadvantages As a matter of fact, brick bat coba is a highly absorbent material and when water starts entering, it only works as a reservoir of water because of the absorbency of bricks. As a result of stagnation of water in the brick bat coba, there is a heavy strain on the roof slab. Moreover, the trapped water finds its way to the slab below and seeps through weak areas Bitumen Waterproofing: Bitumen Waterproofing Bituminous roofing products are used for waterproofing roofs on buildings. Benefits include that they move with the structure and do not absorb water Bitumen is a hydrocarbon and is created naturally from crude oil The products have an extremely long life span, Bitumen Waterproofing Contd..: Bitumen Waterproofing Contd.. The fumes given off during installation are not harmful to human health and there is low noise pollution during application. Bituminous membranes protect insulation and can reflect harmful sun rays. Bitumen is not water soluble, non-biodegradable, not classified as carcinogenic and does not release harmful toxins Bitumen Disadvantages: Bitumen Disadvantages Bitumen or asphalt is widely used as a coating. Bitumen, on attaining high temperature, particularly in summer, undergoes photo-oxidation, initiated by UV radiation. This results in the formation of cancer-causing and toxic polyaromatic compounds including Benzopyrene (B) (a harmful toxic constituent as in cigarette smoke) which have led to the banning of bitumen in several countries. BBC: BBC BBC Other Methods: Other Methods Kota stone Injection Grout Epoxy coatings Pu coatings Acrylic membrane Styrene butadiene Rubber Crystaliasation Calcium carbonate and Lead Chemical waterproofing: Chemical waterproofing Polymer waterproofing application: Polymer waterproofing application Terrace Garden: Terrace Garden Garden Terrace Leakages –Check list: Terrace Leakages –Check list Vertical horizontal joints. Honeycombs and capillaries in concrete. Areas of weak concrete cover e.g. over electric conduits are placed or areas where hooks for fans or false ceiling are placed Terrace waterproofing- Check list: Terrace waterproofing- Check list The precautions to be taken in the case of the terraces are provisions of adequate slope and provision of adequate drainage. Both these however have to be done after the water proofing operation is over. These steps in the waterproofing operation are below Terrace Waterproofing- To Do: Terrace Waterproofing- To Do Remove whatever surface treatment exists to expose the bare concrete. Undertaking the water proofing from above the existing treatment itself is totally non-feasible. If any coatings are put above the old treatments the same will either crack along with the cracking of the old waterproofing system or will get blown away when the air trapped in the mud fusca or coba below the coating expands in the intense heat. Terrace Waterproofing – To Do: Terrace Waterproofing – To Do Using a hammer hit the concrete at regular intervals to find out the hollow areas. Also by observing the roof below identify the electric points and the likely route of the conduits. Also look for any cold joints that may exist due to concreting not being monolithic Terrace waterproofing – To Do: Terrace waterproofing – To Do Fix nozzles in the concrete as detailed before. Also fix at all weak areas where leakages have been noticed before and also at the areas surrounding the conduits. Injection grout the nozzles as before. Cut the nozzles with a saw. This will result in 5 mm or so of the nozzle protruding above the concrete. Terrace Waterproofing – To Do: Terrace Waterproofing – To Do Provide slope to the surface with either lean concrete, or the mud fusca brick tile system prevalent in North India giving a slope of at least 1: 120. Provide adequate drainage exist points Clean the surface as said above Fill the cracks Mix Acrylic waterproofing membrane with cement 1:1 Terrace Waterproofing – To Do: Terrace Waterproofing – To Do Apply first coat of this slurry Let it dry for 4 hours Apply second coat after 4 hours Apply third coat after 4 hours Make IPC of 25 mm thick Waterproofing Materials -Properties: Waterproofing Materials -Properties Toxicity – carcinogenic Hazardous Eco friendly Odor Toxic fumes Elongation Tensile strength cost Waterproofing Materials -Properties: Waterproofing Materials -Properties Availability Ease of application Time required Good barrier between water and slab Bonding properties Easy to clean Low maintenance Durability Planters- Waterproofing: Planters- Waterproofing Planters made from porous materials definitely need waterproofing. flexibility: planters are continuously exposed to temperature variations. 2) withstand temporary hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium due to the force of gravity. [ 3) possess antiroot properties. Acids excreted from plant root systems are very powerful. What We suggest - For Planters: What We suggest - For Planters Exterior elastomeric Coatings What is Elastomeric An elastomer is a polymer with the property of viscoelasticity Elastic materials strain instantaneously when stretched and just as quickly return to their original state once the stress is removed. Viscoelastic materials have elements of both of these properties and, as such, exhibit long time durability Elastomeric membrane: Elastomeric membrane 100% pure acrylic elastomeric high durability coating system so as to perform without degradation in properties for a period of long 10 years. is a ready to apply materials. Forget that old traditional cement paints or low cost exterior paints that fade up after small years and giving fade up effect, algae stains, black stains, cracks and seepages. One has to fill cracks which are developed due to temperature cycle (which results in expansion and contraction) Which makes construction unhealthy look. offers a new and fresh look to your building for years and years. It eliminates cracks, seepages, black stains. As is high breath ability it prevents cracks and black stains developed due to algae. Terrace garden- Maintanance: Terrace garden- Maintanance Don’t allow water to store Check cracks and voids, honeycombs Keep drainage lines clean Try to reduce excessive heat or cold Try to use natural pesticides costing: costing BBC 60-70 SBR 30-40 Bitumen 40-50 Polymer 30-50 Elastomeric 25-40 Silicates 05-10 Calcium +gul 02- 10 Research Institutes: Research Institutes CBRI, Roorkee Cement admixtures association UK Massachusetts Institute of Technology Materials Research Institute USA Advanced Materials And Process Research Institute, Bhopal Cement Research Institute of India Research Institutes contd..: Research Institutes contd.. Dr. Fixit Institute Indian concrete Institute,Pune Govt. of India American concrete institute Soil concrete institute, jaipur Many more Manufacturers: Manufacturers Many many many Fosroc Pidilite industries Bauchemie Perma construction aids STP Don Xypex Manufacturers contd…: Manufacturers contd… Dattashri Enterprises,Pune Tech dry, Bangalore Sika India Chemistik Huntsman Weber Krishna conchem BASF Planters : Planters Flower Beds: Flower Beds Thank you: Thank you