Modifiers: Modifiers Take a look at this sentence: : Take a look at this sentence: Stephen dropped his fork. Now read it again: : Now read it again: Poor Stephen , who just wanted a quick meal to get through his three-hour biology lab, quickly dropped his fork on the cafeteria tray, gagging with disgust as a tarantula wiggled out of his cheese omelet, a sight requiring a year of therapy before Stephen could eat eggs again. What are modifiers?: What are modifiers? words or word groups that modify or describe something in a sentence can be adjectives (which describe nouns and pronouns), adverbs (which describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs), prepositional phrases , ing or ed word groups, or dependent clauses . PowerPoint Presentation: Examples: The child wanted a red balloon. ( Red is an adjective modifying the noun balloon .) The panther moved swiftly through the grass. ( Swiftly is an adverb modifying the verb moved .) The panther moved swiftly through the grass . ( Through the grass is a prepositional phrase modifying the verb moved .) The man in the yellow sweater is the thief. ( In the yellow sweater is a prepositional phrase modifying the noun man. The phrase also contains an adjective, yellow , which is modifying the noun sweater .) The woman flying that plane used to do search and rescue work in the Yukon. (Flying that plane is an ing word group modifying the noun woman.) The clothing lines produced by some designers are very expensive. (Produced by some designers is an ed word group modifying the noun lines.) : The woman flying that plane used to do search and rescue work in the Yukon. ( Flying that plane is an ing word group modifying the noun woman .) The clothing lines produced by some designers are very expensive . ( Produced by some designers is an ed word group modifying the noun lines .) PowerPoint Presentation: Lester B. Pearson, who was Prime Minister of Canada from 1963 to 1968 , was the first Canadian to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. ( Who was Prime Minister of Canada from 1963 to 1968 is a dependent clause modifying the noun Lester B. Pearson .) When you have finished with that book , may I borrow it? ( When you have finished with that book is a dependent clause modifying the verb may borrow .) Adjective Phrases : Adjective Phrases any phrase which modifies a noun or pronoun. You often construct adjective phrases using participles or prepositions together with their objects EXAMPLE: EXAMPLE I was driven mad by the sound of my neighbour's constant piano practising . In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "of my neighbour's constant piano practising" acts as an adjective modifying the noun "sound.“ My father-in-law locked his keys in the trunk of a borrowed car . Similarly in this sentence, the prepositional phrase "of a borrowed car" acts as an adjective modifying the noun "trunk." EXAMPLE: EXAMPLE We saw Peter dashing across the quadrangle . Here the participle phrase "dashing across the quadrangle" acts as an adjective describing the proper noun "Peter." We picked up the records broken in the scuffle . In this sentence, the participle phrase "broken in the scuffle" modifies the noun phrase "the records." Adverb Phrases : Adverb Phrases A prepositional phrase can also be an adverb phrase , functioning as an adverb, as in the following sentences. EXAMPLES: EXAMPLES She bought some spinach when she went to the corner store. In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "to the corner store" acts as an adverb modifying the verb "went." Lightning flashed brightly in the night sky. In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "in the night sky" functions as a adverb modifying the verb "flashed." EXAMPLES: EXAMPLES In early October, Giselle planted twenty tulip bulbs; unfortunately, squirrels ate the bulbs and none bloomed. In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "in early October" acts as an adverb modifying the entire sentence . We will meet at the library at 3:30 P.M. In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "at 3:30 P.M." acts as an adverb modifying the verb phrase "will meet." EXAMPLES: EXAMPLES The dogs were capering about the clown's feet. In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "about the clown's feet" acts as an adverb modifying the verb phrase "were capering." Locate the phrase modifiers in the following sentences.: Locate the phrase modifiers in the following sentences. 1. The book on the bathroom floor is swollen from shower steam. 2 The sweet potatoes in the vegetable bin are green with mold. 3. Sitting in his office, the President called the Vice-president. 4. The note from Beverly confessed that she had eaten the leftover pizza. 5. Freddy is stiff from yesterday's long football practice. 6. Before class, Josh begged his friends for a pencil. 7. Feeling brave, we tried the Dragon Breath Burritos at Tito's Taco Palace. PowerPoint Presentation: Look at the boat with the blue sail. Jen, waving good-bye, drove away. 10. Please hand me the pen next to the telephone. 11. Park the car beside the fence. 12. The coyote runs after the rabbit. 13. The car stalled despite the tune-up. 14. The team won without the starting quarterback. 15. The store sold packaged bakery. 16. Early films were still pictures projected on a wall. 17. Relaxing on his back patio, Jeff fell asleep. 18. Pork and beans canned in tomato sauce is my favorite. The Adjective Clause: The Adjective Clause contains a SUBJECT and VERB Begins with a RELATIVE PRONOUN [who, whom, whose, that, or which] or a RELATIVE ADVERB [when, where, or why]. functions as an ADJECTIVE, answering the questions What kind? How many? or Which one? The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns: : The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns: relative pronoun or adverb + subject + verb relative pronoun as subject + verb EXAMPLES: EXAMPLES Whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie Why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie That bounced across the kitchen floor Who hiccupped for seven hours afterward Combine the following sentences converting one of them into an adjective clause. : Combine the following sentences converting one of them into an adjective clause. 1. Andrea was a married woman. She lived in Brockbourne. 2. Andrea shivered at the snow. The snow was piled in the fields. 3. The radio had been stolen. She missed listening to it. 4. An old lady was standing by the road. Andrea stopped for her. 5. The old lady had a sign. It was handwritten. PowerPoint Presentation: 6. The lady was very fat. Andrea opened the door for her. 7. Andrea was afraid of the old lady. Her voice sounded strange. 8. Her arms were hairy. Andrea was terrified when she saw them. 9. Andrea realized it was a man. He was dressed as a woman. 10. Andrea discovered an axe in the bag. It was bloodstained. The Adverb Clause : The Adverb Clause contains a subject and verb . a subordinate conjunction that keeps the clause from expressing a complete thought. answers one of these three adverb questions: How? When? or Why? EXAMPLES: EXAMPLES Wherever he goes, he takes a photograph. The adverbial clause 'wherever he goes‘ modifies the verb takes.) John enjoyed the play more than I did. The adverbial clause 'than I did' modifies the adverb more. Combine the following sentences using adverb clauses at the end of the sentence. : Combine the following sentences using adverb clauses at the end of the sentence. 1. We watched the robins. They raised their young in our apple tree. 2. Becky read the book. It was recommended by a friend. 3. Dad donates his suits to charity. He has worn them a year. 4. The policemen delayed the drivers. The wrecks were cleared. 5. Ann ate an apple. She studied her vocabulary. B. Combine the following sentences using adverb clauses at the beginning of the sentence. : B. Combine the following sentences using adverb clauses at the beginning of the sentence. 1 . Frank started medical training. He drove a forklift for a living. 2. The rains had started the mud slides. The homes were not safe to live in. 3. Older people love to sit in the park. They feed the birds and visit. 4. I enjoyed camping out. I was much younger. 5. Joe recognised the man. The man had stopped his car to help. Find the adverb clauses in these sentences. If it is a reduced adverb clause, add the missing words.: Find the adverb clauses in these sentences. If it is a reduced adverb clause, add the missing words. 1. You seem very happy when you help other people. 2. While you wait, we will detail your car. 3. I am happier than I ever was before. 4. That horse is more obstinate than a mule. 5. The woman took notes while being taught to cook with broccoli. 6. Ben fields baseballs better than he hits. 7. As the lions approached the carcass, the cheetahs retreated once more. 8. While eating, I choked on a bone.