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Premium member Presentation Transcript What is an information report?: What is an information report? a factual text - provides information about something used as a way to gain a better understanding about a living or non-living subject uses facts to explain something gives details about a topic does not contain personal views is usually written, but can also be presented orally (spoken): Structure of an Information Reporttitle, or heading: title , or heading tell the reader what topic is covered in the report.introductory paragraph: introductory paragraph the classification , explains the aspects of the topic that will be covered in the report.body paragraphs: topic of the report is covered in more detail paragraphs use factual information to give the reader a better understanding of the topic often, these paragraphs are broken up by sub-headings to help organise the information body paragraphsconclusion: conclusion gives any final details or facts about the topic may also be used to review what the report was aboutVisual elements: Visual elements help the reader to understand the topic better can include drawings, photographs, graphs, maps or diagramsglossary: glossary often put at the end of an information report is a list of technical words used in the report and their definitionsbibliography: bibliography a list of resources like books, magazines and websites, which were used to help write the information reportCreating an information report : 2 Creating an information report 1. Choose the topic of the report 2. Research the topic - textbooks, websites, an encyclopaedia and other information reports, pictures and diagrams to use in your report. 3. organise it into the structure of an information report. 4. Make list of any important words to use in the glossary.Creating an information report : 2 Creating an information report * Information reports are generally written in the present tense. 5. When you have finished writing the report, read it again to make sure that it uses facts , gives details , and does not contain personal views . 6. Always check your text for correct spelling, grammar and punctuationPowerPoint Presentation: Procrastination: Causes and Effects The word procrastination comes from two Latin terms meaning to put forward until tomorrow. Standard dictionary definitions all include the idea of postponement or delay. Steel (2007a), a psychologist who has reviewed hundreds of studies on the subject, notes that procrastination is rarely judged to be a positive thing. His own definition stresses its negative consequences: to procrastinate is “to voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse-off for the delay” (2007a). Another expert, Dr. Joseph R. Ferrari (2005), distinguishes between people who tend to put things off and those he describes as “chronic” or “real” procrastinators: “Remember, 80% of us procrastinate, but 20% are procrastinators. ...The 20% who are real procrastinators, where this is their lifestyle, ... need therapy.” Ferrari (2000) categorizes procrastinators into three types, based on the reason they put things off: (a) arousal types get a thrill from beating a deadline, (b) avoiders put off doing things that might make others think badly of them, and (c) decisional procrastinators postpone making a decision until they have enough information to avoid making a wrong choice . Title/Heading Body Paragraph (classification)PowerPoint Presentation: What causes procrastination? If procrastinators are not all alike, the causes of procrastination may vary too. Several studies found that chronic procrastinators tend to have low self-esteem and focus on the past more than the future (Specter & Ferrari, 2000). In some cases, procrastination may be a response to an authoritative parenting style (Marano, 2003) or a rebellion against external demands (Ferrari, 2005). Some researchers have found that procrastinators tend to be perfectionists (Specter & Ferrari, 2000). However, Steel (2007b) does not believe that perfectionism causes procrastination. In his view, only one theory is supported by research: the Discounted Expectancy Theory. To illustrate, he uses the example of a student who puts off writing a paper. When the deadline is far off, the rewards for socializing now are greater than those for finishing a task not due until later. As the deadline looms, the rewards for finishing the paper become more important. This theory, according to Steel, gives the most complete explanation of procrastination, because it includes smaller “piece[s] of the puzzle” like rebellion and avoiding unpleasant tasks. Body paragraph (supporting details) Sub heading 1PowerPoint Presentation: What are the effects of procrastination? Most researchers believe that procrastination has mostly bad effects. Several studies, including one by Tice and Baumeister (1997), found that procrastinators got lower grades and had higher levels of stress and illness. Businesses are becoming increasingly aware of the productivity costs of procrastination (“DePaul,” 2007). However, some argue that procrastination can have benefits. Chu and Choi (2005) say that not all procrastinators are lazy and undisciplined. While “passive procrastinators” are more stressed and less efficient, “active procrastinators” can adapt quickly to fast-changing environments. They “prefer to work under pressure” and “if something unexpectedly comes up, they will switch gears and engage in new tasks they perceive as more urgent.” Schraw, Wadkins, and Olafson (2007) found that many college students use procrastination as a way to manage their time. They quote a student who felt that “I just don’t have time not to procrastinate. If I did everything the way it could be done, I wouldn’t have a life” (p. 21). Sub heading 2 Supporting detailsPowerPoint Presentation: Although some researchers, such as Tice and Bannister (1997), have conceded that procrastinators may be right when they say they work best under pressure, most studies have focused on the negative effects of procrastination. Recent research (Chu & Choi, 2005; Schraw, Wadkins, & Olafson, 2007) suggests that the standard wisdom about procrastination and its causes and effects may be too simplistic. Strategic delay can be used to manage rapidly changing conditions and meet demanding deadlines. Cecelia Munzenmaier (Hamilton College, August 3, 2007) Conclusion You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.