Verbals

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My best friend smokes a lot. I tell her she should quit, but she says she can’t. What can I do to help her?:

My best friend smokes a lot. I tell her she should quit, but she says she can’t. What can I do to help her? Quitting is hard but not impossible – as long as your friend really wants to kick the habit. “She has a good chance of stopping successfully if she thinks about quitting as a three-part process: she has to deal with her social habit, her psychological dependence and then her physical addiction,” says Lowell Kleinman , MD, a doctor who has helped hundreds of people to stop smoking for good. Let’s starts with the habit: when does your friend smoke – on her way to college, after a meal, when she’s with friends? Help her break the pattern. “Try going a different way to college, eating at a different place and avoiding social situations that will make her want to smoke,” says Dr. Kleinman .

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As for psychological dependence: does your friend smoke when she’s bored or stressed? Nicotine can have a calming effect, which is why many people continue smoking even thought they know it’s bad for their heart, lungs, skin, and teeth. Encourage her to avoid stressful situations and to find healthier ways of coping with stress – doping yoga, keeping a journal or just talking to you. Finally, physical addiction: when your friend doesn’t have a cigarette at regular intervals, does she experience withdrawal symptoms – restlessness, anxiety, irritability and strong cigarette cravings? If so, her body is addicted. And traditional techniques, like going cold turkey or cutting back gradually, often aren’t successful in beating addiction. Dr. Kleinman recommends Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) – the patch, gum or an inhaler – which helps wean your body off nicotine by supplying decreasing doses. The inhaler is

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available only by prescription, but the patch and gum can be purchased over the counter. You can also point out that there are real advantages to becoming a non-smoker. She’ll not only have better health, but also fresher breath, clearer skin and whiter teeth.

VERBALS:

VERBALS form of a verb that functions as another part of speech There are three types of verbals in English: participles gerunds infinitives

Participles :

Participles a verb form used as an adjective to modify nouns and pronouns The children, crying and exhausted , were guided out of the collapsed mine.

Gerunds :

Gerunds a verb form ending in -ing that functions in a sentence as a noun Although both the present participle and the gerund are formed by adding -ing to a verb, note that the participle does the job of an adjective while the gerund does the job of a noun. Compare the verbals in these two sentences: The children, crying and exhausted, were guided out of the collapsed mine. Crying will not get you anywhere.

Infinitives :

Infinitives a verb form--often preceded by the particle to --that can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Compare the verbals in these two sentences: I don't like crying in public unless I'm getting paid for it. I don't like to cry in public unless I'm getting paid for it.

For each of the following sentences, decide if the word or phrase in bold is a participle, a gerund, or an infinitive. :

For each of the following sentences, decide if the word or phrase in bold is a participle , a gerund , or an infinitive . 1. The wine urges me on, the bewitching wine, which sets even a wise man to singing and to laughing gently and rouses him up to dance and brings forth words which were better unspoken. (Homer) The wine urges me on, the bewitching wine, which sets even a wise man to singing and to laughing gently and rouses him up to dance and brings forth words which were better unspoken. (Homer) 3. There are many ways of breaking a heart. Stories were full of hearts broken by love, but what really broke a heart was taking away its dream--whatever that dream might be. (Pearl Buck)

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There are many ways of breaking a heart. Stories were full of hearts broken by love, but what really broke a heart was taking away its dream--whatever that dream might be. (Pearl Buck) 5. Happiness is having a large, loving , caring , close-knit family in another city. (George Burns) Happiness is having a large, loving, caring, close-knit family in another city. (George Burns) I don't want to achieve immortality through my work. I want to achieve it through not dying. (Woody Allen) I don't want to achieve immortality through my work. I want to achieve it through not dying . (Woody Allen)

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9. It is not enough to succeed . Others must fail. (Gore Vidal) 10. Succeeding is not enough. Others must fail.

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